Reformation and scientific Revolution


Printing Press and Gutenberg Bible printed

1451 - 1452

In the mid 1400's a German man, Gutenberg, created the printing press. The printing press allowed a worker to put letters into a frame spread the ink over and print the text much quicker. The first bible was printed in Latin but thanks to the printing press it was able to be printed in other languages too.

Christopher Columbus

1492 - 1493

Discovered the Americas.


1516 - 1517

Erasmus wrote a book that listed the problems of the church. His work laid foundations for Luther's Reformation

Luther posts 95 Theses

1517 - 1518

Martin Luther added his voice to the call of reform. He posted a list of complaints to the door of the church, these complaints were called the 95 theses.

William Tyndale

1525 - 1526

William Tyndale translated the bible into English. This allowed other people to read the bible and start to question the practices of the church leaders who were corrupt.

Ignatius of Loyola

1534 - 1535

He founded the Jesuits, the Society of Jesus. The Jesuits were one of the major spearheads of the Counter-Reformation.

King Henry VIII

1534 - 1535

King Henry VIII was a major figure of the reformation

Francis Xavier

1541 - 1542

Francis Xavier was one of the original Jesuits and one of the best missionaries of all time. He was invited to go to the East Indies by John III of Portugal.


1542 - 1543

Nicolaus Copenicus

1543 - 1544

Nicolas Copernicus was a polish astronomer wrote a book that marked the beginning of scientific revolution. Copernicus' book was called "On the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres" said that earth was the center of the universe

Concil of Trent

1545 - 1546

The Council of Trent clarified the church teachings that had been criticized by protestant. the result of the Council of Trent was the selling of indulgence is banned. Bishops must live in the areas the oversee. The ideas of martin Luther, Calvin, and other reformation are rejected.


1562 - 1563

Hugenots were french Protestants. They Sided with martin Luther's ideas about the church.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572 - 1573

St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre was the worst event in the war. In one night catholic rioters killed about 3,000 protestants! The day after riots broke out all over France.

Tycho Brahe

1577 - 1578

Tycho Brahe emphasized the importance observing carefully and detailed, accurate records. He charted positions of more than 750 stars. This made evidence and facts important to astronomers.

Edict of Nantes

1598 - 1599

Johannes Kepler

1600 - 1601

Francis Bacon, Rene Descartes and the scientific method

1610 - 1625

Galileo Galilei

1613 - 1614

Galileo Galilei was one of the most important scientists of the scientific revolution. He was the first person to study the sky with a telescope , withe the telescope he discovered craters and mountains on the moon. Galileo also discovered that moons orbit Jupiter

Treaty of Westphalia

1648 - 1649

Treaty of Westphalia ended the Thirty Year’ War. It allowed rulers to determine whether their countries would be Catholic or Protestant. This is the beginning s of freedom of religion in the United States.

Sir Isaac Newton

1687 - 1689

Sir Issac newton was one of the greatest and most influential scientists that ever lived.. He made many theories that are now laws and reviewed everything scientist had been learning.