The Ottoman Empire was ruled by a Sultan which was under a bureaucratic ministry. It expanded and included a variety of ethnic groups. The major seed of power was in modern day turkey.
The outer fringes of the empire were the first to split off.
Arabs joined together with a common purpose to achieve political and cultural goals. Specifically, they wanted their own homeland. They didn't want to remain under Ottoman rule.
British (McMahan) promise Arabs (Hussein) independence and future country if Arabs revolt against Ottoman Turks. (Join with British).
Turkish rulers, worried that Armenians were helping Russians, killed many Armenian leaders and intellectuals. An estimated 1-2 million people were killed by the Turks.
British Diplomat McMahon writes to Sharif Hussein, with vague promise of homeland if Ottoman Empire breaks up with Arab help.
Secret agreement between the British and French to divide up the Ottoman Empire if it failed.
British promised support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine in exchange for Jewish support for the war.
Fights against western occupying forces and establishes and independent Turkey. Leads country in secular reforms.
Arab populations revolt against European colonial rule
British control Palestine, Jordan, Iraq and establishes a Jewish homeland in Palestine following the Balfour Declaration.
France control Syria and Lebanon.