Ancient Neighborhoods (Unit 2 & 4)

Unit II: The Problem of Human Settlement This unit explores those neighborhoods that grow around river systems. Our time frame finds us in the early years along the Nile, Indus, and Tigris & Euphrates Rivers. Unit IV: High Traffic Neighborhoods Here, we get to see what happens as once simple neighborhoods meet with more and more interaction. As trade flourishes and empires expand boundaries, life gets a bit more complicated.

Nile River

Settlements in Nile Delta

5000 bce

Narmer Palette

3200 bce

Hieroglyphics develop

3200 bce

Upper & Lower Egypt United

3110 bce - 2884 bce

King Menes ?
Scorpion King?

Dynasty w/ Capital @ Memphis

3000 bce - 2700 bce

Old & Middle Kingdom Egypt

2700 bce - 1800 bce

Old Kingdom = "the pyramid age"

Middle Kingdom = golden age w/ trade, art, literature +

Step Pyramid

2650 bce

Built for Pharaoh Djoser

Giza Pyramids

2555 bce - 2450 bce

Blt for Kings Khufu, Khafre, & Menkaure
near modern Cairo

Pharaoh Khufu

2551 bce - 2528 bce

centraliz'd authority o' pharaohs
control o' food supply
surplus grain stored

declared himself god

Great Pyramid o' Giza blt

Pyramid Texts

2335 bce

To visit the tomb and view images from within, go to Pyramid Texts Online

Kingdom of Kush (Nubia)

2000 bce - 350 ce

Key trade hub for Nile R

Nubia (from Egyptian word 4 'gold' = nub)

Hyksos invade Egypt

1640 bce - 1570 bce

adopt Egyptian culture
-Seth (E. god of desert/chaos) = main god
Share technology
- bronze
- composite bow
- chariots

lose power w/New Kingdom rise

"The name Hyksos was used by the Egyptian historian Manetho (fl. 300 bce), who, according to the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus (fl. 1st century ce), translated the word as “king-shepherds” or “captive shepherds.” Josephus himself wished to demonstrate the great antiquity of the Jews and thus identified the Hyksos with the Hebrews of the Bible. Hyksos was in fact probably an Egyptian term for “rulers of foreign lands” (heqa-khase), and it almost certainly designated the foreign dynasties rather than a whole nation."
"Hyksos." Britannica School. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2015. Web. 28 Jan. 2015.

New Kingdom Egypt

1570 bce - 1085 bce

Egypt's "Golden Age"

Trade +
Pharaoh power + [gods/ kings/ generals/ religious leaders]
tombs in Valley o Kings & Queens

Famous Pharaohs :
Hatshepsut -> + art, architecture, trade

Ramses II -> military leader

Hatshepsut rules as regent & Pharaoh

1473 bce - 1458 bce

1st Female Pharaoh

  • art, architecture, trade

Temple @ Dayr al-Bahri
200 sphinx statues

Trade w/Mediterranean & Punt

Amarna Period

1352 bce - 1323 bce

Akhenaten rules as Pharaoh

1350 bce - 1332 bce

born Amonhotep IV
moves capital away from Thebes -> Akhetaten (near Amarna)
establishes singular worship o' Aten (sun disk)

Ramses II rules as Pharaoh

1290 bce - 1224 bce

Blt most monuments 2 himself than any other pharaoh :P

Military Leadership +
vs. Hittite Empire in Anatolia
First Peace Treaty (w/Hittites)

Temple @ Abu Simbel

To read a summary of and see a few videos about Ramses by PBS, visit this site

Peace Treaty Ramses II & Hattusili III

1283 bce

Kush (Nubia) rules over Egypt

730 bce - 650 bce

Piye (King o Nubia) conquers Egypt & declares self Pharaoh

revives Egyptian culture
bld temples & pyramids

Temple @ Jebel Barkal

Assyrians attack 670 bce

Assyrians rule Egypt

651 bce - 612 bce

Persian Empire Rules Egypt

525 bce - 333 BCE

Persia loses Egypt when Alexander the Great (from Macedonia / Greece) invades

Tigris & Euphrates Rivers

For a complete and well described review of early Mesopotamia (the land between two rivers) use TimeMaps World History Timeline.

Sumerian civilization

3500 bce - 2350 bce

by 3000 bce, City-States develop [response to problems of environment- see text pp 34- 39]

Ancient Sumer in TCI text: Chapter 5 page 45

Cuneiform Develops

3100 bce - 2400 bce

Historians disagree on "start date" 4 cuneiform

Burials @ Ur

2600 bce

Sumerian city-state

excavation o' graveyard & royal tombs
TCI text 40 - 43
The British Museum

Akkadian Empire

2350 bce - 2193 bce

Sargon of Akkad (56 years as ruler) = World's 1st Emperor
Capital @ Agade

Daughter = Enheduanna
(High Priestess for Inanna/Ishtar in city of Ur)

Babylonian Empire (Old Babylon)

1900 bce - 1595 bce

Unites Mes. after Akkadians fall
Babylon = capital o' Empire (on Euphrates R)

Marduk = main god
postal system devel.

Assyrian Empire (old)

1900 bce - 1760 bce

Ashur = Emperor
Ruled Northern Mesopotamia
Hammurabi conquers them

Hammurabi Rules

1792 bce - 1750 bce

Hittites control Anatolia

1700 bce - 1200 bce

Hyksos Influence

1648 bce - 1533 bce

multi-ethnic group
from deserts in Middle East
- enter Canaan from the east

maybe from Canaan
invade & rule Egypt

bronze making technology
-casting tools/ make cool weapons
-- composite bow
-- horse-drawn chariot
-- farm tools

Seth (Egyptian desert god) bcomes main god

Assyrians expand territory

911 bce - 612 bce

War-like culture (according to text)
horses & iron weapons
siege warfare [battering rams]

Palace @ Nineveh
Library @ Nineveh held largest collection of ancient text (incl. Babylonian and Egyptian scholarship) -> clay tablets, papyrus, &waxed tablets
Estimated 30,000 pieces of writing

Public Works: irrigation canals, aqueducts

Art: bas-reliefs

Plunder'd by combo army o' Babylonians, Scythians, & medes

Nineveh capital of Assyria

704 bce - 681 bce

Ashurbanipal in Nineveh

668 bc - 627 bce

As king of Assyria, Ashurbanipal constructs palaces, temples, and (most famously) his Library in Nineveh.

Neo-Babylonian Empire

605 bce - 539 bce

Capital @ Babylon
thick city walls, moat, ziggurat rebuilt (temple 4 Marduk @ top), Hanging Gardens

+mathematics, astronomy
1st sundial made (60 min hour, 7 day week)

Famous King= Nebuchadrezzar II
+military leader -> pushed Egypt out o' Syria, took Canaan

Ishtar = goddess o war & love

Marduk's symbol = dragon-like creature

Nebuchadrezzar II king of Babylonian Empire

605 bce - 562 bce

alternate spelling = Nebuchadnezzar II

Persian Empire Rules

550 bce - 324 bce

Cyrus the Great establishes the Persian Empire in 550 bce
- aka the Achaemenid Empire

= largest ancient empire UNTIL -> Alexander the Great invades (333 bce)

Indus River

The Indus River has had several names throughout history. Three of the most known are listed below.

The earliest written records, in Sanskrit, simply call it river (sindhu).

Indus R coming from Sanskrit for river -> sindhu.
Hindush from the Persian addition of ‘h’ for ‘s’ hindhu
Indos from Greeks dropping the ‘s’ alltogether

Harappan civilization

2700 bce - 1900 bce

Harappa & Mohenjodaro

For images, visit this site

For a nice narrative review, visit TimeMaps World Atlas

Highly planned towns develop

2500 bce

Vedic Era

1500 bce - 500 bce

Aryans (Indo European language group) rule
Vedic tradition structure laws o' society

Sanskrit language

4 Varnas in Vedic Tradition

For an excellent review of the time, visit TimeMaps World Atlas

Sanskrit develops

1500 bce