Discovered the Americas.
Gutenberg’s bible was the first bible published, and when it was published it made people get interested on wanting to learn more. He also developed the printing press which allowed him to write things faster.
Erasmus wrote a book that named problems in the church. His work laid the foundations for Luther's Reformation.
The ninety-five these criticized the church and many of its practices, especially the sale of indulgences. It also outlined Luther’s beliefs.
William Tyndale translated the bible into English. This allowed people to read the bible and start to question the practices of corrupt church leaders.
He was a major figure in the time of the reformation, since he has no son and no wife he asked the pope to officially end his marriage. But soon wanted to get married but the Pope denied his request, for that reason he broke apart from the Catholic Church for personal reason rather than religious ones.
Ignatius of Loyola founded the Jesuits (the Society of Jesus). The Jesuits were one of the major spearheads of the Counter Reformation.
He was one of the original Jesuits and one of the greatest missionaries of all time. He was invited to go to the East Indies by John III of Portugal.
The inquisition was a horrible time period. To enforce their decision, the Spanish Inquisition was to find and punish any Muslims and Jews left. They even killed Muslims and Jews that were even suspected of keeping their old beliefs.
Nicolaus Copernicus publishes his theory of the sun-centered solar system.
Since Catholic leaders felt that more changes were needed; they developed the Council of Trent. It was a meeting for Catholic leaders called together to discuss decisions, these decisions made in these meetings led to major reforms in the Catholic Church. For instance, it supported Catholic teachings and instituted the reform of Catholic practices. That then made sure that there was a clear distinction between Catholic and Protestant beliefs.
Although most people in France remained Catholic still, some people became Protestants. French Protestants were called Huguenots, lots of war happened between Catholics and Huguenots.
The worst incident of the war between the Catholics and Huguenots was the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre. All in one night Catholic rioters killed about 3,000 Protestants in the city of Paris. In the following days, riots broke out all over France.
After the War between the Catholics and Protestants ended in 1598. King Henry IV, made a religious granting that in all of France there would be religious freedom. This allowed Protestants to live and worship anywhere expect in Paris and a few other cities.
Ended the Thirty Year’ War. It allowed rulers to determine whether their countries would be Catholic or Protestant. This is the beginning s of freedom of religion in the United States.
Emphasized the importance of careful observations and detailed, accurate records. He charted the positions of more than 750 stars.
Johannes Kepler discovered that planets orbit the sun in elliptical, not circular orbits. His observations proved that Copernicus was mistaken. He started a new theory that fit the observed facts. He also discovered that planets moved faster when closer to the sun, and that the human eye sees images reserved like a camera.
Francis Bacon noted how these scientist, using observations, facts, experiments, and theories, were revealing the truth about how nature worked. And René Descartes believed that nothing should be accepted as true if it wasn’t proven to be true. Together their ideas combined into developing the Scientific Method. It was a method for gathering and testing ideas about the world.
Galileo was one of the most important scientists of the Scientific Revolution. He was the first person to use a telescope to study the sky. He discovered caters and mountains on the moon, and found out that the moon orbited Jupiter. But his greatest contribution to the development of Science was the way he studied and learned about mechanics. He was the first scientist to routinely use experiments to test his theories.
The high point of the Scientific Revolution was marked by a publication of a book by Sir Isaac Newton. He was the one of the greatest and influential scientist who ever lived. He studied and simplified the work of earlier scientist. He discovered great theories, his theories have been proven so many times that they were no longer called theories but laws.