Reformation and Scientific Revolution


1492' Christopher Columbus

1451 - 1492

Discovered the Americas.

1451’ Printing Press and Gutenberg Bible

1451 - 1517

Gutenberg’s bible was the first bible published, and when it was published it made people get interested on wanting to learn more. He also developed the printing press which allowed him to write things faster.

1516' Erasmus

1516 - 1517

Erasmus wrote a book that named problems in the church. His work laid the foundations for Luther's Reformation.

1517’ Luther posts 95 Thesis

1517 - 1534

The ninety-five these criticized the church and many of its practices, especially the sale of indulgences. It also outlined Luther’s beliefs.

1525' William Tyndale

1525 - 1534

William Tyndale translated the bible into English. This allowed people to read the bible and start to question the practices of corrupt church leaders.

1534’ King Henry VIII

1534 - 1542

He was a major figure in the time of the reformation, since he has no son and no wife he asked the pope to officially end his marriage. But soon wanted to get married but the Pope denied his request, for that reason he broke apart from the Catholic Church for personal reason rather than religious ones.

Counter Reformation

1534' Ignatius of Loyola

1534 - 1542

Ignatius of Loyola founded the Jesuits (the Society of Jesus). The Jesuits were one of the major spearheads of the Counter Reformation.

1541' Francis Xavier

1541 - 1562

He was one of the original Jesuits and one of the greatest missionaries of all time. He was invited to go to the East Indies by John III of Portugal.

1542’ Inquisition

1542 - 1545

The inquisition was a horrible time period. To enforce their decision, the Spanish Inquisition was to find and punish any Muslims and Jews left. They even killed Muslims and Jews that were even suspected of keeping their old beliefs.

1543' Nicolaus Copernicus

1543 - 1545

Nicolaus Copernicus publishes his theory of the sun-centered solar system.

1545' Council of Trent

1545 - 1562

Since Catholic leaders felt that more changes were needed; they developed the Council of Trent. It was a meeting for Catholic leaders called together to discuss decisions, these decisions made in these meetings led to major reforms in the Catholic Church. For instance, it supported Catholic teachings and instituted the reform of Catholic practices. That then made sure that there was a clear distinction between Catholic and Protestant beliefs.

Effects of the Reformation

1562' Huguenots

1562 - 1572

Although most people in France remained Catholic still, some people became Protestants. French Protestants were called Huguenots, lots of war happened between Catholics and Huguenots.

1572’ St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

1572 - 1598

The worst incident of the war between the Catholics and Huguenots was the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre. All in one night Catholic rioters killed about 3,000 Protestants in the city of Paris. In the following days, riots broke out all over France.

1598' Edict of Nantes

1598 - 1600

After the War between the Catholics and Protestants ended in 1598. King Henry IV, made a religious granting that in all of France there would be religious freedom. This allowed Protestants to live and worship anywhere expect in Paris and a few other cities.

1648' Treaty of Westphalia

1618 - 1648

Ended the Thirty Year’ War. It allowed rulers to determine whether their countries would be Catholic or Protestant. This is the beginning s of freedom of religion in the United States.

Scientific Revolution

1577' Tycho Brahe

1577 - 1600

Emphasized the importance of careful observations and detailed, accurate records. He charted the positions of more than 750 stars.

1600’ Johannes Kepler

1600 - 1613

Johannes Kepler discovered that planets orbit the sun in elliptical, not circular orbits. His observations proved that Copernicus was mistaken. He started a new theory that fit the observed facts. He also discovered that planets moved faster when closer to the sun, and that the human eye sees images reserved like a camera.

1610-1625’ Francis Bacon, Rene Descartes and the Scientific Method

1610 - 1625

Francis Bacon noted how these scientist, using observations, facts, experiments, and theories, were revealing the truth about how nature worked. And René Descartes believed that nothing should be accepted as true if it wasn’t proven to be true. Together their ideas combined into developing the Scientific Method. It was a method for gathering and testing ideas about the world.

1613' Galileo Galilei

1613 - 1687

Galileo was one of the most important scientists of the Scientific Revolution. He was the first person to use a telescope to study the sky. He discovered caters and mountains on the moon, and found out that the moon orbited Jupiter. But his greatest contribution to the development of Science was the way he studied and learned about mechanics. He was the first scientist to routinely use experiments to test his theories.

1687’ Sir Isaac Newton

1687 - 1727

The high point of the Scientific Revolution was marked by a publication of a book by Sir Isaac Newton. He was the one of the greatest and influential scientist who ever lived. He studied and simplified the work of earlier scientist. He discovered great theories, his theories have been proven so many times that they were no longer called theories but laws.