Development of the Cold War

Main

Confrontation of The Superpowers

Major Events

1945 - 1949

Between 1945 and 1949, a number of events led the two superpowers to oppose eachother.

Churchill gives speech

March 5, 1946

Winston Churchill gave a speech in Fulton, Missouri, expressing his growing concern about the rift between the Soviets and the West.

Rivalry In Europe

Control over Greece

1946

The Communist People's Liberation Army and anticommunist forces were fighting each other for control of Greece in 1946.

The Truman Doctrine

Truman Doctrine

1947

Harry S. Truman alarmed by the British withdrawal and the possibility of Soviet expansion into the eastern Mediterranean, responded in the early 1947 with the Truman Doctrine.

The Marshall Plan

Split between Europe & US

1947

In 1947 the split in Europe and the US had vecome a fact of life.

Doctrine is followed

June 1947

The Truman doctrine was followed in June 1947 by the European Recovery Program.

Policy of Containment

July 1947

In July 1947, George Kennan, a well-known US diplomat with crucial knowledge if Soviet affairs, argued for a policy of containment to keep communism within it's existing boundaries and prevent future Soviet aggressive moves.

Soviet Union responds to Marshall Plan

1949

In 1949, the Soviet Union responded to the Marshall plan by founding the Council for Mutual and Economic Assistance for the economic operation of the US.

The Division of Germany

West German government

February 1948

By February 1948, Great Britain, France, and the US were making plans yo unify the three western sections of Germany and create a west German government.

Blockade is lifted

May 1949

The Soviets, who also wanted to avoid war, finally gave in and lifted the blockade on May 1949.

Federal Republic of Germany

September 1949

In September 1949, the Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany, was formally created.

Spread of the Cold War

Chinese communists take control

1949

In 1949, Chinese communist took control of the government of China, strengthening the US fears about the spread of Communism.

Soviets 1st atomic bomb

1949

The Soviets exploded their first atomic bomb in 1949.

New Military Alliances

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

April 1949

The North Atlantic treaty Organization was formed in April 1959, when Belgium, france, the Netherlands, Great Britain,italy, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, and Iceland, signed a treaty with the United States and Canada.

Korean War

1950

The Korean War began in 1950.

The Warsaw Pact

1955

In 1955, the Soviet Union joined with Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania in a formal military alliance known as the Warsaw Pact.

The Arms Race

Sputnik I

1957

In 1957, the Soviets sent Sputnik I, the first human-made space satellite, to orbit the earth.

A Wall in Berlin

New leader

1955

In 1955 a new leader, Nikita Khrushchev, tried to take advantage of the American concern over missiles.

Berlin wall is being built

August 1961

In August 1961, the East German government began to build a wall separating East Berlin from West Berlin.

The Cuban Missile Crisis

Fidel Castro changes government in cuba

1959

In 1959, a left-wing revolutionary named Fidel Castro overthrew the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista and set up a Soviet-supported totalitarian regime in Cuba.

Kennedy finds out about missiles in Cuba

October 1962

In October 1962, Kennedy found out that Soviet ships carrying missiles were headed to Cuba.

Hotline Communications System

1963

A hotline communications system between Moscow and Washington, D.C., was installed in 1963.

Vietnam and the Domino Theory

Troops sent to Vietnam

1964

In 1964, under President Lyndon B. Johnson, increasing numbers of US troops were sent to Vietnam.

Nixon makes an agreement

1973

In 1973, President Nixon reached an agreement with North Vietnam's leaders that allowed the United States to withdraw it's armed forces.