Cold War

Cold War Europe and MIddle East

D-Day

1944

The Allied forces didn't truly gain momentum until the second half of World War II. Commonly referred to as "D-Day," the Allied forces landed on the beaches of Normandy on June 6, 1944. Their battle was a success. Throughout the next year the Allied forces experienced more military success. Germany finally surrendered on May 7, 1945. The day is often known as "V-E" or “Victory in Europe” Day.

V-E Day

1945

Victory in Europe Day (VE Day) was on May 8th 1945. VE Day officially announced the end of World War Two in Europe. On Monday May 7th at 02.41. German General Jodl signed the unconditional surrender document that formally ended war in Europe

Nuremburg Trials

1945

Trials of Nazi leaders conducted after World War II. A court set up by the victorious Allies tried twenty-two former officials, including Hermann Goering, in Nuremberg, Germany, for war crimes. Goering and eleven others were sentenced to death. Many of the highest officials of Nazi Germany, including Adolf Hitler, Joseph Goebbels, and Heinrich Himmler, had committed suicide before they could be brought to trial, and Goering killed himself before he could be executed.

Yalta Conference

1945

The Yalta Conference took place in a Russian resort town in the Crimea from February 4-11, 1945, during World War Two. At Yalta, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin made important decisions regarding the future progress of the war and the postwar world.

Iron Curtain

1946 - 1956

"Iron Curtain" is a term used to describe the boundary that separated the Warsaw Pact countries from the NATO countries from about 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. The Iron Curtain was both a physical and an ideological division that represented the way Europe was viewed after World War II. To the east of the Iron Curtain were the countries that were connected to or influenced by the former Soviet Union.

Containment

1946

Containment was suggested by diplomat George Kennon who eagerly suggested the United States stifle communist influence in Eastern Europe and Asia.

One of the ways to accomplish this was by establishing NATO so the Western European nations had a defense against communist influence.

After Vietnam and détente, President Jimmy Carter focused less on containment and more on fighting the Cold War by promoting human rights in hot spot countries.

Truman Doct.

1947

having the Truman Doctrine, President Harry S. Truman established that the United States would provide political, military and economic assistance to all democratic nations under threat from external or internal authoritarian forces.

Marshal Plan

1947 - 1951

The Marshall Plan, also known as the European Recovery Program, channeled over $13 billion to finance the economic recovery of Europe between 1948 and 1951. The Marshall Plan successfully sparked economic recovery, meeting its objective of 'restoring the confidence of the European people in the economic future of their own countries and of Europe as a whole.' The plan is named for Secretary of State George C. Marshall, who announced it in a commencement speech at Harvard University on June 5, 1947.

Berlin Airlift

1948 - 1949

On Dec. 31, 1948, Allied aircraft logged the 100,000th flight of the Berlin airlift. The airlift began after World War II when Germany was occupied territory and Berlin was surrounded by the Soviet zone. The city itself was divided into four sectors controlled by Britain, France, the United States, and the Soviet Union.

NATO

1949

NATO means (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) was, and still is, a mutual defense treaty in which all members have agreed to come to the defense of any member who is attacked by a power not part of NATO. The treaty was created in the 1950's, in order to band the western democracies together against a possible Soviet invasion of western Europe.

Geneva Acords

1954

By the middle of 1954, the French realized that they had lost. The US, which by this time was paying most of France's war expenses, was unable to persuade the French to fight on. An international conference was held in Geneva, Switzerland to discuss the problems of Indochina. On July 20 and 21, 1954, this conference produced a number of agreements that were supposed to settle the war.

Warsaw Pact

1955

The Warsaw Pact came to be seen as quite a potential militaristic threat, as a sign of Communist dominance, and a definite opponent to American capitalism. The signing of the pact became a symbol of Soviet dominance in Eastern Europe. The pact was used more as a means to keep the Soviet allies under a watchful eye than to actually make and enforce decisions. Eventually, the alliance grew to become a way to build and strengthen military forces throughout the Eastern European countries involved.

U-2

1960

Shot down by a Soviet surface to air missile on the morning of May 1, 1960, CIA pilot Francis Gary Powers had been on a top secret mission: to over fly and photograph denied territory from his U2 spy plane deep inside Russia. His fate and that of the entire U2 program remained a mystery for days. The story of the U2 incident; its prologue and aftermath reveals one of the most fascinating and compelling stories of the cold war.

Berlin Wall

1961 - 1989

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On August 13, 1961, the Communist government of the German Democratic Republic, began to build a barbed wire and concrete "Antifascistischer Schutzwall," or "antifascist bulwark," between East and West Berlin. The official purpose of this Berlin Wall was to keep Western "fascists" from entering East Germany and undermining the socialist state, but it primarily served the objective of stemming mass defections from East to West. The Berlin Wall stood until November 9, 1989, when the head of the East German Communist Party announced that citizens of the GDR could cross the border whenever they pleased.

Munich Olympic attacks

1972

The Munich Massacre was a terrorist attack during the 1972 Olympic Games. Eight Palestinian terrorists killed two members of the Israeli Olympic team and then took nine others hostage. The situation was ended by a huge gunfight that left five of the terrorists and all of the nine hostages dead.

SALT 1 and 2

1972

SALT I, as it is commonly known, was the first of the Strategic Arms Limitation talks between the U.S.S.R. and the U.S. Communist leader Leonid Brezhnev, who was the general secretary of the Soviet Communist Party, met with U.S. President Richard Nixon in November of 1969 to come up with a treaty that would contain the arms race.
In late 1972, negotiations began for SALT II and continued for seven years. Finally on June 18, 1979, in Vienna, Brezhnev and President Jimmy Carter signed the SALT II treaty. Since the two countries had developed different strategies, with the U.S.S.R. focusing on larger warheads and the U.S. concentrating on missiles with a greater accuracy, specifications of the previous treaties had to be changed.

Detente

1972

Détente means (a French word meaning release from tension) is the name given to a period of improved relations between the United States and the Soviet Union that began tentatively in 1971 and took decisive form when President Richard M. Nixon visited the secretary-general of the Soviet Communist party, Leonid I. Brezhnev, in Moscow, May 1972. Both countries stood to gain if trade could be increased and the danger of nuclear warfare reduced

Camp David Accords

1979

agreements between Israel and Egypt signed on September 17, 1978, that led in the following year to a peace treaty between those two countries, the first such treaty between Israel and any of its Arab neighbours. Brokered by U.S. Pres. Jimmy Carter between Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian Pres.

Iranian Hostage Affair

1979

On November 4, 1979, an angry mob of some 300 to 500 "students" who called themselves "Imam's Disciples," laid siege to the American Embassy in Teheran, Iran, to capture and hold hostage 66 U.S. citizens and diplomats. Although women and African-Americans were released a short time later, 51 hostages remained imprisoned for 444 days with another individual released because of illness midway through the ordeal.

Shah of Iran overthrown

1979

The Iranian military, with the support and financial assistance of the United States government, overthrows the government of Premier Mohammed Mosaddeq and reinstates the Shah of Iran. Iran remained a solid Cold War ally of the United States until a revolution ended the Shah's rule in 1979.

Iran Contra Affair

1983

secret arrangement in the 1980s to provide funds to the Nicaraguan contra rebels from profits gained by selling arms to Iran. The Iran-contra affair was the product of two separate initiatives during the administration of President Ronald Reagan. The first was a commitment to aid the contras who were conducting a guerrilla war against the Sandinista government of Nicaragua.

Perestrokia

1985

When Mikhail S. Gorbachev (1931-) became general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in March 1985, he launched his nation on a dramatic new course. His dual program of "perestroika" and "glasnost" introduced profound changes in economic practice, internal affairs and international relations.

Glasnot

1985

In the 1980s, the Soviet Union was engulfed by a multitude of problems. The economy, especially the agricultural sector, began to fall apart. The country lacked technological advancements and used inefficient factories, all while consumers were buying low-quality products and suffered from a shortage of social freedoms.

Persian Gulf War

1990 - 1991

Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein ordered the invasion and occupation of neighboring Kuwait in early August 1990. Alarmed by these actions, fellow Arab powers such as Saudi Arabia and Egypt called on the United States and other Western nations to intervene. Hussein defied United Nations Security Council demands to withdraw from Kuwait by mid-January 1991, and the Persian Gulf War began with a massive U.S.-led air offensive known as Operation Desert Storm.

Iraq/Afghanistan Invasions

2001

Anyone who lived through the Cold War will doubtless recall the shocking events surrounding the Russian invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 and the political ramifications that followed for many years.

Patriot Act

2001

Justified by many and loathed by others, the Patriot Act has withstood political attacks and public scrutiny and remains a lightning rod for constitutional struggles. This article presents an overview of the controversial legislation and discussion of possible legal consequences for attorneys defending against it.

Cold War in East Asia

Selective Service Act

1917

Gave authorization to raise a nation army for the entry of WW1

Pearl Harbor

1941

The attack on Pearl Harbor (called Hawaii Operation or Operation AI[9][10] by the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters (Operation Z in planning)[11] and the Battle of Pearl Harbor[12]) was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941 (December 8 in Japan). From the standpoint of the defenders, the attack commenced at 7:48 a.m. Hawaiian Time.[13] The attack was intended as a preventive action in order to keep the U.S. Pacific Fleet from interfering with military actions the Empire of Japan was planning in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States.

Chinese Civil War

1944 - 1947

The Chinese Civil War[nb 2] was a civil war in China fought between forces loyal to the government of the Republic of China led by the Kuomintang (KMT) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC).[6] The war began in April 1927, amidst the Northern Expedition,[7] and essentially ended when major active battles ceased in 1950. The conflict eventually resulted in two de facto states, the Republic of China (ROC) in Taiwan and the People's Republic of China (PRC) in mainland China, both claiming to be the legitimate government of China.

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

1945

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Attack was made as WW2 was ending and it has been the only time where atomic bombs have been used.

Iwo Jima

1945

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Battle where the US armed forces fought and captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Japanese

Okinawa

1945

The Battle of Okinawa, codenamed Operation Iceberg,[3] was fought on the Ryukyu Islands of Okinawa and was the largest amphibious assault in the Pacific War of World War II.[4][5] The 82-day-long battle lasted from early April until mid-June 1945. After a long campaign of island hopping, the Allies were approaching Japan, and planned to use Okinawa, a large island only 340 mi (550 km) away from mainland Japan, as a base for air operations on the planned invasion of Japanese mainland (coded Operation Downfall). Four divisions of the U.S. 10th Army (the 7th, 27th, 77th, and 96th) and two Marine Divisions (the 1st and 6th) fought on the island while the 2nd Marine Division remained as an amphibious reserve and was never brought ashore. The invasion was supported by naval, amphibious, and tactical air forces.

38th parallel

1945

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Circle of latitude in the northern hemisphere used as the pre-Korean War boundary.

Potsdam Conference

july 17, 1945 - August 9, 1945

Korean War

1950

Domino Effect

1954

The domino effect stated that if a country became communist then the countries surrounding it will soon become communist too setting of a chain reaction.

Vietnam War

November 1955 - April 1975

Viet Cong

1957

The Viet Cong, or National Liberation Front, was a political organization and army in South Vietnam and Cambodia that fought the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War (1959–1975), and emerged on the winning side. It had both guerrilla and regular army units, as well as a network of cadres who organized peasants in the territory it controlled. Many soldiers were recruited in South Vietnam, but others were attached to the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), the regular North Vietnamese army. During the war, communists and anti-war spokesmen insisted the Viet Cong was an insurgency indigenous to the South, while the U.S. and South Vietnamese governments portrayed the group as a tool of Hanoi. Although the terminology distinguishes northerners from the southerners, communist forces were under a single command structure set up in 1958.[

Gulf of Tokin Resolutions

1964

It was meant to give power so that convenient military force could be used without declaring war.

Tet Offensive

1968

The Tet Offensive was a military campaign during the Vietnam War that was launched on January 30, 1968 by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnam against South Vietnam, the United States, and their allies. It was a campaign of surprising attacks that were launched against military and civilian commands and control centers throughout South Vietnam, during a period when no attacks were supposed to take place.

Vietnamization

1969

A policy meant for the administration during the Vietnam War to expand equip and train the southerners for combat.

Pentagon Papers

1971

The Pentagon Papers, officially titled United States – Vietnam Relations, 1945–1967: A Study Prepared by the Department of Defense, is a United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political-military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967. The papers were first brought to the attention of the public on the front page of The New York Times in 1971.[1] A 1996 article in The New York Times said that the Pentagon Papers "demonstrated, among other things, that the Lyndon Baines Johnson Administration had systematically lied, not only to the public but also to Congress, about a subject of transcendent national interest and significance"

Cold War Western Hemisphere

United Nations

1945

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The United Nation is an international organization whose stated aims include promoting and facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, civil rights, civil liberties, political freedoms, democracy, and the achievement of lasting world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its missions.

HUAC

1947

Hiss,Alger

1948

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Alger Hiss was an American lawyer, government official, author, and lecturer. He was involved in the establishment of the United Nations both as a U.S. State Department and U.N. official. Hiss was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950.

Rosenberg, Julias and Ethel

1950

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US citizens that were convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage during a time of war

Duck and Cover

1957

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Method of protection against the effects of a nuclear explosion that the US taught.

Bay of Pigs

1961

The Bay of Pigs Invasion, known in Hispanic America as La Batalla de Girón, was an unsuccessful military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961. A counter-revolutionary military trained and funded by the United States government's Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Brigade 2506 fronted the armed wing of the Democratic Revolutionary Front (DRF) and intended to overthrow the revolutionary leftist government of Fidel Castro. Launched from Guatemala, the invading force was defeated by the Cuban armed forces, under the command of Prime Minister Fidel Castro, within three days.

Cuban Missile Crisis

1962

The Cuban Missile Crisis — known as the October crisis in Cuba and the Caribbean crisis (Russian: Kарибский кризис, tr. Karibskiy krizis) in the USSR — was a 13-day confrontation between the Soviet Union and Cuba on one side, and the United States on the other, in October 1962. It was one of the major confrontations of the Cold War, and is generally regarded as the moment in which the Cold War came closest to turning into a nuclear conflict.[2] It is also the first documented instance of the threat of mutual assured destruction (MAD) being discussed as a determining factor in a major international arms agreement.[3][4]

Cold War Competition

CIA vs. KGB

1951

They were both spy groups that had to carry out missions KGB for Russia and CIA for US

Nuclear Arms Race

1952

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Competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between countries. US,Russia,Cuba

H-Bomb Test in US and USSR

1952

ICBM

1957

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A ballistic missile with a range of more than 5.000 kilometers typically designed for nuclear weapons delivery.

NASA

1958

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Agency of the US that is responsible for the nations civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research.

Space Race

1961

Competition between US and USSR for supremacy in space exploration.

John Glenn

1962

Strategic Defense Initiative

1984