"A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia."
"The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines."
"the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries."
"A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517."
"Completion of the Suez Canal in 1869 elevated Egypt as an important world transportation hub. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire until 1914."