There were many different ethnic groups within the empire. It had a strong bureaucratic ministry and the Turks were politically dominate over the other ethnic groups.
The edges of the empire were the first to split off.
Arabs join together with a common purpose to achieve political and cultural goal (specifically their own homeland).
Turkish rulers were worried that Armenians were helping the Russians. Killed many Armenian leaders and intellectuals. Estimated 1-2 million Armenians killed by the Turks.
British promised Arabs independence and future country if Arabs revolt against Ottoman Turks (join with British).
British Diplomat McMahon writes to Sharif Hussein, with vague promise of homeland if Ottoman Empire breaks up with Arab help.
A secret agreement between the British and French to divide up the Ottoman Empire of it failed.
The British promised to give the Jews and Zionists a homeland in Palestine.
Fights against Western occupying forces and establishes an interdependent Turkey. Leads country in secular reforms.
British control Palestine, Jordan and Iraq and establishes a Jewish homeland in Palestine following the Balfour Declaration.
France controls Syria and Lebanon.
Arab populations revolt against European colonial rule.