Orthodox and Roman Catholic relations

Time Period

Apostolic and Ante-Nicene Era

37 AD - 325

Conciliar Era

325 - 792

Estrangement and Schism

792 - 1453

Renaissance and Modern Era

1453 - 1939

WWII and Post-WWII Era

1939 - 1964

Era of Dialogue

1964 - 2013

Events

Episcopacy of Apostle Peter in Antioch.

37 AD - 53 AD

Martyrdom of Peter in Rome.

64 AD

Election of Linus, first bishop of Rome.

67 AD

First recorded use of title Pope by a Roman bishop (Hyginus).

135 AD

Hippolytus of Rome writes Refutation of All Heresies, and Apostolic Tradition.

210 AD

Hippolytus of Rome, bishop and martyr and last of the Greek-speaking fathers in Rome, writes Refutation of All Heresies (Philosophumena), and Apostolic Tradition.

Cyprian rejects Pope Stephen I's ruling on the Donatist controversy.

255 AD

Cyprian of Carthage rejects Pope Stephen I's ruling on the Donatist controversy.

ORIGINAL NICENE CREED RATIFIED AT FIRST ECUMENICAL COUNCIL

325 AD

Founding of Constantinople as New Rome, renaming the city of Byzantium.

330 AD

Pope Liberius signs Semi-Arian creed (possibly under duress).

357 AD

Emperor Gratian permits Roman pope authority over neighboring bishops.

379

Nicene Creed expanded at Second Ecumenical Council.

381 AD

First use of papal title Pontifex Maximus.

382 AD

First use of papal title Pontifex Maximus, as Emperor Gratian relinquishes the former pagan imperial religious title and bestows it on Pope Damasus I of Rome.

Series of correspondences between Augustine of Hippo and Jerome

395 - 405

Series of correspondences between Augustine of Hippo and Jerome, where Augustine maintains the validity of the Septuagint, while Jerome favours the Hebrew (Rabinnical) Bible which becomes the OT basis for the Latin Vulgate.

Rome sacked by Visigoth invaders.

410

Pope Zosimus waffles on Pelagianism.

417

Leo I writes to Sicilian bishops, rebuking them for allowing baptism at Epiphany

447

Pope Leo I wrote to the bishops of Sicily, rebuking them for permitting baptism at Epiphany, as the Greeks did, and ordering them to observe the Roman custom of baptizing on Easter and Whitsunday.

4th Ec. Council notes that Rome's primacy is because it was "the imperial city"

451

Fourth Ecumenical Council notes that Rome's primacy is because it was "the imperial city"; Tome of Pope St. Leo I endorsed by Council after review.

Rome sacked by Vandals.

455

FALL OF THE WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE

476

Fall of the Western Roman Empire as Romulus Augustulus, the last Western Roman emperor, is deposed by the German Odoacer, leaving the emperor in the Greek East as the sole imperial authority, and an unstable political environment in the West where the Church of Rome slowly developed a centralized structure, concentrating religious as well as secular authority in the office of the Pope, the Bishop of Rome.

Byzantine Papacy

537 - 752

The Byzantine Papacy was a period of Byzantine domination of the papacy from 537 to 752, when popes required the approval of the Byzantine Emperor for episcopal consecration, and many popes were chosen from the apocrisiarii (liaisons from the pope to the emperor) or the inhabitants of Byzantine Greece, Byzantine Syria, or Byzantine Sicily. Justinian I conquered the Italian peninsula in the Gothic War (535–554) and appointed the next three popes, a practice that would be continued by his successors and later be delegated to the Exarchate of Ravenna.

With the exception of Pope Martin I, no pope during this period questioned the authority of the Byzantine monarch to confirm the election of the bishop of Rome before consecration could occur; however, theological conflicts were common between pope and emperor in the areas such as monotheletism and iconoclasm.

Greek speakers from Greece, Syria, and Byzantine Sicily replaced members of the powerful Roman nobles in the papal chair during this period. Rome under the Greek popes constituted a "melting pot" of Western and Eastern Christian traditions, reflected in art as well as liturgy.

Pope Vigilius allegedly writes letter endorsing Monophysitism.

537

Insertion of Filioque into Nicene Creed by local council in Toledo, Spain.

589

Pope St. Gregory the Great rejects the title of universal bishop for any bishop

600

The island of Sicily passes to the Greek rite temporarily.

663 - 668

The island of Sicily passed to the Greek rite during the six years when Constans II made Syracuse his residence and the capital of the Byzantine Empire.

Sixth Ecumenical Council anathematizes Pope Honorius as a Monothelite heretic.

680 - 681

The Pentarchy is established.

692

The Pentarchy form of government of universal Christendom by five patriarchal sees received formal ecclesiastical sanction at the Council in Trullo, held in Constantinople, which ranked the five sees as Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem.

Last papal visit to Constantinople until 1967.

710

Emperor Leo effectively throws the Papacy out of the Empire.

732 - 733

Byzantine Emperor Leo the Isaurian transfers the territories of Southern Italy (Sicily and Calabria), Greece, and the Aegean away from the jurisdiction of the Pope to that of the Ecumenical Patriarch in response to Pope St. Gregory III of Rome's support of a revolt in Italy against iconoclasm, in effect throwing the Papacy out of the Empire.

Forging of the Donation of Constantine.

750

Forging of the Donation of Constantine, a false document claiming to be from St. Constantine granting universal secular power to the Pope and his successors.

Founding of Papal States (lasting until 1870).

752

Charlemagne accuses "Greeks" of deleting Filioque from original Creed.

792

Usurpation of Western Roman Empire by Charlemagne.

800

Pope Leo III forbids addition of Filioque to Creed.

809

Pope Leo III forbids addition of Filioque to Creed and has original Creed in both Greek and Latin inscribed on silver tablets displayed in Rome.

Council in Constantinople deposes St. Photius the Great.

869 - 870

Council reinstates St. Photius and anathematizes any changes to Nicene Creed.

879 - 880

Council in Constantinople (endorsed by papacy) reinstates St. Photius and anathematizes any changes to Nicene Creed, including the Filioque.

Founding of the Holy Roman Empire.

962

Mieszko I, the first historical ruler of Poland, accepts Baptism.

966

Mieszko I, the first historical ruler of Poland, accepts Baptism, after marrying the Christian princess Dobrawa in 965, who as a Czech, had strong Orthodox connections.

The first German pope elected. Roman papacy becomes a Frankish organization.

996

After the repose of Pope John XV (985-996), the Frankish King Otto III installs his cousin Bruno of Carinthia as Pope Gregory V (996–999), the first German (non-Roman) Pope, marking the point at which the Roman papacy is converted to a Frankish organization.

Sergius II removes name of Pope Sergius IV from the diptychs of Constantinople.

1009

Patriarch Sergius II of Constantinople removes name of Pope Sergius IV from the diptychs of Constantinople.

First use of Filioque by Pope of Rome, at coronation of HRE Henry II.

1014

First use of Filioque by Pope of Rome, at coronation of Holy Roman Emperor Henry II.

Pope Benedict VIII officially reaffirms the celibacy of the clergy.

1022

At a Council of Pavia, Pope Benedict VIII officially reaffirmed the celibacy of the clergy (first documented at the Synod of Elvira in Spain, ca. 306 AD), banning marriages and concubines for priests.

THE GREAT SCHISM

1054

Excommunication of Ecumenical Patriarch Michael Cerularius by Cardinal Humbertus, papal legate, the conventional date point of the Great Schism. Michael returns the favor by excommunicating the Pope (who had died, rendering his legate's authority null).

Beginning of the use of the term transubstantiation in West.

1059

Invasion of England by Duke William of Normandy.

1066

Invasion of England by Duke William of Normandy, carrying papal banner and with papal blessing as a crusade against the "erring English church," engineered by Hildebrand, archdeacon of Rome.

Hildebrand becomes Pope Gregory VII and institutes Gregorian Reforms.

1073 - 1085

Hildebrand becomes Pope Gregory VII and institutes Gregorian Reforms, the largest increase of papal power in history, including the claim to be able to depose secular rulers.

Pope Gregory VII issues Dictatus papae, an extreme statement of papal power.

1075

Council of Burgos replaces use of Mozarabic rite with Roman.

1080

Council of Burgos reorganizes national Church of Spain as Roman Archbishopric, replaces use of Mozarabic rite with Roman. Sentences Bishops who refuse to recognize decrees to imprisonment.

Crusades promise salvation to warriors from the West.

1095 - 1272

Cur Deus Homo is completed, marking a radical divergence of Western theology.

1098

Abp. Anselm of Canterbury completes Cur Deus Homo, marking a radical divergence of Western theology of the atonement from that of the East.

Innocent II declares all priestly marriages annulled and makes celibacy a rule.

1139

Pope Innocent II declared all priestly marriages annulled and declared clerical celibacy the rule for all Roman Catholic priests from that day forward (Second Lateran Council, canons 6 and 7).

Last formal reception of Latins to communion at an Orthodox altar in Antioch.

1180

Maronites (formerly Monothelite heretics) submit to Rome.

1182

Saladin retakes Jerusalem and returns Christian holy places to the Orthodox.

1187

Saladin retakes Jerusalem after destroying crusader army at Battle of Hattin, and returns Christian holy places to the Orthodox Church.

Fourth Crusade sacks Constantinople; Crusaders set up Latin Empire.

1204

Fourth Crusade sacks Constantinople; Crusaders set up Latin Empire and Patriarchate of Constantinople (lasting until 1261).

Latins annex Athens and convert the Parthenon into a Roman Catholic Church.

1205

Venetian crusaders conquer Byzantine Crete.

1211

The Byzantines recover Thessaloniki and surrounding area.

1224

The Byzantines recover Thessaloniki and surrounding area, liberated by the Greek ruler of Epirus Theodore Ducas Comnenus.

Monks of the Monastery of Panagia of Kantara are martyred by the Latins.

1231

Delagates of the Orthodox and Roman Catholics meet to discuss dogmatic issues.

1234

Delegates of the two churches met first at Nicaea and then at Nymphaeum (Asia Minor), negotiating the issues related to the union of the Churches, including dogmatic issues, however the dialogue came to a dead end.

Pope Gregory IX authorizes a crusade against the Byzantines.

1236

Pope Gregory IX issued a crusading bull authorizing a crusade against the Byzantines under Emperor John Vatatzes, on the occasion of the joint Byzantine-Bulgarian siege of Latin Constantinople.

Byzantines defeat Latin Principality of Achaea at the Battle of Pelagonia.

1259

Byzantines defeat Latin Principality of Achaea at the Battle of Pelagonia, marking the beginning of the Byzantine recovery of Greece.

Monks of Iveron Monastery are martyred by Latins.

1260

Martyrdom by Latins of monks of Iveron Monastery.

Subjugation of the Church of Cyprus to the Roman Catholic Church.

1260 - 1571

End of Latin occupation of Constantinople and restoration of Orthodox patriarchs

1261

End of Latin occupation of Constantinople and restoration of Orthodox patriarchs; Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos makes Mystras seat of the new Despotate of Morea, where a Byzantine renaissance occurred; Pope Urban IV endeavoured without success to stir up a crusade to restore the Latin Empire of Constantinople.

Thomas Aquinas writes Contra Errores Graecorum.

1263

Roman Catholic theologian Thomas Aquinas writes Contra Errores Graecorum (Against the Errors of the Greeks).

The festival of Corpus Christi is instituted by Pope Urban IV.

1264

Orthodox patriarch returns to Antioch after a 171-year exile.

1269

Orthodox patriarch returns to Antioch after a 171-year exile and usurpation by Latin patriarch.

Council of Lyons fails to force Orthodox capitulation to papacy.

1274

Pope Martin IV authorizes a Crusade against the newly re-established Byz. Empire

1281

Pope Martin IV authorizes a Crusade against the newly re-established Byzantine Empire in Constantinople, excommunicating Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos and the Greeks and renouncing the union of 1274; French and Venetian expeditions set out toward Constantinople but are forced to turn back in the following year due to the Sicilian Vespers.

Monks of Zographou monastery on Mount Athos are martyred by Latins.

1282

Death of 26 martyrs of Zographou monastery on Mount Athos, martyred by the Latins.

Last record of Amalfion, a Benedictine monastery, on Mount Athos.

1287

Papal bull Unam Sanctam declares submission to pope necessary for salvation.

1302

Councils in Constantinople vindicate hesychasm against Barlaamist philosophy.

1341 - 1351

Councils in Constantinople vindicate Palamite theology of hesychasm against Barlaamist philosophy.

Beginning of "Papal Schism", during which there are eventually 3 rival popes.

1379

Council of Constance ends Papal Schism.

1414 - 1418

Council of Constance ends Western "Great Schism;" this council emphasized the Conciliar Movement over the authority of the pope.

Council of Constance forbids the laity receiving the Eucharist under both kinds.

June 15, 1415

The 13th Session of the Council of Constance (June 15, 1415) decreed that the administering of the Eucharist in Both Kinds to the Laity was to be forbidden, and that the Laity should receive the Eucharist under one kind only, that of the Bread, even though the Council itself noted that: "Christ instituted and administered to his disciples this venerable sacrament under both kinds of bread and wine; and that it was received by the faithful in the primitive church under both kinds."

Council of Siena in the Roman Catholic Church emphasizes conciliarism.

1423 - 1424

Council of Siena in the Roman Catholic Church was the high point of conciliarism, emphasizing the leadership of the bishops gathered in council, but the conciliarism expressed there was later branded as a heresy.

The Catholic Concordance, a book promoting conciliarism, is written.

1433

Nicolas of Cusa writes his major work on church government, The Catholic Concordance (De concordantia catholica), a manifesto of conciliarism, advancing the notion of a constitutional papacy subject to the authority of a council representative of the different parts of Christendom, balancing hierarchy with consent.

Council of Florence fails to force Orthodox capitulation to papacy.

1439

Council of Florence fails to force Orthodox capitulation to papacy and confesses Purgatory as dogma; St. Mark of Ephesus courageously defended Orthodoxy at the Council of Florence, being the only Eastern bishop to refuse to sign the decrees of the council, regarded as a Pillar of Orthodoxy by the Church.

Catholic priest Lorenzo Valla proves Donation of Constantine a forgery.

1444

Unification of Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox Churches in the Hagia Sophia.

1452

Unification of Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox Churches in the cathedral of Hagia Sophia on December 12, five months before the city fell, on the West's terms, when Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos, under pressure from Rome, allows the union to be proclaimed by the former Metropolitan of Kiev Isidore (who had participated in the Council of Florence and was now a cardinal in the Roman Catholic church) who read the solemn promulgation of union and celebrated the union liturgy, including the name of the pope, arousing the greatest agitation among the population of the city.

Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Turks.

1453

Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Turks; numerous Greek scholars flee to West, triggering European Renaissance.

Basilios Bessarion becomes the "Latin Patriarch of Constantinople".

1463

Greek scholar and pro-unionist Basilios Bessarion, formerly an Orthodox Metropolitan, later becoming a Roman Catholic Cardinal, is given the purely ceremonial title of Latin Patriarch of Constantinople by Pope Pius II.

Decrees of the Council of Ferrara-Florence repudiated by P. of Constantinople.

1472

Decrees of the Council of Ferrara-Florence repudiated by Patriarchate of Contantinople; martyrdom of Isidore of Yuriev and 72 companions for refusing to convert to Roman Catholicism.

Synod of Const. officially repudiates the union of the Greek and Latin churches.

1484

The Greek Orthodox Church of Saints Peter and Paul is founded in Naples, Italy.

1518

The Greek Orthodox Church of Saints Peter and Paul is founded in Naples, Italy, to serve the needs of Orthodox faithful who became refugees after the Fall of Constantinople.

The Greek Orthodox Cathedral of Saint George is founded in Venice, Italy.

1539

The Greek Orthodox Cathedral of Saint George in Venice is founded in Venice Italy (completed in 1573), to serve the needs of Orthodox faithful in the West.

Council of Trent answers charges of Protestant Reformation.

1545 - 1563

Pope Pius V recognizes four Great Doctors of the Eastern Church.

1568

Pope Pius V recognizes four Great Doctors of the Eastern Church, John Chrysostom, Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Athanasius.

The Ruthenian Or. lands of Belarus and modern Ukr. are put under direct RC. rule

1569

Union of Lublin unites Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania into a single state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, placing the Ruthenian Orthodox lands of Belarus, and modern Ukraine under direct Roman Catholic rule.

Pope Gregory XIII establishes Congregation for the Greeks.

1573

Pope Gregory XIII establishes Congregation for the Greeks, a committee of cardinals who addressed issues relating to the Greeks in southern Italy and Sicily in the hope of resolving tensions between Greeks and Latins.

Pope Gregory XIII establishes Pontifical Greek College of St. Athanasius.

1576

Pope Gregory XIII establishes Pontifical Greek College of St. Athanasius (popularly known as the 'Greek College') in Rome, which he charged with educating Italo-Byzantine clerics.

Institution of Gregorian Calendar.

1582

Union of Brest-Litovsk, creation of the Unia (Eastern/Byzantine/Greek Catholics)

1596

Union of Brest-Litovsk, creation of the Unia (Eastern/Byzantine/Greek Catholics); after initially having supported rapproachement with Rome, Bp. Hedeon (Balaban) of Lviv opposed the Union of Brest until his death.

Death of Nicephorus, the Protosyngellos of the Patriarch of Constantinople.

1597

Death of Nicephorus, the Protosyngellos of the Patriarch of Constantinople, who had supported the Orthodox synod at Brest (against the Uniate synod), and was sentenced to prison by the high court of Poland on charges of espionage.

Council of Moscow insists that only Orth. Baptism by triple immersion are valid.

1620

Council of Moscow presided over by Patr. Philaret of Moscow insisted that only Orthodox Baptism by triple immersion was valid, and that all Latin converts had to be rebaptized.

Death of Uniate Bp. Josaphat Kuntsevych who openly persecuted the Orthodox.

1623

Death of turbulent Uniate Bp. Josaphat Kuntsevych who openly persecuted the Orthodox to such a degree that he was even rebuked by the Lithuanian chancellor Leo Sapiega, the representative of the Polish king himself.

Ethiopian emperor Fasilides expels Roman Catholic missionaries from Ethiopia.

1633

Ethiopian emperor Fasilides expels Jesuits and other Roman Catholic missionaries from Ethiopia.

Union of Uzhhorod joins 63 Ruthenian Orthodox priests to the RC Church.

1646

Union of Uzhhorod joins 63 Ruthenian Orthodox priests from the Carpathian Mountains to Roman Catholic Church on terms similar to Union of Brest.

Martyrdom of Igumen Athanasius due to his strong opposition to the U. of Brest.

1648

Martyrdom of Igumen Athanasius of Brest-Litovsk due to his very strong opposition to the Union of Brest.

RC nun Margaret Mary Alacoque promotes devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus.

1671

French Roman Catholic nun Margaret Mary Alacoque promoted devotion to the Cult of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in its modern form.

Synod of Jerusalem refutes the Calvinistic confession of Cyril Lucaris.

1672

Synod of Jerusalem convened by Patr. Dositheos Notaras, refuting article by article the Calvinistic confession of Cyril Lucaris, defining Orthodoxy relative to Roman Catholicism and Protestantism, and defining the Orthodox Biblical canon; acts of this council are later signed by all five patriarchates (including Russia).

Old Catholic Schism

1724

On October 15, 1724 Roman Catholic Bp. Dominique (Varlet) of Baghdad consecrated the first dissident bishop of Utrecht, Bp. Cornelius van Steenhoven (elected in 1723), as the Church of Holland, (or Church of Utrecht) broke with Rome under its own archbishop and hierarchy, becoming the mother church of the Old Catholic Churches.

Melkite Schism. Many Antiochian Orthodox become Greek Catholics.

1724

Synod of Con. declares RC baptism invalid and orders baptism of converts from RC

1755

Synod of Constantinople declares Roman Catholic baptism invalid and ordered baptism of converts from Roman Catholicism.

Suppression of the Jesuits.

1767 - 1815

Suppression of the Jesuits in Roman Catholic countries, subsequently finding refuge in Orthodox nations, particularly in Russia.

1,200 Kiev region Uniate churches return to Orthodoxy under pressure from Russia

1770

Death of Kosmas Aitolos, who prophecied that Christians should condemn the Pope.

1779

Death of New Hieromartyr and Equal-to-the-Apostles Kosmas Aitolos, who prophecied that Christians should condemn the position of the Pope since he will be the root of many catastrophes: "You should curse the Pope, because he will be the cause of harm."

Over 2,300 Uniate churches became Orthodox under Tsarina Catherine the Great.

1793 - 1795

Patriarch Anthimus contends that the Otto. Emp. protects Orthodoxy from the West

1798

Patriarch Anthimus of Jerusalem contended in the Paternal Teaching (Dhidhaskalia Patriki) that the Ottoman Empire was part of the Divine Dispensation granted by God to protect Orthodoxy from the taint of Roman Catholicism and of Western secularism and irreligion.

Slavophile movement stresses Russian mysticism over Western rationalism.

1830

Slavophile movement co-founded by Alexei Khomiakov and Ivan Kireyevsky in Russia, drawing on the works of Greek patristics, Russian poets and literary critics to reinforce Orthodox Christian values and Slavic cultural traditions, denouncing "westernizations" by Peter the Great and Catherine the Great, and stressing Russian mysticism over Western rationalism.

Council of Constantinople held which focused upon the Unia.

1838

Council of Constantinople held, attended by Patriarchs Gregory VI of Constantinople and Athanasius V of Jerusalem, whose main theme was the Unia, and the extermination of Latin dogmas and usages, in particular Absolution Certificates.

Russian diplomat Ivan Sergeyevich Gagarin converts to the Roman Catholic Church.

1842

Russian diplomat Ivan Sergeyevich Gagarin converted to the Roman Catholic Church and joined the Jesuit Order, becoming dedicated to union between the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches.

Restoration of Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem by Pope Pius IX.

1847

1847 Agreement between the Holy See and Russia.

1847

Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs is written.

1848

Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs sent by the primates and synods of the four ancient patriarchates of the Orthodox Church, condemning the Filioque as heresy, declaring the Roman Catholic Church to be heretical, schismatic, and in apostasy, repudiating Ultramontanism and referring to the Photian Council of 879-880 as the "Eighth Ecumenical Council."

The Crimean War.

1853 - 1856

Crimean War is fought between Russia on the one hand, and the Ottoman Empire, Britain, France, and (later) Sardinia on the other, ostensibly over which church would be recognized as the "sovereign authority" of the Christian faith in the Holy Land, and over Russia's claim of protection over the Greek Christians in the Turkish Empire; the French Catholic Abp. of Paris Marie-Dominique-Auguste Sibour pronounded that this was a holy war against the Orthodox.

Declaration of Immaculate Conception of Mary as dogma.

1854

J.P. Migne produces the Patrologia Graeca in 161 volumes.

1857 - 1866

J.P. Migne produces the Patrologia Graeca in 161 volumes, including both the Eastern Fathers and those Western authors who wrote before Latin became predominant in the Western Church in the 3rd century.

Abbé Vladimir Guettée writes "The Papacy".

1863

Abbé Vladimir Guettée, a French Roman Catholic priest who converted to the Orthodox Church, writes "The Papacy: Its Historic Origin and Primitve Relations with the Eastern Churches", a strong criticism of the Papacy.

Declaration of Papal Infallibility to be dogma at First Vatican Council.

1870

Uniate diocese of Chelm in modern day Poland incorporated into Orthodox Church.

1875

Uniate diocese of Chelm in modern day Poland incorporated into Russian Orthodox Church under Alexander II, with all of the local Uniates converted to Orthodoxy.

RC priest Fr. Antonio Alvares and 5,000 followers join the Orthodox Church.

1889

Roman Catholic priest Fr. Antonio Francisco Xavier Alvares (Julius of Goa) and hundreds of Goan Catholic families (approximately 5000 Roman Catholics) left the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Goa and Daman and joined the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church as the Independent Catholic Church of Ceylon, Goa and India, with Fr. Antonio being ordained as the first (Latin-Rite) Oriental-Orthodox Metropolitan of Goa-Ceylon (1889-1923).

Pope Leo XIII publishes the encyclical "On the Reunion of Christendom".

1894

Praeclara Gratulationis Publicae (on the Reunion of Christendom), an Encyclical Letter of Pope Leo XIII promulgated on June 20, called for the reunion of Eastern and Western churches into the "Unity of the Faith", while also condemning Freemasonry; criticized by Ecumenical Patriarch Anthimus VII in 1895.

Leo XIII issues an encyclical which prohibits Latinizing Eastern Catholics.

1894

Pope Leo XIII issues Orientalium Dignitas, a papal encyclical concerning the Eastern Catholic Churches including a prohibition aganist Latinizing influences among Eastern Catholics

Council of Constantinople condemns Franco-Latin heresies.

1895

Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Patriarch Anthimus VII, and attended by 13 bishops, condemns all the Franco-Latin heresies, including the new false dogma of the so-called Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary by St. Anne, and the blasphemous teaching that the pope is supposedly infallible and undeposable.

English RC priest Dr. Adrian Fortescue writes "The Orthodox Eastern Church".

1908

English Roman Catholic priest and Byzantine scholar Dr. Adrian Fortescue writes The Orthodox Eastern Church, written to teach Roman Catholics and people in the West about the Orthodox Church.

Martyrdom of Fr. Maxim Sandovich, Protomartyr of the Lemko people.

1914

The "St. Sophia Redemption Committee" is formed in Britain.

1918

The "St. Sophia Redemption Committee" is formed in Britain after the Armistice, whose members included two future Foreign Secretaries and many prominent public figures, seeking to restore Hagia Sophia into an Orthodox Church (1918-1922);[21] Roman Catholic opposition to the St Sophia Redemption Committee included Msgr. Manuel Bidwell (Chancellor of the Archdiocese of Westminster) who was on the initial committee, Roman Catholic British MP Sir Stuart Coats also on the committee, Cardinal Pietro Gasparri the Papal Secretary of State, and the Vatican who wished to block Hagia Sophia from becoming a Greek Orthodox Church again according to the Grand Vizier of Constantinople who had an offer of Papal support.

Pope Pius XI proclaims the Uniate Bp. Josaphat Kuntsevych a "hieromartyr".

1923

Pope Pius XI proclaimed the controversial Uniate Bp. Josaphat Kuntsevych a "hieromartyr" on the 300th anniversary of his death, in the encyclical Ecclesiam Dei (The Church of God).

Cathedral of Alexander Nevsky (Warsaw) is demolished by Polish authorities.

1924 - 1926

Cathedral of Alexander Nevsky (Warsaw) is demolished by Polish authorities less than 15 years after its construction.

Concordat of 1925 between Poland and the Holy See.

1925

Concordat of 1925 between Poland and the Holy See included recognition of the Uniate Church in Poland.

Pius XI attempts to create a provisional hierarchy without the Soviets consent.

1926

Pope Pius XI decides to attempt the establishment of a provisional hierarchy for the Roman Catholic Church without the knowledge of the Soviet government.

French Jesuit scholar and Roman Catholic bishop Michel d'Herbigny receives episcopal ordination in secret and behind closed doors from Eugenio Pacelli (the future Pope Pius XII) in the failed attempt to establish a clandestine hierarchy for the Catholic Church in the Soviet Union during the religious persecutions of the 1920s.

The "double rite" Benedictine monastery Chevetogne Abbey is founded in Belgium.

1926

The Benedictine monastery Chevetogne Abbey is founded in Belgium, dedicated to Christian unity, being a ‘double rite’ monastery having both Western (Latin rite) and Eastern (Byzantine rite) churches holding services every day.

The Society of St. John Chrysostom is founded.

1926

the Society of St. John Chrysostom is founded to promote awareness and friendship in the Christian West for Christians of the East, through prayer and liturgy, conferences and lectures, and praying for the unity of the Churches of East and West

Papacy and the Kingdom of Italy ratify the Lateran Treaty.

1929

Papacy and the Kingdom of Italy ratify the Lateran Treaty, recognizing sovereignty of Papacy within the new state of the Vatican City, bringing to an end the so-called "Roman Question".

Russian College founded in Vatican City by Pius XI. Run by Jesuits.

1929

Russicum (Russian College or 'College of St. Therese') founded in Vatican City by Pope Pius XI and run by the Jesuits

Papal Bull mandates celibacy for Uniate clergy.

1929

Papal Bull "Cum data fuerit" regulates Uniate clergy in the US, mandating celibacy, resulting in the return of several parishes back to Orthodoxy in 1938.

A Pan-Orthodox Consultation about Roman Catholic relations is held on Mt. Athos.

1930

A Pan-Orthodox Consultation in Mount Athos concluded that the only possible relations on the part of the Orthodox toward the Roman Catholics was "Relations of defense on the part of the Orthodox toward Roman Catholic Proselytism."

The Serbian O.C. fiercely resists a Concordat between Yugoslavia and the Vatican

1937

the Serbian Orthodox Church led by Patr. Varnava (Rosic) of Serbia and Bp. Nikolai Velimirovic fiercely resisted the attempt by the government of Yugoslavian Prime Minister Milan Stojadinović to implement a Concordat with the Vatican, which would have virtually established the Roman Catholic Church in Yugoslavia and granted it privileges denied to the Orthodox Church, resulting in the proposal never being ratified.

Pope Pius XI issues an encyclical condemning Communism and the Soviet regime.

1937

Pope Pius XI issued the encyclical Divini Redemptoris, condemning Communism and the Soviet regime.

The Polish government oversees the destruction of Orthodox churches.

1938

In the Volhynia region of modern day Western Ukraine, by 1938 the Polish government had overseen the destruction of 190 Orthodox churches and converted a further 150 churches to Roman Rite Catholicism, despite its Ukrainian majority, and despite Pope Leo XIII's encycical Orientalium Dignitas of 1894; the few Orthodox churches that were permitted to stay open were forced to use the Polish language in their liturgies.

American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese is founded.

1938

American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese founded, when a group of 37 Carpatho-Russian Eastern Catholic parishes, under the leadership of Fr. Orestes Chornock, were received into the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

The last Orthodox Church in Lutsk is forcibly converted into a RC church.

1939

The last remaining Orthodox Church in Lutsk, the Volhynian capital was converted by Polish State decree to Roman Rite Catholicism.

Croatian Ustasa terrorists kill, expel, and forcibly convert 1 million Orthodox.

1941 - 1945

Croatian Ustasa terrorists, part of whose ideology included Roman Catholic Clericalist Fundamentalism, kill 500,000 Orthodox Serbs, expel 250,000 and force 250,000 to convert to Catholicism; the Orthodox in Croatia were forced to wear the Cyrillic letter "P" for Provoslavets, or Orthodox, like the Jews who were forced to wear the Star of David during World War II; martyrdom of Bp. Sava of Gornji Karlovac, and Fr. Djordje Bogic.

Hundreds of priests of the Ukrainian OC killed by Ukrainian Nationalists.

1943 - 1944

Hundreds of Orthodox priests of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church eliminated, tortured and drowned by Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists - Ukrainian Rebel Army, aided by Uniate Metr. Josyf Slipyj who was a spiritual leader of Nazi military units that were later condemned by the Nuremberg tribunal, and who was imprisoned by Soviet authorities for aiding the UPA.

Zenith of the Papist persecution in Poland against Orthodox faithful.

1944

Zenith of the Papist persecution in Poland against Orthodox faithful in the region of Helm and Podlaskia - Holy Poles martyred by the Papists.

State-sponsored synod held in Lviv, Ukraine dissolves the Union of Brest-Litovsk

1946

state-sponsored synod held in Lviv Ukraine dissolves the Union of Brest-Litovsk and integrates the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church into the Russian Orthodox Church, with Soviet authorities arresting resisters or deporting them to Siberia.

RC Abp. of Zagreb is tried and found guilty of collaboration with fascists.

1946

Croatian Roman Catholic Abp. of Zagreb Aloysius Stepinac is tried and found guilty of collaboration with the fascist Ustaše movement and complicity in allowing the forced conversions of Orthodox Serbs to Catholicism.

Metr. John of Kiev receives thirteen priests from the Unia to Orthodoxy.

1946

Death of Alexei Kabalyiuk, Apostle of Carpatho-Russia.

1947

Death of Alexei Kabalyiuk, Apostle of Carpatho-Russia, who played a major role in reviving Orthodoxy in Transcarpathia in the early 20th century.

Martyrdom of Carpatho-Russian priest Protopresbyter Gabriel Kostelnik.

1948

Pius XII excommunicates all Catholics collaborating in communist organizations.

1949

Papal Decree against Communism by Pope Pius XII excommunicates all Catholics collaborating in communist organizations.

Declaration of Bodily Assumption of Mary as dogma.

1950

Ecumenical Patr. Athenagoras visits the Papal representative in Constantinople.

1952

Ecumenical Patr. Athenagoras officially visited, for the first time in the last one thousand years, the Papal representative in Constantinople, who returned the visit.

John XXIII and Ecu. Patr. Athenagoras exchanged formal letters calling for peace

1958

Pope John XXIII and Ecumenical Patr. Athenagoras exchanged formal letters calling for peace among the Christian churches.

The secretive Metz Accord is made between the Holy See and the U.S.S.R.

1962

The secretive Metz Accord is made between the Holy See and the U.S.S.R. (attended by Metr. Nikodim (Rotov) of Leningrad) at Metz, France, on 13 August 1962, renewing the previous pacts of 1942 and 1944 concerning the Vatican's Ostpolitik, by which Eastern Orthodox participation in the Second Vatican Council was authorized in exchange for a non-condemnation of atheistic communism during the conciliar assemblies.

SECOND VATICAN COUNCIL

1962

Vatican II institutes major reforms, especially liturgical, into Roman Catholic Church; Patr. Maximos IV Sayegh of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church urged reconciliation between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches, spoke forcefully against the Latinization of the Eastern Catholic Churches, and championed the Eastern tradition of Christianity, winning a great deal of respect from Eastern Orthodox observers at the council and the approbation of the Ec. Patr. Athenagoras I.

Pope Paul VI announces the relaxation of the Roman Catholic ban on cremation.

July 5, 1963

Pope Paul VI announced the relaxation of the Roman Catholic ban on cremation in a confidential letter to bishops and issued his Instruction on 5 July, 1963

Mutual lifting of excommunications by Patr. Athenagoras I and Pope Paul VI.

1964

The office of Latin Patriarch of Constantinople is officially abolished.

1965

The North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation is founded.

1965

The North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation is founded, meeting twice yearly

Pope Paul VI continued John XXIII's policy of dialogue with Soviet leaders.

1966 - 1967

Pope Paul VI continued John XXIII's policy of dialogue with Soviet leaders in order to reduce persecutions against local Christians (Ostpolitik policy), receiving Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko and USSR President Nikolai Podgorny; however while the Soviet officials considered themselves calling on the pope as the head of the Vatican City State, the Vatican announced the visit as made to the Holy Father as supreme pastor of the Holy See.

Translation of the sacred relics of the Holy Apostle Titus back to the Greek OC.

1966

Translation of the sacred relics of the Holy Apostle Titus of Crete, from Venice (which took them in 1669), back to the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Crete.

The Centro Pro Unione center is founded.

1968

The Centro Pro Unione center is founded by the Society of the Atonement (Graymoor Friars and Sisters) as an ecumenical research and action center.

St. Mark's relics are returned to the Orthodox Church.

1968

Visit to Patriarchate of Alexandria by Vatican representatives, who give Patr. Nicholas VI a part of the relics of St Mark from Venice, on behalf of Pope Paul VI.

The new Roman Missal Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani is issued.

1969

The new Roman Missal Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani or General Instruction of the Roman Missal (GIRM) is issued, indicating a preference for the liturgical orientation in which the priest celebrates the Liturgy "Versus Populum" ("towards the people"), rather than "Ad Orientem" ("towards the east"), becoming the new pattern worldwide in Roman Catholic parishes.

The sacred relics St. David of Thessalonica are returned to Thessaloniki.

1978

Through the efforts of Metr. Panteleimon (Chrysofakis) of Thessalonica, the sacred relics St. David of Thessalonica were triumphantly returned to Thessaloniki from Milan, Italy, after having been taken by Crusaders in 1236 AD.

Joint Commission of Orth. and RC Churches for Theological Dialogue established.

1979

Joint Conference of the Sacred Community of Mount Athos.

1980

Extraordinary Joint Conference of the Sacred Community of Mount Athos, April 9-22, resolved publicly to state the opinion of the Athonite fathers on the subject of dialogue with the heterodox

Greece and the Vatican City State formally established diplomatic relations.

1980

John Paul II called the first officially recognized synod of the Ukr. Greek CC.

1980

Pope John Paul II called the first officially recognized synod of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC), presided over by controversial wartime Metr. (now Cardinal) Josyf Slipyj.

Orthodox-RC Joint Commission publishes in Munich first official common document.

1982

Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission publishes in Munich first official common document, "The Mystery of the Church and of the Eucharist in Light of the Mystery of the Holy Trinity."

Martyrdom of Bp. Paul (de Ballester-Convallier) of Nazianzus in Mexico.

1984

Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger issues The Ratzinger Report.

1985

Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI) issues The Ratzinger Report: An Exclusive Interview on the State of the Church, where he caricatures all Eastern Orthodox Churches as doctrinally "static" and "petrified as it were."

Orthodox-RC JC in Bari issues "Faith, Sacraments and the Unity of the Church."

1987

Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission in Bari issues common document "Faith, Sacraments and the Unity of the Church."

Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission publishes third common document.

1988

Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission in Valamo publishes common document "The Sacrament of Order in the Sacramental Structure of the Church"

Pope John Paul II addressed the European Parliament urging unity with the East.

1988

Ratzinger publishes a letter on Christian meditation, criticizing hesychasm.

1989

Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI) publishes "Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on Some Aspects of Christian Meditation," where he rehearses historical heretical arguments against hesychasm (in sections 26-28), caricaturing hesychasm as a "psychological-corporal method" with numerous inherent dangers.

The Soviet Union and Holy See establishes official relations.

1990

The Soviet Union and Holy See established official relations 15 March 1990.

Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Theological Commission issues 4th common document.

1993

Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Theological Commission meets in Balamand, Lebanon, issuing common document "Uniatism: Method of Union of the Past, and Present. Search for Full Communion" (the "Balamand document"); the Balamand Document declared that what has been called "uniatism" "can no longer be accepted either as a method to be followed nor as a model of the unity our Churches are seeking".

Pope John Paul II issues Orientale Lumen, encouraging East-West union.

1995

Pope John Paul II issues Ut Unum Sint, reiterating that unity is essential.

1995

Pope John Paul II issues Encyclical Ut Unum Sint ("That they may be one") on May 25, reiterating that unity of these two sui juris churches is essential (as well as further dialogue with the Protestant churches), showing that the Roman Catholic Church is officially moved to unity.

Beginning of the annual series of Orientale Lumen Conferences.

1997

Beginning of the annual series of Orientale Lumen Conferences, a grassroots movement among lay persons and clergy providing a common forum for Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Catholics and Roman Catholics to meet and learn about eachother's traditions; "Orientale Lumen I" is held in Washington D.C.

John Paul II beatifies Zagreb's controversial wartime Abp. Aloysius Stepinac.

1998

Pope John Paul II beatified Zagreb's controversial wartime Abp. and later Cardinal Aloysius Stepinac.

Orthodox-RC Joint Commission is suspended after an acrimonious meeting.

2000

Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Theological Commission meets in Baltimore, but is suspended after an acrimonious meeting, in particular due to the issues of papal primacy and the role of Eastern Catholic Churches, with the Commission not resuming again for six years

Pope John Paul II asks for forgiveness for the sins committed by the RCC.

2000

in view of the celebration of the Roman Catholic Great Jubilee year (Jubilaeum), on Sunday March 12 in his "Day of Pardon" homily Pope John Paul II formally asked forgiveness for the various sins committed by the Roman Catholic Church over the last two millennia.

JP2 goes on a controversial visit to Ukraine where he beatifies 28 Gr. Catholics

2001

Pope John Paul II goes on a controversial visit to Ukraine during which he was fiercely opposed by that country's largest Orthodox Church, where he beatified 28 Greek Catholics, including 27 martyrs, most of whom were killed by the Soviet secret police

Pope John Paul II apologizes to Orthodox for Fourth Crusade.

2001

Pope John Paul II apologizes to Orthodox for Fourth Crusade, on the first trip to Greece by a Pope since AD 710; a day earlier some 1,000 Orthodox conservatives took to the streets to denounce his visit.

Russian Orthodox Church accuses Vatican of proselytism.

2002

Problem of Vatican proselytism is highlighted in its decision to upgrade its four Apostolic Administrations in Moscow, Saratov, Novosibirsk and Irkutsk to fully fledged Diocese status, and elevate the former Apostolic Administrator, Msgr. Tadeusz Kondrusiwicz, to Metr.-Abp. of Moscow, drawing a storm of protest from Patr. Alexei II and the Holy Synod of Russia who described the move as "unfriendly" claiming the Roman Catholic Church saw Russia as a field for missionary activity.

Patr. Bartholomew I and JP2 co-sign Venice Declaration of Environmental Ethics.

2002

Patr. Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople and Pope John Paul II co-sign Venice Declaration of Environmental Ethics.

Holy Synod of the Church of Poland canonizes the Holy Polish Saints and Martyrs.

2003

Holy Synod of the Church of Poland canonizes the Holy Polish Saints and Martyrs of the eparchy of Helm and Podlaskia, martyred by the Papists during the zenith of the persecutions in 1944.

Relics of Ss. John Chrysostom and Gregory the Theologian are returned to OC.

2004

Return of relics of Ss. John Chrysostom and Gregory the Theologian to Constantinople from Rome (after having been stolen by Crusaders).

The Saint Irenaeus Joint Orthodox-Catholic Working Group is established.

2004

the Saint Irenaeus Joint Orthodox-Catholic Working Group is established at Paderborn (Germany), composed of 26 theologians, 13 Orthodox and 13 Roman Catholics, attempting to go through Church history chronologically to understand and analyze the development of the interrelationship between primacy and synodality in terms of both theology and praxis.

The Orientale Lumen EuroEast I conference is held in Istanbul.

May 10, 2004 - May 13, 2004

the Orientale Lumen EuroEast I conference is held in Istanbul, May 10-13, 2004;

Pope Benedict XVI bars actively gay priests from seminaries.

2005

in his first major policy statement as pope, Pope Benedict XVI issued an instruction barring actively gay priests from seminaries, the only exception being for those with a "transitory problem" that had been overcome at least three years prior to ordination to the diaconate.

Major controversy in Ukraine between OC and RCC.

2005

Major controversy in Ukraine involving the almost exclusively western Ukraine-based Uniate Greek Catholic Church moving its administrative centre on from Lviv to Kiev, constructing a large cathedral there, and its plans to establish a patriarchate, criticized by the Orthodox Church of Ukraine and other Orthodox.

Pope Benedict XVI drops title Patriarch of the West.

2006

Abp. Christodoulos (Paraskevaides)of Athens visits the Vatican.

2006

Abp. Christodoulos (Paraskevaides) of Athens visits Vatican, the first head of the Church of Greece to visit the Vatican, reciprocating the Pope's visit to Greece in 2001, and signing a Joint Declaration on the importance of the Christian roots of Europe and protecting fundamental human rights

Benedict XVI visits Ecumenical Patriarchate, drawing criticism from Mount Athos.

2006

Pope Benedict XVI visits Ecumenical Patriarchate, drawing criticism from the common Assembly of the twenty Sacred Monasteries of Mount Athos.

Russian OC and RCC confront Secular Humanism at a joint conference in Vienna.

2006

The Russian Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches confronted Secular Humanism at the conference "Giving a Soul to Europe" (Vienna, May 3-5, 2006), discussing the challenges facing Christianity, specifically materialism, consumerism, agnosticism, secularism and relativism, all based on liberal humanist ideology, constituting a real threat to Christianity today.

Benedict XVI meets with Bp. Agathangelos of Fanarion and Greek seminarians.

2006

Pope Benedict XVI met with Bp. Agathangelos of Fanarion and Greek Orthodox Seminarians from the Apostoliki Diakonia theology college in Greece who were visiting Rome, urging them to confront the challenges that threaten the faith by working to unify all Christians.

Pope Benedict XVI issues the Apostolic Letter Summorum Pontificum.

2007

Pope Benedict XVI issues the Apostolic Letter Summorum Pontificum, granting greater freedom to use the Tridentine Mass in its 1962 form and for administering most of the sacraments in the form that they had before the liturgical reforms following the Second Vatican Council, being well received by supporters of the Tridentine Mass and Traditionalists.

Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission meets in Ravenna, Italy.

2007

Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission meets in Ravenna, Italy, 10th plenary, led by co-presidents Cardinal Walter Kasper and Metr. John (Zizioulas) of Pergamon, agreeing upon a joint document consisting of 46 articles providing an ecclesiastical road map in discussing union ("Ravenna Document"); Russian delegation walks out of Ravenna talks in protest of presence of Estonian delegation (EP).

Orientale Lumen EuroEast II conference is held in Istanbul.

2007

Vat. issues document stating that the RCC is true and that the OC is defective.

2007

the Vatican issued a 16-page document prepared by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, restating its belief that the Catholic Church is the only true church of Jesus Christ, also stating that although Orthodox churches are true churches, they are defective because they do not recognize the primacy of the Pope.

The Vatican formally reconsiders doctrine of Limbo.

2007

First-ever Russian Orthodox church is consecrated in Rome.

2009

Russia and the Holy See upgrade their relations to full ambassadorial relations.

2009

Russia and the Holy See upgraded their diplomatic relations to full ambassadorial relations in 2009, following improvements in the working relationship between the Holy See and the Orthodox Patriarchate of Moscow.

The NA Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation issues "A Common Response".

2009

The North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation issues "A Common Response" to the Ravenna Document of 2007, identifying a number of criticisms.

Orthodox clergy publish a manifesto, "A Confession of Faith Against Ecumenism".

2009

Led by three senior archbishops, a group of Orthodox clergy in Greece published a manifesto, A Confession of Faith Against Ecumenism, pledging to resist all ecumenical ties with Roman Catholics and Protestants, amongst its signatories including six metropolitans, as well as 49 archimandrites, 22 hieromonks, and 30 nuns and abbesses, as well as many other priests and church elders

Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission meets in Paphos, Cyprus.

2009

Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission meets in Paphos, Cyprus, 11th plenary, studying the theme "The Role of the Bishop of Rome in the Communion of the Church in the First Millennium".

Abp. Hilarion of Volokolamsk visits Pope Benedict XVI and several officials.

2009

At the invitation of Cardinal Walter Kasper, Abp. Hilarion (Alfeyev) of Volokolamsk visited Pope Benedict XVI and several officials of the Roman Curia who have key roles in the Roman Catholic ecumenical dialogue.

Card. Walter Kasper states that there can be no unity without ecum. dialogue.

2010

Cardinal Walter Kasper stated that there can be no full integration of eastern and western Europe without ecumenical dialogue and the contribution of the eastern European Orthodox churches.

B16 proclaims the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of the New Evangelisation

2010

Pope Benedict XVI proclaims the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of the New Evangelisation

Orientale Lumen EuroEast III conference held in Istanbul.

2010

Hieromonk Gabriel Bunge (O.S.B.) is received into the Orthodox Church.

2010

Renowned Swiss theologian and Patristics scholar Hieromonk Gabriel Bunge (O.S.B.) is received into the Orthodox Church

First ever visit by a pope to Cyprus.

2010

First ever visit by a pope to Cyprus, as Pope Benedict went on a sensitive three-day day visit to the divided island

Fr. Robert F. Taft, (S.J) calls on RCC and Orthodox Church to restore communion.

2010

At the “Orthodox Constructions of the West” conference at Fordham University (June 28-30), keynote speaker Fr. Robert F. Taft, (S.J) delivered the address "Perceptions and Realities in Orthodox-Catholic Relations Today," calling on Catholic and Orthodox Churches to Restore Communion.

Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission meets in Vienna, Austria.

2010

Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission meets in Vienna, Austria, 12th plenary, studying the theme "The Role of the Bishop of Rome in the Communion of the Church in the First Millennium".

RCC gives relic of St. Simeon to the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem.

2010

Croatian Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zadar gives cherished relic of St. Simeon to the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem.

Over half a million Guatemalan Indians are received into the Orthodox Church.

2010

Over half a million Guatemalan Indians of the "Orthodox Catholic Church of Guatemala" (OCCG), a branch of the "Orthodox-Catholic Church of America" (OCCA), are received in their entirety into the Ecumenical Patriarchate's Holy Metropolis of Mexico (Central America).

North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation meets in Washington DC

2010

North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation meets in Washington DC, issuing two statements: Steps Towards A Reunited Church: A Sketch Of An Orthodox-Catholic Vision For The Future", and "Celebrating Easter/Pascha Together".

Patr. Bartholomew addresses the opponents of the Orthodox theological dialogues.

2010

Patr. Bartholomew firmly addressed the opponents of the Orthodox theological dialogues in the Patriarchal and Synodal Encyclical on the Sunday of Orthodoxy, signed by 12 Bishops in addition to the Ecumenical Patriarch.

The New Translation of the Mass is promulgated throughout the RCC.

2011

official introduction of the new English-language translation of the Roman Missal in most English-speaking countries, on the first Sunday of Advent (November 27, 2011), representing a translation that more faithfully tracks the original Latin.

The USCCB releases a revised edition of the New American Bible.

2011

The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) releases a revised edition of the New American Bible which further departs from the authority of the Septuagint, in favour of the later Masoretic text, most controversially in Isaias 7:14, revising the NAB from "the virgin shall be with child" to "a young woman shall be with child", essentially serving to undermine the doctrines of the Perpetual Virginity of the Theotokos, and the Virginal Conception of Christ.

The ACOHL officially adopts the Greek Orthdox Julian calendar date for Pascha.

2012

The Assembly of Catholic Ordinaries of the Holy Land (ACOHL) issues a directive stating that within two years (by 2015) all Eastern Catholics and the Latin Patriarchate in the Holy Land will officially adopt the Greek Orthodox Julian calendar date for the celebration of Pascha.