Forming Middle East - LindseyR


Growth of the Ottoman Empire

1300 - 1699

The Ottoman Empire was ruled by a Sultan which was under a bureaucratic ministry. It expanded and included a variety of ethnic groups. The major seed of power was in modern day turkey.

Decline of the Ottoman Empire

1699 - 1915

The outer fringes of the empire were the first to split off.

Arab Nationalism

1880 - 2010

Arabs joined together with a common purpose to achieve political and cultural goals. Specifically, they wanted their own homeland. They didn't want to remain under Ottoman rule.


1914 - 1918

Hussein-McMahan Correspondence


British (McMahan) promise Arabs (Hussein) independence and future country if Arabs revolt against Ottoman Turks. (Join with British).

Armenian Genocide


Turkish rulers, worried that Armenians were helping Russians, killed many Armenian leaders and intellectuals. An estimated 1-2 million people were killed by the Turks.

Hussein-McMahon Correspondence


British Diplomat McMahon writes to Sharif Hussein, with vague promise of homeland if Ottoman Empire breaks up with Arab help.

Sykes-Picot Agreement


Secret agreement between the British and French to divide up the Ottoman Empire if it failed.

Balfour Declaration


British promised support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine in exchange for Jewish support for the war.

Ataturk leads war of independence


Fights against western occupying forces and establishes and independent Turkey. Leads country in secular reforms.

Arab Revolt

1920 - present day

Arab populations revolt against European colonial rule

Sykes-Pico Agreement goes into effect


British control Palestine, Jordan, Iraq and establishes a Jewish homeland in Palestine following the Balfour Declaration.
France control Syria and Lebanon.