Early Modern Age

Great Discoveries and Reformation

Diaz - Cape of Good Hope


Bartholomew Diaz was Portuguese

Columbus - Bahamas


Christopher Columbus was Italian but went with Spanish ships

Gama - India


Vasco da Gama was Portuguese and he landed in the city of Goa

Vespucci - America

1499 - 1502

Amerigo Vespucci drew the map of North America and the continent is named after him

Luther's points


Luther put his 95 points on the door of the church of Wittenberg

Magellan - circumnavigation

1519 - 1522

Ferdinand Magellan, also Portuguese died in Manila in 1521, but his ships got back in '22

John Calvin

1530 - 1549

He introduced his reforms in Genova, Switzerland and came up with the idea of predestination

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

index; inquisition (sacrum officium); Baroque; printing books; improved education; missionaries


Charles I.'s rule

1516 - 1556

He was emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 until 1556 (he was Charles V. there)
Gained territories
Introduced absolute rule
Wanted to establish a huge European empire - conflict with France

Defeat of Francis of Valois


League of Cognac


A league of France, Venetia, Lombardy, Florence and the Papal State was formed against Spain

Defeat of the Great Spanish Armada


The English defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Gravelines (naval battle)


Henry VIII.'s rule

1509 - 1547

Tudor dynasty
Developed army and navy
Low-class people in important offices
Absolute ruler with a well-functioning bureaucracy
Foundation of the Anglican church
Good terms with the estates and the Parliament
Thomas More - Utopia (was beheaded for not supporting Henry as he wanted)

Elizabeth I.'s rule

1558 - 1603

Absolute ruler
Strenghtened the Anglican church
Started to colonize (Virginia)
Defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588 (sent pirates - Francis Drake)
Purchased monopolies and people could rent them - huge profit for everyone
Dissatisfaction spread among the puritans

James I.'s rule

1603 - 1625

Stuart dynasty
King James version of the Bible

Charles I.'s rule

1625 - 1649

Tried to strengthen his absolute rule with the help of foreign (Catholic) monarchs - English were happy with Anglicanism -> conflict
Tried to solve economic problems by raising taxes
More and more branches of economy became monopolies
Scottish king as well - Scottish presbytarians opposed the Anglican church and absolutism as well

Parliament was summoned


Civil War

1642 - 1649

Conflict between the Anglican king and the puritan members of the Parliament (Londoners supported the Parliament)
Oliver Cromwell won the civil war for the Parliament
Charles was executed in 1649

Commonwealth of England

1649 - 1660

Created by Cromwell, who defeated the Catholics of Ireland and the levellers
Cromwell appointed himself Lord Protector (kind of a dictator)
Restoration: after Cromwell died, the Parliament brought the king back

Charles II.'s rule

1660 - 1685

He was a "wise guy" - Stuart dynasty

James II.'s rule

1685 - 1688

He was Catholic (problem)
Louis XIV was his model
1688: Glorious Revolution - the king had to escape from the country

William of Orange's rule

1689 - 1702

He was invited to the country
Was protestant
Signed the Declaration of Rights - constitutional monarchy
Census: suffrage based on qualification (wealth)


Battle of Pavia


Habsburgs defeated the French

Henry IV.'s rule

1589 - 1610

He used to be a protestant (Huguenot) but later converted to Catholicism
"Paris is well worth a mass"
Duke of Sully - financial minister
Reformed taxation
Cut the expenses of the Royal Court

Edict of Nantes


relative freedom of religion
act of tolerance

Louis XIII.'s rule

1610 - 1643

chief minister: Richelieu - took power from the Huguenots and nobles (no private fortresses were allowed)
intendants: royal officials whose task was to control counties in the name of the king instead of local landlords

Louis XIV.'s rule

1643 - 1715

Sun King
financial minister: Jean Baptiste Colbert - high tariffs on import -> local industry was stimulated; increased exports - MERCANTILISM
wars for hegemony (regular armies are better than mercenary armies)

Cancellation of the Edict of Nantes


Louis XIV

War of Spanish Succession

1700 - 1713

other countries united against France
Louis's grandson finally got the Spanish throne, but could not unite the two countries

The 30-years War

War of the Austrian Habsburgs; Habsburgs ruled the HRE, but didn't have much control over it; Ferdinand II wanted to introduce absolutism in Bohemia - his envoys were thrown out the window - defenestration (Prague);
Phase I
Bohemain uprising
Phase II
new countries joined (Denmark and Sweden); Christian IV of Denmark attacked the Habsburgs; Wallenstein: successful Habsburg general;
Phase III
Richelieu attacked the Habsburgs - religous issue

Battle of White Mountain


Bohemian uprising against the Habsburgs
Habsburgs defeated the Bohemians
nobles's lands were taken and given to German Catholic nobles
Bohemia became a hereditary province of the Habsburgs

Peace of Westphalia


independence of the Netherlands and Switzerland was declared
the power of the Habsburgs is only nominal now

Central and Eastern Europe

Suleiman I.'s rule

1520 - 1566

lost control over silk and spice trade
decreased food production - > starvation
French Revolution affected Ottoman views

Ivan IV.'s rule

1533 - 1584

strengthened centralized power
crowned himself a czar
gained the Basin of Volga

Batlle of Lepanto


Ottomans very severely defeated at this naval battle

Peter I.'s rule

1689 - 1725

Romanov dynasty
taxed everything

Alliances against the Turks


Peter I.

Swedish War

1700 - 1721

Foundation of St. Petersburg