Completed by Sneferu, one of the first attempts at monumental pyramid building
Perhaps started unstable, changes angles about midway up the pyramid, another first attempt at pyramid building
Non-royal funerary staute (one of the best preserved), limestone, found in Medum, painted, eyes inlaid with with crystalline, man dark and woman light, woman fully clothed by breasts exposed, wears jewelry and wig, imitate royals with more artistic expression, little intimacy between them. Look up to gods
Exclusive to Old Kingdom, plastered limestone, son-in-law of Khufu, dark for male but not idealized, folds around the eyes and hairline-> eternal youth not universally appreciated, wisdom perhaps?
Limestone, Dyn IV, oversee-er of the pyramid buildings (non-royal), not ideally represented like kings -> some body fat and face with creases. Non royal representation more realistic, artists had more flexibility.
Dyn IV, limestone from Giza, non-royal funerary monument, smaller than wife but clever representation seems like same height, wife holds on to him, children smaller (represented as nude, shaved head, finger on mouth)
Saqqara, Dyn IV, limestone, quintessential OK Egyptian statue, formal, stiff, leg forward with ideal body, molded with stone (Greeks would take the concept from Egypt and put their own spin on it)
Khufu (biggest), Khephren (middle) and Mycerinas/Menkaure (smallest).
Dynasty Four, had stone covering originally, wanted to be elevated to the Gods, far beyond the function of a burial chamber, showed the king's power, completed perhaps to keep people busy during flood season, arranged in cardinal directions
Exclusive to Old Kingdom, limestone, found it tombs, perhaps in case the body destroyed, head tilted upwards, has portrait like qualities.
Compare to Jericho skulls?
Probably made with leftover stone, face of Kephren with a lion's body (would've had a nose and beard), Looks out to the East to the rising sun, King as lion god Ruty- protect the temple
After death, brought over to the W. Nile, put into the Valley temple where they were mummified, then funeral happened at the mortuary temple
Buried inside of the pyramid and not below
Dynasty Four, made of slate
W/ Wife: King a little in front of her, step forward, wife hanging onto king for support, little intimacy or interaction between them, idealized bodies, part of the rock- permanence, head up slightly, ideal face w/ royal headdress, wife discretely clothed and very feminine
Triad: W/ Hawthore and local deity, slate, wears the white Crown, holding hands with the goddess, together the three of them rule Egypt, frontal view--> very stiff, both women very feminine. Depictions aspire to kingship but do retain elements of portraiture
Made of diorite, wears the traditional headdress and beard, God Horus stood behind, throne has lions and the symbol of a unified Egypt, is not separate from the stone- permanent which ties into idea behind statue
Dyn V, plastered wood, fat body w/ receding hairline, incredibly lifelike, so much so that people thought it was a real person when first found
Dyn V, Saqqara, depicts the ideal life of Ti, in the reeds (marshes=untamed wilderness), full of animals/plants/activity, Ti the largest, very active in the hippo hunt, symbol of conquering nature
Dyn VI, limestone, similar scene to Ti's Tomb, hippo hunting/trying to control the forces of nature, reeds encompass the background (very much in nature)
Alabaster, Dyn VI (By this time the OK is coming to an end as the power of the pharaoh is starting to diminish), mother looks much more powerful (hard to tell where power rests), Pepy II depicted as mini adult, frontal view from two sides, little intimacy between the two, much like Triad of Mycerinus
Attitude change in Egypt, right after the first intermediate period, Dyn XI-XII, 2050-1780 BCE
Dyn XII, stone, wears dual crown, not ideal - downcast eyes/facial lines (represents the Middle Kingdom's increasing preference towards a fair, compassionate and thoughtful pharaoh who cared about his people), reflects wisdom, "verism"
Successor of Sesostris, sphinx more lion like than human, face part of the animal, much more integrated, acted as a protector
Time of outward interaction with other nations, Egypt much more vulnerable to these influences
Nahkt largest, color conventions hold, new fashion style that reflects New Kingdom, making offerings, things depicted to be able to be seen, doing everyday work/agriculture
Next scene: hunting in the marshes, trying to control nature, marshes are erotic, untamed. Gender segregation, wife has cone on head--> offers sensory experience. Humans dominant over reeds
Fits in with the natural landscape, the body is in a different location so this could be used as a public space --> propaganda-like images to justify the queenship. Tiered terraces that rise as you enter the temple. Temple dedicated to Amun-Re exclusively. Imitates Middle Kingdom design. Designed by Semnut, influential in many of the temples decisions. Courtyard filled with many different trees, Edenic.
Hyopstyle Hall- lined with massive columns that had hieroglyphs of Pharaohs engaged with gods in religious activity. Capitals evoke the lotus plant as some are flowers and some are buds. Clerestory to let light in. Tried to imitate the marshes before the sanctuary. As you walked through the elevation got steadily steeper.
Dyn XVIII, granite, lion image of the Queen- royal connotations, protector, cartouche on chest, looks masculine but her cartouche identifies her as a woman (reinvents herself, looks manly but retains femininity, will do this for her reign)
Dyn XVIII, limestone at Dier el Bahri, wears sheath dress, has breasts (not completely masculine), Dawns the pharonic headdress and is in similar pose to other royals before her.
Dyn XVIII Largest temple in Egypt- main temple created, temples would be added on to it in the future, exterior a billboard for pharaoh's accomplishments (outside contained war/hunting imagery, inside contained religious) pylons acted as mountains w/ sunset. Separates chaos of outside from inside
Vizier, Dyn XVIII, depict a host of different people/animals, many different types of people bringing tribute to Egypt (shows how New Kingdom opened up), everyday actions like mud brick making (not a high class activity, given to racial inferior), start to see stereotypes for people but still aspect of portraiture,
Reflects the New Kingdom's idea of looking outward (whether by force or curiosity). Show the expanse of the empire. Shown giving Egyptians gifts (dominant). Depicted differently than Egyptians, especially the Queen of Punt who is depicted ugly and fat (bad/good?) trading exotic items
60ft tall at Thebes, guard the temple at the Valley of the Kings, size over quality, has symbol of Egyptian unification on the throne, king himself protector
Wears the white crown, molded into head. Start to see bigger lips and elongated eyes. Also wears red crown and blue crown (war crown, first time really seen). These contain the same stylistic changes
XVIII, mixed perspective, both aerial and profile views, more important to see everything than depict realistically. Sycamore goddess on top right inviting Nebamun into temple, no humans depicted.
Banquet Scene: Elites on top separated by gener, musicians/slaves on the bottom, artists have more freedom in expression because they are not royals, movement and interaction (much more so than Old Kingdom), sensory images as well add to the experience.
Akenaten moves capital to Tel-el-Amarna, monotheism
Limestone, iconic Egyptian image. Has long neck and Amarna features but is represented beautifully and elegantly. Young, temporal, wears a crown (not typical other than Amarna)
Large eyes, lips, chin, exaggerated/disproportionate. Aged lines on the face, departure from earlier idealism, further elaborated the changes from the father.
In statue, carries crook and flail, very thin face
Limestone, sunken relief of Akenaten and family, lots of intimacy, Amarna bodies, eye to eye with wife who also wears a crown. Kids are playing. Sense of time with the scarves in the wind. Aten's rays are touching the king and his family. Wear sandals, cushion indented- very Amarna. Covers the symbol of the unification sign
Red quartzite. Similar body type to the king, very curvaceous and feminine, decidedly different than representations before, wrapped in thin sheath dress
Statue of the king, weird body type -very feminine with large hips, small shoulders. (Reading suggests that it could be a result of the monotheistic god that does not have a gender, thus king wanted to represent himself like that.) Holds crook and flail and wears pharaonic headdress.
Wooden, inlaid with stone, many sides that depict scenes of war/hunting, vertical registers, Tut always the largest. Wars against Africans, Asiatics. Lion, ostrich and deer hunts to control the forces of nature. Much like Narum-Sin in scale. King very much engaged in the action
End of the XVIII Dyn, discovered by Howard Carter in the 1920's, one of the best preserved tombs there were, burial chamber was where body was kept, contained a granite/golden sarcophagi guarded by 4 deities
On the golden coffin holds flail and crook, curved beard of Osiris, lips and eyes very Amarna-like
Wood, plated with gold, lungs on the bottom that would've been filled with the papyrus and lotus (unification of Egypt), the back of the chair has a golden, Amarna like relief. Tut and Queen together in Amarna style, eye-to-eye, intimate. Both wear a crown but the queen is subservient to the king as he receives from her, scarves blowing in the wind, sash over the symbol of U and L Egypt
Painting of Osiris and Tut, Osiris wears white crown with feathers, hands on head represent the soul, Tut embraces him with Ka behind him (spirit, wears curved beard of Osiris), Osiris wrapped as if he were a mummy, bodies are very much Amarna style
On other panel, opening of the mouth ceremony (life giving) performed by Ay, the successor of Tutankhamon (could have been a murder conspiracy), ox leg sits on the table symbol of power, AY wears the Blue Crown of Egypt and is represented as the son of Tut to legitimize power. On far left is the sky goddess-->protective
Dyn XIX, architect asiatic, monumental statues of RII, oriented with the equinox to let light in and shine on the sanctuary, served as propaganda for Southern Egypt. Smaller figures depicted on legs, center is the statue of Horus-Re, two frieze: underneath captured enemies and above baboon decoration
Inside, reliefs of RII in battle, monumental statues of RII as Osiris, sanctuary in back has three gods with Ramsses. Only right 3 get illuminated, underworld god stays dark.
Limestone relief and statue, adheres to child conventions of finger in the mouth and shaved head. Amarna like in cushion and posture in the relief, Cartouche with name.
On statue surrounded by the God Horus.
Dyn XX (Egypt undergoes a shakeup, probably climactic), located at Medinet Habu, naval battle vs the 'Sea People' (not restricted to sea), very confused scene, no registers--> mass of people (perhaps a better way to communicate the story?). Egyptians have stripped hats while the enemies have helemets
Shows the assimilation of Egypt to other cultures, copied many things that were Egyptian, from the Late Bronze/Early Iron Age, anthropomorphic coffin made to look like a human. Made with less precious materials than the Egyptian ones and had their own flavors
Established by King David Late Bronze/Early Iron Age, Israelites worship only one god, perhaps to separate them from the past. Supposedly four underground rivers fuel the city (Zimri-Lin -like scene), Came out of the Canaanite people, Built the city on the highest point they could find, much like the idea of the ziggurat in this way.
Made of limestone, gold, ceder. Looked very Near Eastern with a Long Room plan. Elevated as you walked up. Restricted temple, only the elite could go to the back. Interior mirrored an artificial paradise. Alter on the outside for normal people. In the back the Arch of the Covenant which was guarded by Cherubim sphinxes. According to legend, Yahweh could barely fit into the temple, as seen by the giant footprints in a comparable temple
War-like people, consolidated the power of Mesopotamia into a great empire that lasted about 200 years
Nimrud, Northwest Palace, alabaster:
War scene: Ashurnasirpal the largest, vertical perspective with a sense of depth/space. No registers. Sought to inspire/deter enemies. L-->R, order to chaos. sense of place and landscape. Cuneiform writing to describe the scene.
Lion Hunting Scene: Sought to control the forces of nature. Lions very well depicted, element of suspense because the King is in danger but shows his courage and strength. Next scene shows libation given to the dead lions. Many different attendants including son (Shalmanesser III) who wears the royal headband and helmet, has beard
Scene with Sacred Tree: Ashurnasirpal depicted twice, standing around sacred tree, symbol of fertility perhaps associated with an Ishtar-like goddess. In the center is the sun disk (Ashur). Intentionally not made as a real tree
Limestone. Protector of the palace, wears a horned crown--> Mesopotamian symbol of divinity, human head with bull and lions body (symbols of royalty/power). Has 5 legs so that it can be seen as having four from all angles
Limestone statue, sits on a red base, large beard and carries weaponry to show a war people, not a particularly naturalistic representation of the king but represented to be a king (Winter, compare to Gudah), exaggerated, supernatural. Assyrians did not consider themselves a divinity
In Nimrud, son of Ashurnasirpal II, had a harder time than father due to palace discontent, conducted campaigns to offset this, depicted much like father but more costume, bigger beard. However, still not much portraiture, rather portrait of a king
6ft tall, 5 bands of decoration, each band represents a specific campaign, exotic things. Much like the Uruk Vase.
On one band, Assyrians receiving from Israeli King Jehu. Jehu dressed differently than Assyrians (hat, robes, shoes). Giving offerings to Shalmanesser III. Judah did not resist Assyrians, gave into them
Lion hunting: lions depicted very naturalistically, can be seen in their forms, their pain and suffering is very evident (perhaps to show fear for king or feel bad for the animals). Negative space around the lions reinforces this notion, as opposed to filled battle scenes. King looks brave and noble by engaging with them
Vs. Elamites: organized similar to the Sennacherib reliefs. Confused array of figures represented, landscape scene, composition hard to follow but can see the story of Teuman's capture (ID'd by hairline) Eventually he is taken as captive and beheaded for the King
King/Queen relaxing- depiction of the Queen very rare for the Assyrians. Outside, lounging (Amarna like in this way), feasting/drinking, Teuman's head is in a tree, both the King and Queen have been defaced, Meenat present (sign of Hawthor)
At palace at Ninevah, chaotic scene with no registers, not much literature (has epigraphs). New type of narrative-->synchronist where many parts are shown at the same time. Lachish people defend the tower while the Assyrians attack. The composition is completely filled with objects