Europe: A History by Leaders

England/Great Britain

House of Wessex

802 - 1016

Denmark (Gorm)

1016 - 1042

Wessex

1042 - 1066

House of Normandy

1066 - 25 October 1154

House of Plantagenet

25 October 1154 - 1485

Parliament of England

15 June 1215 - 1 May 1707

Wars of the Roses

1455 - 1485

House of Tudor

1485 - 1603

House of Stuart

24 March 1603 - 1 August 1714

Parliament of Great Britain/UK

1 May 1707 - Present Day

House of Hanover

1 August 1714 - 22 January 1901

House of Windsor (S-C&G)

22 January 1901 - Present Day

France

Carolingians

843 - 987

House of Capet

987 - 1328

House of Valois

1328 - 1589

French Wars of Religion

March 1562 - April 1598

House of Bourbon

1589 - 21 September 1792

1st Republic

21 September 1792 - 18 May 1804

1st Empire

18 May 1804 - 11 April 1814

Monarchy

6 April 1814 - 23 February 1848

Hundred Days

20 March 1815 - 8 July 1815

2nd Republic

23 February 1848 - 2 December 1851

2nd Empire

2 December 1851 - 4 September 1870

3rd Republic

4 September 1870 - 22 June 1940

Vichy/Nazi Control

22 June 1940 - 25 August 1944

4th/5th Republic

August 1944 - Present Day

Austria

House of Babenberg

976 - 1246

House of Hapsburg

1246 - 11 November 1918

1st Republic

21 October 1919 - 12 March 1938

Nazi Control

12 March 1938 - 27 April 1945

Allied Occupation

27 April 1945 - 27 July 1955

Republic of Austria

27 July 1955 - Present Day

German States/Germany

House of Wettin (Saxony)

January 1, 900 - 13 November 1918

House of Württemberg (Württemberg)

1083 - 29 November 1918

House of Wittelsbach (Bavaria)

16 September 1180 - 13 November 1918

House of Hohenzolern (Brandenburg-Prussia, later Germany)

30 April 1415 - 18 November 1918

Weimar Republic

11 August 1919 - 23 March 1933

Nazi Germany

30 January 1933 - 8 May 1945

Allied Occupation/East and West Germany

May 8, 1945 - September 12, 1990

Germany

3 October 1990 - Present Day

Spain

House of Burgandy (Castile)

10 March 1126 - 23 March 1369

House of Trastámara (Castile, Later Spain)

23 March 1369 - 23 January 1516

House of Habsburg

1516 - 1 November 1700

House of Bourbon

1 November 1700 - 6 May 1808

War of the Spanish Succession

1701 - 7 September 1714

Bonaparte

6 June 1808 - 11 December 1813

Bourbon

11 December 1813 - 30 September 1868

Savoy

16 November 1870 - 11 February 1873

1st Republic

11 February 1873 - 29 December 1874

Bourbon

29 December 1874 - 14 April 1931

2nd Republic

14 April 1931 - 1 April 1939

Spanish State (Franco)

1 April 1939 - 20 November 1975

Spain

20 November 1975 - Present Day

Portugal

House of Burgandy

25 July 1139 - 22 October 1383

House of Aviz

6 April 1385 - 31 January 1580

House of Habsburg

25 March 1581 - 1 December 1640

Portuguese Restoration War

1 December 1640 - 13 February 1668

House of Branzaga

1 December 1640 - 4 October 1910

Portuguese Republic

October 5, 1910 - Present Day

Netherlands

House of Burgandy

1384 - 1482

House of Habsburg

1482 - 26 July 1581

Eighty Year's War

23 May 1568 - 24 October 1648

United Provinces

26 July 1581 - 19 January 1795

Batavian Republic

January 19, 1795 - June 5, 1806

French Control

5 June 1806 - 15 March 1815

(United) Kingdom of the Netherlands

15 March 1815 - Present Day

Italy

House of Savoy

March 17, 1861 - October 28, 1922

Facism (Mussolini)

31 October 1922 - 25 April 1945

Republic

25 April 1945 - Present Day

Russia

Rurikovich Dynasty

862 - 7 January 1598

House of Godunov

7 January 1598 - 1 June 1605

Time of Troubles

17 January 1598 - 21 February 1613

House of Shuyskiy

19 May 1606 - 19 July 1610

House of Romanov

21 February 1613 - 15 March 1917

USSR

9 November 1917 - 25 December 1991

Russian Federation

25 December 1991 - Present Day

Poland

Piast Dynasty

960 - 8 February 1296

Bohemia

8 February 1296 - 4 August 1306

Piast

20 January 1320 - 5 November 1370

House of Anjou

17 November 1370 - 17 July 1399

Jagellonian Dynasty

17 July 1399 - 7 July 1572

Polish-Lithuanian Commenwealth (Elective)

16 May 1573 - 7 January 1795

Partitions of Poland

7 January 1795 - 11 November 1918

Polish Republic

11 November 1918 - 1 September 1939

Nazi Control

1 September 1939 - 8 April 1945

Communist Poland

8 April 1945 - 13 September 1989

3rd Republic

13 September 1989 - Present

Sweden

House of Munso

970 - 1060

House of Stenkil

1060 - 1126

Houses of Sverker and Eric

1130 - 2 February 1250

House of Bjalbo

2 February 1250 - 15 February 1364

House of Mecklenburg

15 February 1364 - 24 February 1389

Kalmar Union

24 February 1389 - 6 June 1523

House of Vasa

6 June 1523 - 6 June 1654

House of Wittelsbach

6 June 1654 - 29 February 1720

House of Hesse

29 February 1720 - 25 March 1751

House of Holstein-Gottorp

25 March 1751 - 5 February 1818

House of Bernadotte

5 February 1818 - Present

Denmark

House of Gorm

940 - 25 October 1047

House of Estridsen

25 October 1047 - 24 February 1389

Kalmar Union

24 February 1389 - 6 June 1523

House of Oldenburg

6 June 1523 - 15 November 1863

House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

15 November 1863 - Present

Events

Peace of Westphalia

24 October 1648

Final Defeat of Napoleon

18 July 1815

End of WWI

11 November 1918

Surrender of Nazi Germany

8 May 1945