Occuapation of Pompeii and Herculaneum


Greeks established colonies at Pithecusae

700 BC

Greeks - Northern end of the Bay of Naples at Cyme

Etruscans from north of Rome penetrated Campania

650 BC

became the leading city in teh plain
people were essentially urban and often settled on fortified plateaus with access to the sea
black pottery (buccero) - found alongstide Greek black-figure vases

Greeks extended their influence

600 BC

extended to toehr places around the coast and in Campania as a whole
native cultures of the Sarno valley adopted some Hellenised characters
strategic location of the primitive Oscan settlement of Pompeii
used as a trading outpost for the hinterland, not as a permanent Greek settlement

Fall of the Etruscans

474 BC

Etruscan power collapsed after their defeat of Greek cities at the Second Battle of Cuma

Samnite Pompeii and Herculaneum

440 BC

vaccum left by Etruscans was filled by the Samnites, a warlike Italic people from teh harsh mountains of Italy
Towns including Pompeii and Herculaneum eventually became part of a Samnite League

Oscans founded Pompeii

400 BC

Strabo - local Italic group living in scattered settlements in Campania
Origins of Herculaneum is lost in legends associated with Heracles

Roman Samnite Wars

343 BC

Roamns entered the Campania - landed at the mouth of hte Sarno River

Roman Confederation

300 BC

the Samnite towns of Campania - each community bound to Rome by separate treaty
inhabitants were granted the status of Italian allies - entailed full rights of local self government
Strong Samnite culture until around 80 BC

3rd Century impact of Punic Wars

218 BC - 201 BC

Carthaginian general Hannibal had an effect on the Sarno Plain
many towns opened their gates to the invader but Pompeii and Herculaneum remained loyal to the Romans

Italian allies take up arms against rome

125 BC - 95 BC

Martitime trade

100 BC

Rome won control of both the western and eastern Mediterranean - Pompeii benefited from the expansion
demand for Camanian wine and oil + slavery substantially increased local agricultural productivity

The Social War

91 BC

did enormous damage to Rome

Roman interference in Pompeii

59 BC

Rioting broke out in the amphitheatre between the Pompeians and a group of visiting Nucerians

Economic and Social Impact of Julio-Claudians

27 BC

success of Octavius and the peace established bought many benefits to the cities and port of Campania as they shared in the revitalised trade between provinces

Earthquake in Pompeii

62 AD

public buildings and statues swayed and collapsed
town reservoir collapsed and water pipers broke
demolition and rebuiling program

Vesuvius Eruption

79 AD