U.S. History Final

Events

Social Darwinism

1800 - 1900

-orthodox theory that attributed social inequality to natural selection and the 'survivial of the fittest'

Women's Christian Temperance Union

1800 - 1900

-appealed to women angered by men who used alcohol and then abused their wives and children
-directed most of its work towards ending the production, sale, and consumption of alcohol
-homeless shelters, Sunday schools, prison reform, child nurseries, and woman suffrage
-provided women with a political forum in wich they could fuse their traditional moral posture as guardians of the home with broader public concerns

Black codes

1800 - 1865

-designed to restrict the freedom of the black labor force and keep freed people as cvlose to slave status as possible
-laborers who left their jobs before contracts were up had to forfeit wages already earned and be subject to arrest by any white male
-vagrancy, very broadly defined, was punishable by fines and involuntary plantation labor
-apprenticeship clasues obliged black children to work without pay
-some states attempted to bar blacks from land ownership
-other laws specifically denied blacks equality with whites in civil rights, excluding them from juries and prohibiting interracial marriages

Election of 1860

1860

Stephen Douglas-attempted popular soverignty
(1/3) Dem- John Breckenridge- supported slavery
Southern Whigs-John Bell-vaguely favored compromise
Repub- William Seward & Abraham Lincoln-Lincoln exclusion of slavery
*Lincoln won because he was new, impressive, and more moderate

-true winner was sectionalism

Sharecropping

1860

-represented a compromise between planters and former slaves
-under arragements that were usually very detailed, plantations were broken into family-sized farms
-sharecropper families recieved 1/3 of the year's crop of the owener furnished implements, seeds, and draft animals OR 1/2 if they provided their own materials
-allowed families to set their own hours and tasks and offered freedom from white supervision and control
-for planters: -forced blacks to stay until harvest and employ all family members
- offered a way around the chronic shortage of cash and credit

-way whites could keep blacks in slavery

Cuba Libre

1860

-a movement of independence in Cuba when Spain, its empire in ruins, began to impose stiff taxes on the island
-Cuban rebels tried to go against Spanish
-After U.S. ship blown up, U.S. declares war and wins
-U.S. secured Cuban independce from Spain, but not its own soverignty
-American business tightened hold on Cuban sugar plantations, while U.S. military forces oversaw the formation of a constitutional convention that made Cuba a protectorate of the U.S.

The Confederate States of America

1860

The Confederate States on America were the southern states that wanted to secede in 1860 in America. These states included Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, georgia, Lousiana, texas, and South Carolina. The south felt they were unequal in government and seceded. This caused Fort Sumter, which led to the Civil War, Reconstruction occured but slowed eventuall and the old COnfederate states began racism again.

Border States

1860

-7 Southern states out
-Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, & North Carolina left South
-Missouri: bordered Mississippi River and controlled routes to west
-Kentucky: controlled Ohio River
-Maryland: Main railroad link with West
-Delaware: controlled access to Piladelphia
-all 4 choose to stay in Confederacy, huge hit to Union

Union League

1860

-became a political voice of former slaves
-brought together local blacks, soldiers, and Freedman's Bureau agents to demand the vote and an end to legal discrimination against blacks
-brought out black voters
-instructed freedmen in the rights and duties of citizenship
-promoted Republican candidates

Fort Sumter

1861

What: Federal military installation
Where: Charleston harbor
-center of sucessionist sentiment, but if kept in Union hands it would be immobilized
-running low on supplies, Lincoln notified to governor of South Carolina that he was sedning troops with food to the fort
-governor ordered the surrender of the fort & to attack if not complied with
-defenders surrendered 2 days later
-first shots fired of Civil War

Homestead Act

1862

-granted a quarter section (160 acres) of the public domain free to any settler who lived on the land for at least 5 years and improved it or who could buy the land for $1.25 per acre after on;y six months residence
-sparked the largest migration in American history
-only 10% of all settlers fot their start under its terms, and nearly half of all home-steaders lost their claims
-rather than filing a homestead claim with their federal government, most settlers aquired their land outright
-state government and land companies usually held the most valuable land near trandportation and markets and the majotiry if farmers were willing to pay a hefty price for those benefits

Morrill Act

1862

-"land grant" colleges acquired space for campuses in return for promising to institute agricultural programs

Emancipation Proclomation

1863

-freed the slaves in the area of rebellion (the areas the Union did not control) but specifically exempted slaves in the border states and in former confederate area conquered by the Union

-simply gave a name to a proccess that was already happening (slaves moving to Union soil)

Sand Creek Massacre

1864

Where: Colorado
Who: white Colorado volunteers vs Cheyenne
-eliminated all treaties with tribes, governor John Evans encouraged raids of Cheyenne campgrounds
-Cheyenne cheif Black Kettle held up U.S. flag and white truce banner but whites still slaughtered over 200 Cheyennes

Sherman's March to Sea

1864

Sherman's March to Sea was a march by General Sherman in 1864 in America. Sherman set out to create total war and destroy everythig in his path. Sherman believed that the South needed to be punished because they continued to participate in a lifestyle that required so much violence. Sherman captured Georgia, and that was a major turning point for the Union and the win they so desired. Due to Sherman's big victory, Lincoln was re-elected and slavery was abolished. The win showed the Union had much control in South.

Freedman's Bureau

1865

-provided food, clothing, fuel to former slzves
-supervised and managed all the abandoned lands in the south
-controlled all subjects relating to refugees and freedom
-built schools, paid teachers, established courts to prosecute those charged with depriving blacks of their civil rights
-helped lay foundation for southern public education
-helped in establishing blacks into society

Appomattox

1865

-Lee and his 25,000 troops surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House
-grant gave teh Confederate troops parole (could not subsequently be prosecuted for treason)

13th Amendment

1865

Banning slavery throughout the U.S.

14th Amendment

1866

-defined national citizenship to include former slaves and prohibited the states from violating the privileges of citizens without due process of law
-empowered Congress to reduce the representation of any state that denied suffrage to males over 21
-changes rules of representation (3/5 rule)

The Medicine Lodge Treaty

1867

Where: Existing Indian territory
Who: Comanches, Plains Apaches, kiowas, Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Sioux, Shoshones, Bannocks
-All competing intensely for survival
-corrupt gov used money for own selves and reduced supplies (malnutrition, demoralization, and desperation)
-Buffalo met needs for meat and clothes for Pawnees, Crows, and Sioux (buffalos nearly all gone-starvation)
-only fight or die

Reconstruction

1867 - 1870

-divided the South into 5 military districts subject to martial law
-once these states had drafted new constitutions, garunteed black voting rights, and ratified 14th amendment. they were eligible for readmission to the union

First Reconstruction Act

1867

-divided the south into 5 military districts subject to martial law
-once these states had drafted a new contsitution, garunteed black voting rights, and ratified the 14th amendment, they were eligible for admission to the union
-encouraged even more political activity among blacks

Treaty of Fort Laramie

1868

-granted Sioux the right to occupy the Black Hills, or Paha Sapa, their sacred land
-but discovery of gold undermined it
-resolution to the Great Sioux war

-Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho warriors moved into war camps and prepared for battle

Ku Klux Klan

1868

-waged an ongoing terroritst campaign against Reconstrution governments and local leaders
-acted as a kind of guerrilla military force in the service of the Democratic Party, the planter class, and all those who sought the restoration of white supremacy

Knights of Labor

1869

Where: Headed in Chicago
Who: founded by a group of Philedelphia garment cutters
-grew to become the largest labor organization in the 19th century
-the order sought to bring toegther wage earners, regardless of skill
-endorsed a variety of reform measures to offset the power of the industrialists
-restriction of child labor, a graduated income tax, more land set aside for homesteading, the abolition of contract labo, ad monetary reform
-believe that the 'processing classes', once freed from the grip of corporate monopoly and the curses of ignorance and alcohol, would transfer the U.S. into a genuinely democratic society
-sought to overturn the wage system, and as an alternitive, they promoted producers cooperatives
-helped women
-women and blacks had own groups inside KOL
-Chinese were excluded
-ultimately failed

15th Amendment

1869

The rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged on account of race, color, or previous conditions of servitude

Horizontal Combination

1871

-entailed gaining control of the market for a single product

Vertical Integration

1871

-a firm gained control of production at every step of the way

Redemption

1872

-End of Freedman's Bureau
-Supreme court cases that invalidate 14 and 15
-victory of Democrats throughout the south
-shift in republican party priorities away from south

Election of 1872

1872

Liberal Repub-Horace Greeley
Ulysses grant-won

-accelerated the trend toward fedreal abandonment of blacks citizenship rights

Slaughterhouse Cases

1873

-court separated national citizenship from state citizenship
-declared that most of the rights that Americans enjoyed on a daily basis were under the control of state law
-this denied the original intent of 14th Amendment, which was to protect against state infringment of national citizenship rights
-future prosecution would depend on states, not dfederal authorities
-undid the 14 and 15 amendments, which were the requirement for southern readmission

Election of 1876

1876

Dem-Samuel Tilden
repub- Rutherfod Hayes

-rigged votes
-Electroal Commission elected Hayes

Compromise of 1877

1877

-complete repudiation of the idea of a powerful federal government protecting the rights of all American citizens

Tenements

1880 - 1910

-majority of population lived there
-crowded, unsanitory, no ventilation, no light, no plumbing, diseases, multigenerational, poverty, malnutritution, infant moratlity, crime

New Immigrants

1880 - 1910

-from southern and eastern Europe
-lacked industrial skills
-entered the bottom ranks of factories, mines, mills, and sweatshops
-most planned on earning a stake and then returning home

Chinese Exclusion Act

1882

-restricted chinese Immigration by baring laborers, limiting the civil rights of Chinese residents, and forbade their naturalization

Josiah Strong

1885

Who: Congressional minister
-commentary linked economic and spiritual expansion
-advocated an 'imperialism of righteousness'
-indentified white Americans as the best agents for 'Christianizing' and 'civilizing' the people of Africa and the Pacific and beyond

-missionaries were an importasnt role in preparing American economic expansion

American Federation of Labor

1886

-sought recognition of its own union status to bargain with employers for better working conditions, higher wages, and shorter hours
-in reutnr, it offered compliant firms the benefit of amendable day-to-day relations with the most highly skilled wage earnes
-only if companies refused to bargain in good faith would union member resort to strikes
-organized craft workers only

Dawes Severalty Act

1887 - 1934

-incorporated many things from assimilation and established federal Indian policy for decades to come
-allowed president to distribute land, not to tribes, but to individuals legally 'severed' from their tribes
-those individuals who accepted the land allotment of 160 acres and agreed to alow the government to sell unalloted tribal land (with fund set aside for aducation) could peition to become U.S. citizens

-succesfully undermined tribal soverignty but offered little compensation
-Indian religions and sacred ceremonies were banned, the retelling of legends and myth forbidden, and shaman and medicine men imprisoned or exiled for continuing their traditional practicies
-"indian schools" forbade Indian languages, clothing, styles, and even hair fashions

Ghost Dance

1889

-the creator told Northern Paiute Wovoka that if Indians came together they would have a special place in the after-life
-gave him a ghost dance
-U.S. demanded it to stop and sent soldiers
-Indians surrender, accidental shot, violence breaks out

-marked the final conquest of the continent's indigenous peoples

National Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union

1889

-demanding state ownership of the railroads, a graduated income tax, lower tariffs, restriction of land ownership to citizens, and easier access to money through 'the free and unlimited coinage of silver'

Muckraking

1890

-to uncover the bad that is happening and publish it
EX: Ida B. Wells-lynching-Red Record
Ida Tarbell-Rockefeller's unfair practices
-Upton Sinclair-the Jungle-meatpacking

Jim Crow Laws

1890

Where: South
-local and state governments codified racial ideology by passing discriminatory and segregationist legislation
-referred to the customs of segregation that were being secured by legislation throughout south
-'whites only' and 'colored' rigns appeared over things

Free Silver

1890

-unlimited coinage of silvr
-Populists favored

Queen Lili'nokalani

1891

-strongly opposed anexing Hawaii to u.S.
-queen was desposed of in a plot carried out by an American diplomat and his consirators
-called on Presdient Cleveland to resinstate her as the proper ruler (Cleveland agreeed and ordered her to be reinstated)
-arrested and put in prison for knowledge of treason

The People's Party

1892

-called for government ownership of railroads, banks, and telegraph lines
-prohibition of larger landholding companies
-a graduated income tax
-and eight hour workday
-restriction of immigration
-called for national government to build local warehouses where farmers could store their crops until prices reached acceptable levels

Plessy vs Ferguson

1896

-court upheld a Louisianna state law formally segregating railroad passanger cars on the basis of the 'separate but equal' doctrine

National Consumer's League

1898

-sponsered a 'white label' campaign in which manufacturers who met safety and sanitary standards could put NCL labels on food and clothes
-publicized labor abuses in department stores and lobbied for maximum hour and minimum wage laws in state legislature

Marcus Garvey

1900

Who: Jamaican immigrant
-created a mass movement that stressed black economic self-determination and unity among the black ommunities of U.S. Caribbean and Africa
-central message in affirming pride in black identity
-in a world where black is despised, he taught that black is beauty

Robert LaFollette

1900

-forged a coaliion of angry farmers, small businessmen, and workers with his attacks on railraods and other large corporations
-leader of the progressive faction of the state republicans, won three terms as governor
-served as a senator until his death
-pushed through tougher corporate tax rates
-direct primary
-improved cicial service code
-railraod commission designed to regulate freight charges
-'Wisconsin idea', application of academic scholarship and theory to the needs of the people

Jane Addams

1900

-founded Hull House, one of the first settlement houses
-member of one of the first generations of American women to attend college
-gave young, educated women a way to satisfy their powerful desire to connect with the real world

NAACP

1900

-W.E.B. DuBois was the only black officer of the original NAACP
-interracial organization
-lead struggles to overturn legal and economic barriers to equal opportunity

racial accomodation

1900

-urging blacks to focus on economic improvement and self-reliance, as opposed to political and civil rights
-Booker T. Washington
-focus on improving vocational skills as industrial workers and farmers

Sherman Anti-trust Act

1902

Who: Theodore Roosevelt
-created to face the rapid busniess consoidations taking place in the economy
-Justice Department filed 43 cases to restrain or dissolve busniess monopolies
EX: tobacco and beef or standard oil
-established roosevelt as a 'trust-buster'
-viewed these suits as necessary to publicize the issue and assert the fedreal gov ultimate authority over big business

Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)

1905

Wo: WFM, Socialist Party, and various radical groups
-IWW would exclude no one
-concentrated on miners, lumberjacks, sailors, 'harvest stiffs', and other casual laborers
-became a force among eastern industiral workers, tapping the rage and growing militance of immigrants and the unskilled

Samuel Gompers

1910

-president of AFL
-leading spokesman for nation's trade union movement
-pledged AFL's patriotic support for war effort
-Wilson appoints him to NWLB

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory

1911

What: Fire racing through 3 floors
Who: women
-flames spread and workers found themselves trapped by exit doors that had been locked from the outside
-half an hour, 146 people, mostly young Jewish women, killed by smoke or leaped to their deaths

-series of state laws that dramatically improved safety conditions and limited the hours for working woman and children

Election of 1912

1912

Repub- William Howard Taft

Progressive Party- Teddy Roosevelt and Hiram Johnson
Roosevelt ran on 'New Nationalism'-strong federal gov, woman suffrage, 8-hour day, prohibition of child labor, minimum wage for women, stricter regulations for large coporation

Dem- Woodrow Wilson
Wilson ran on 'New Freedom"- restroring condition of free competition and equality of economic opportunity

Socialist Party- Eugene Debs

-Wilson won, first 'modern' presidential race, first direct primaries (Taft v. Roosevelt)
-challenge to traditional party loyalties
-issue oriented campaign
-high degree of interest group activiy

Hetch-Hetchy Valley

1913

Where: 150 miles from the city in Yosemite National Park
-to dam and flood it
-promised to ease the city's chronic freshwater shortage and to generate hydroelectric power
-conservatists and urban progressives argued that it would be a vicotyr for the public good over greedy private developers, since the plan called for municiple contol of water supply
-utility and public development triumphed over the preservation of nature

16th Amendment

1913

-authorized a federal income tax

Margaret Sanger

1913

-campaigned to provide contraceptive information and devices for women
-became and organizer for the IWW and wrote a series of articles on female sexuality for a socialst newspaper
-went to Europe to learn more about contraception

-gained publicity and birth control leagues and clinics could be found in every major city and most large towns in the country

17th Amendment

1913

-shifting the selection of U.S. senators from the state legislatures to direct election by voters

Great Migration

1914 - 1920

-economic opportunity brought on by war prosperity triggered a massive migration of rural black Southerners to northern cities
-acute labor shortages led northern factory managers to recruit black migrants to expanding industrial centers
-blacks left low paying field work for high paying work in meatpacking plants, shipyards, and steel mills
-kinship and community networks crucial
-frequently blacks were forced to squeeze into less desirable and all black neighborhoods

Clayton Anti-Trust Act

1914

-replaced Sherman-Anti trust Act as the nation's basic antitrust law
-reflected growing political clout of AFL
-exempted unions from being construction as illegal combinations in restraint of trade
-forbade federal courts from issuing injunctions against strikers

National Women's Party

1916

Who: Alice Paul founded
-downplayed significance of suffrage
-argued that women were still subordinate to men in the facet of life
-opposed protective legislation for women, claiming that such laws reinforced sex steroetyping and prevented women from competeing with men in many fields
-largely representing the intersets of professional and business women
-focused on passage of equal rights amendment to the constitution

Zimmerman Telegram

1917

Who: german foreign secretary Auther Zimmerman to German ambassador in Mexico
-proposed that an alliance be made between Germany and Mexico if U.S. entered the war

War Industries Board (WIB)

1917

-clearinghouse for industrial mobilization to support the war effort
-proved a major innovation in expanding the regulatory power of the federal government
-given broad authority over the conversion of industrial plants to wartime needs and manufacture of war materials
-had to balance price controls against war profits

Committee on Public Information

1917

-a sophisticated and aggressive agency for promoting the war
-pamphlets, articles, books that explained the causes and meaning of the war
-'Four minute men' gave breif patriotic speeches before stage and movie shows
-created posters, slides, newspaper adverstising, and films to promote the war
-movie stars to help sell war bonds at rallies
-led an aggressively negative campaign against all things German
-music, literature, and food were suspect if german
-push for conformity

Espionage Act

1917

-gov key tool for suppression of antiwar sentiment
-severe punishment for anyone found guilty of avoiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment, or causing insubordination in the armed forces
-empowered the postmaster general to exclude from the mails any newspapers or magazines he thought treasonous
-had to increase overall police and surveillance machinery
-created FBI

Sedition Act

1918

-amendment to Espionage Act
-outlawed any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language intended to cause contempt, scorn, contumely, or disrepute to the gov, Constitution, or flag

Treaty of Versailles

1919

-attributing the war to the aggression of Germany
-German war reparations at $33 billion

Red Scare

1919 - 1920

-wholesale violations of constitutional rights, deportations of hundreds of innocent people
-took a toll on women's movements due to calling for 100 percent Americanism and they had ties with socialists and labor groups
-deporting any immigrant found to be a member of a revolutionary organization prior to or after coming to U.S.
-people arrested in raids and deported or herded into prisons or bullpens

Welfare Capitolism

1920

-to challenge to power and appeal of trade unions and collective bargaining
-large employers aggressively pomoted a variety of new programs designed to improve workers well-being and morale while also fending off unionization
-became a key part of corporate strategy
-the 'American Plan": no known union member would be hired, and if a union existed the nonmembers would still get whatever wages and rights the union had won
-contributed to a sharp decline in the ranks of organized labor
-encouraged workers to acquire property through stocl-purchase plans or home ownership plans
-other programs offered workers insurance policies covering accidents, illness, old age, and death
-many plant managers and personell departments worked to improve saftey conditions, provide medical services, and establish sports and recreation programs for workers

18th Amendment

1920

-national ban on alcoholic drinks
-banning manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages

-stimulus for growth of organized crime
-Protestants considered it a worthy moral reform
-many thought it faced the worst problemes faced by working class: family violence, unemployment, and poverty

Negro National League

1920

Who: By "Rube" Foster
-several professional and semiprofessional leagues for blacks

League of Women Voters

1920

represented historical mainstream of the suffrage movement, those who believed that the vote for women would bring a nurturing sensibility and a reform vision to American politics
-concentrated on educating the new female electorate, encouraging women to run for office and supporting laws for the protecting of women and children

19th Amendment

1920

-granted women suffrage

Black Tuesday

1920

-the bottom fell out
-over 16 million shares, more than double the previous record, were traded as panic selling took hold
-for many stocks, no buyers were available at any price

-companies laying off
-banks going bankrupt
-family savings gone

Harlem Renaissance

1920

-assertion of cultural independence
-mass media allowed Americans and Europeans to thrive in black music
-blacks performed but no blacks could be in audience

Immigration Act of 1921

1921

-setting a maximum of 357,000 new immigrants each year
-quotas limited annual immigration from any European country to 3% of the number of its natives counted in the 1910 census

Eleanor Roosevelt

1930

-petitioned strongly for liberal changes
-protective labor legislation for women
-antilynching legislation
-compulsory health insurance
-child labor reform
-fought racial discrimination in New Deal

Black Cabinet

1930

-FDR appointed several blacks to second-level positions in his administration

Reconstruction Finance Corporation

1932

-designed to make government credit available to ailing banks, railraods, insurance companies, and other busniessess, thereby stimulating economic activity
-managed to save numerous banks and other busniesses from going under
-did not hasten recovery

PWA (Public Works Administration)

1933

What: authorized $3.3 billion for the construction of roads, public buildings, and other projects
-to provide jobs and through increased consumer spending, stimulate the economy

NRA (National Recovery Administration)

1933

Where: Washington
-almost all codes were written by the largest firms in any given industry
-administrative complexities involved with code writing and compliance made people unhappy with operation

AAA (Agricultural Adjustment Administration)

1933

What: set up to provide immediate relief to nation's farmers
-established new federal role in agricultural planning and price setting
-established prices for basic farm commodities
-incorporated the principle of subsify (farmers recieved benefit payments in return for reducing acreage or otherwise cutting production where surpluses existed)
-new taxes on food processing would pay for these programs

CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps)

1933

What: unemployment relief effort
Who: jobless young men
-provided work in protecting and conserving the nation's natural resources
-road construction, reforestation, flood control, and national park improvements

TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority)

1933

What: build dams and power plants, produced cheap fertilizer, brought low-cost electricity to six southern states
Who: independent public corporation

Frances Perkins

1933 - 1945

-First women cabinet member in U.S. history
-FDR's secretary of labor
-Social Security Act
-Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938
-opened up space for women in beauracracy
-social work profession grew, giving more jobs to women

FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

1933

-provided protection to individual depositors in case bank failure

New Deal

1933

-the Hundred Days
-depression-fighting legislation
-improvised series of reform and relief measures
-fundemental goals of relief, reform, and recovery

FERA (Federal Emergency Relief Administration

1933

What; Congress authorized $500 million for aid
-half went as direct relief to states
-rest was distributed on the basis of a dollar of federal aid for every 3 dollards of state and local funds spent for relief

Good Neighbor Policy

1933

-bilateral treaties with mexico, Columbia, and British West Indies, El Salvador, and the Dominican Republic allowed American business to dominate local economies, importing their raw material at low prices and flooding their local markets with goods manufactured in America
-often, U.S. investors took over industries of small nations, undercutting national busniess classes

FHA (Federal Housing Administration)

1934

-insured loans made by banks and other private lenders for home building and home buying

Wagner Act

1935

-federal government garaunteed the right of American workers to join, or form, independent labor union, and to bargain collectively for improved wages, benefits, and working conditions
-defined and prohibited unfair labor practicies by employers, including firing workers for union activity

SSA (Social Security Act)

1935

-provided for old-age pensions and unemployment insurance
-payroll tax on workers and their employers created a fund from which retirees recieved monthly pensions after age sixty-five
-established a minimum weekly payment and a minimum number of weeks during which those who lost jobs could collect

New Deal Coalition

1936

-coalition of voters
-white southern Dems, ethnics who supported big city political machines, unionized workers, and many depression-hit farmers
-black voters in North and west rapidly went democratic

Neutrality Act of 1939

1939

-permitted the sale of arms to Britain, France, and China
-all aid to allies short of war
-France collased so U.S. transfer surplus warships and equipment to Britain
-U.S. peacetime military draft, 1.4 million young men to army training camps
-inevitability of u.S. involvement in war, FDR moved aggressively to aid hard-pressed Britain

Grapes of Wrath

1939

Oklahoma family going to California and trying to survive the Dust Bowl

Atlantic Charter

1941

Objectives for the world:
-national self-determination
-no territorial aggrandizment
-equal access of all people to raw materials
-collaboration for the improvement of economic opportunities
-freedom of seas
-disarmament
-freedomd from fear and want

War Powers Act

1941

-established a precedent for executive authority that would endure long after the war's end
-president could reorganize the federal gov and create new agencies, censor all news and information and abridge civil liberties, seize foreign-owned property, and even award gov. contracts without competitive bidding

Atlantic Charter

1941

-Roosevelt and Churchill met on a warship off Newfoundland and declared common goals for the postwar world
-proclamation for all people to live in freedom from fear, want, and tyranny

Lend Lease Act

1941

-allowed president to sell, exchange, or lease arms to any country whose defense he judged vital to U.S. security
-Britain first beneficiary of massive aid

761st Tank Battalion

1942

What: all-black, first black armored unit
-served 183 days in action without relief

EO 9066

1942

What: banned over 120,000 Japanese Americans from designated military areas
-army prepared for forced evacuation, rounding up and removing from communities where they had lived and worked, sometimes for generations
-families recieved one week's notice to close up their busniesses and homes
-told to bring only what they could carry
-transported to 1 of 10 interrment camps
-virtually every West Coast resident with at least one Japanese grandparent had been interned

Island-hopping

1942

-strategy to strangle the Japanese import-dependent economy
-close in on home islands

Bracero Program

1942

Who: U.S. and Mexico
-brought more than 200,000 Mexicans into U.S. for short-term emplyoment (farm and railroad workers)

WAC/WAVES

1942 - 1943

-women's division of the navy and army
-better educated and more skilled than average enlisted man
-paid less
-prohibited women from supervising male workers
-barred from combat but still in danger

Bretton Woods Conference

1944

Who: 44 Allied nations
-created an international Monetary Fund and the World Bank
-expected to help rebuild wartorn Europe and Asia
-U.S. principal supplier of loans, which determine the allocation of loans, could unilaterally reshpae the global economy

D Day

1944

What: Start of Allied invasion
-under heavy german machine-gun and mortar fir, British, American, Canadian, and Free French troops hit the Normandy beaches
-2,500 men died in intial assualt
-germans responded slowly, but Americans had tough time gaining toehold

-largest landing operation in history
-midJuly broke out of Normandy and went to French interior

Nisei 442nd

1944

-army unit made up of Japanese
-fought heroically in Italy and France and became most decorated regiment in the war

Potsdam Conference

1945

Where: Berlin
-Soviet's regained and extended territry
-decided to divide the conquered nation into 4 occupation zones, temporarily ruled by Allies

38th Parallel

1945

-the line that divded North (commnists) Korea and South Korea

United Nations

1945

Where: Washington and San Francisco
What: world organization that would atribate disputes among member nations and stop aggressors, by force in necessary
-all 50 nations signed UN charter voted in the general Assembly
-U.S., Britain, Fracne, USSR, and China served permenatly on the Security Council (each has absolute veto power)

HUAC

1947

What: trying to find a supposed link between Hollywood and communism
-had to power to subpeona witnesses and to compel them to answer all questions or face contempt of Congress charges
-encouraged testimonies by 'friendly witnesses' pertaining to actors/actresses being forced to promote communism
-intimidated many into naming friends and coworkers in order to be able to keep a job in Hollywood
-if people refused to name names in account of violation of 1st and 6th amendments, deemed unfriendly witness and some served prison sentences
-Hollywood would not emply anyone who did not work with HUAC

Truman Doctrine

1947

-U.S. responsibility to protect countries from the second way of life
-"international police"
-basis for postwar U.S. ideology

March on Washington

1947

-'great rally' for equality
Where: Lincoln Memorial, Washinton D.C.

-proposed making ti madatory hat Negroes be permitted to work in defense plants

-EO 8802 banned discrimination in defense industries and gov

Marshall Plan

1948

-Creating conditions for democracy to florish in Western European nations
-provides capitol for busniess
-restore confidence of the economic future
-13 billion on restorations (most productive)
-provides garaunteed maket for U.S. goods

NSC-68

1950

-declaration of Cold war policy
-defined the struggle between U.S. and Soviets as 'permanent' and the ear of 'total war'
-American citizens must be willing to sacrifice (to give up some of the benefits which they have come to associate with theie freedom) to defend their way of life