Here are the topics we are going to learn this year. We hope this helps you.
A treaty that was signed between the United Kingdoms and Belgium. This instated that Belgium would remain neutral during war, and confirmed Belgium's independence.
A treaty signed between Austria-Hungry and Germany. This treaty, meant to limit war, would ensure that Austria-Hungary and Germany would aide each other in the chance that either was attacked by Russia.
Hitler is born in Austria Hungary.
An alliance between the French Third Republic and the Russian Empire. This alliance ended the isolation of France, and would overpower the 'supremacy' of the German empire, and allowed France to be a principal ally of Russia.
Grand Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz created four Fleets acts, which went from 1898 to 1912 and 1902 to 1910. During the arms race, the focus was on creating more ships like the 'Dreadnought', which was created by the Royal Navy. The race was abandoned byt the Germans before war erupted, but was a factor that lead the United Nations to join the Triple Entente.
The convention was propsed on August 29th, 1898 and opened on May 18th, 1899, which was the Tsar's birthday. The convention ended on July 29th, 1899, and the treaties, declarations and acts 'came into force, on September 4th, 1900. The convention covered the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the laws to be followed in all wars on land between signatories, the protection of marked hospital ships and how hospital ships must treat all wounded and shipwrecked sailors, the declaration that no missiles of explosives shall be launched from balloons "or by other new methods of a similar nature," the declaration that requires all parties in a war must avoid using projectiles "the sole object of which is the diffusion of asphyxiating or deleterious gases," and the declaration that all parties in a war must avoid using "bullets which expand or flatten easily in the human body."
The Boxer Rebellion was an anti-foreign, proto-nationalist movement by the Righteous Harmony Society in China. The happened during drought and economic disruption in response to growth of foreign spheres of influence.
The first president of the 20th C. progressive leader and builder of Panama Canal
Started by the French in the 1880's. Symbolizes the US technological and geopolitical aspirations for the 20th c.
The developed based off the geography of German, in which Germany was located against two of it's enemies, France and Russia. The plan called for German mobilization through e Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Belgium, which would then head into France for an invasion. This plan was a prepared pre-emptive strike in order for the Germans to launch an assault before the Russians could plan the first attack.
This conference was meant to expand upon the points made during the First Hague Convention. This conference expanded upon the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the limitation of the employment of force for recovery of contract debts, the procedure for a declaration of war, the respect of the laws of war, the rights and duties of a neutral party during war, the legal position of enemy merchant ships when hostilities arise, laying automatic submarine contact mines, bombardment of naval forces, adaptation of marinetime warfare on the principles of the Geneva Convention, restrictions on the right to capture enemy soldiers during war, the International Prize Court, prohibiting projectile explosives from being launched by balloons.
The crisis started when Austria-Hungary announced it had annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina. The crisis did not end until the April of 1909, when the Treaty of Berlin was amended. The act of annexnation by Austro-Hungary lead to bad relations between Russia and Serbia.
President during Progressive Era. A more effective trust buster than Roosevelt. Known for Dollar Diplomacy with Latin America.
This was a time of international tension between Russia and Austria, and this also led to the downfall of Turkey and Bulgaria, which allowed Serbia to gain power. This led to a disruption of power within Europe which favored Russia.
The 1911 Wuchang Uprising of the New Army ended with the overthrow of the Empress Dowager Longyu and the infant Puyi on February 12, 1912. Despite the declaration of the Republic of China, the generals would continue to fight amongst themselves for the next several decades during the Warlord Era.
The Kuomintang refer reverentially to founder Sun Yat-sen as the "Father of the Nation." The party played a significant part in the first Chinese first National Assembly where is was the majority party. However the KMT failed to achieve complete control.
President with Moral Diplomacy foreign policy
Created 14 Points
Died trying to ratify Treaty of Versailles
Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir tot he Austro-Hungarian throne, was killed in Sarajevo, on June 28th, by a Serbian Nationalist.
Issued on July 23rd, 1914 in response tot he assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The Ultimatum demanded that the Serbian government suppress all anti-Austria-Hungary propaganda, to allow Austria-Hungary to inquire about who killed the Archduke, and to eliminate terrorists groups in Serbia. Serbia did not follow these demands, choosing to ignore the ultimatium, leading Austria-Hungary to declare on Serbia.
signed between Britain, France and Russia, in which it was agreed in the event of a successful conclusion of the war the former Ottoman lands of Palestine, Jordan and Iraq would become mandates for Britain, France would take control of Lebanon and Syria, whilst Russian would take large areas of Eastern Turkey and Istanbul.
British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour sends a letter to Lord Rothschild, President of the Zionist Federation, declaring his government would "view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people".
Lenin is elected chairman and Trotsky and Stalin also come to power.
Germany and Russia were both less than pleased with the results that World War One yielded- Germany was left in an economic and political train wreck, and Russia had to remove itself from the conflict. The breakout of World War Two could have been encouraged by the unresolved aims of the two nations.
American forces infected with the influenza virus spread the virus to Europe and eventually around the world. The virus was mistakenly referred to as the "spanish flu" and spread easily because many people were weakened from famines during the war. Roughly 50 million people worldwide died from the flu pandemic.
Wilson's idealistic goals for foreign policy that lacked practicality needed to be implemented, but helped to pressure the German's to surrender. Wilson's fourteen points pushed the US towards a "return to normalcy" after WWI because they were too idealistic.
A separate peace agreement that ended the war between Germany and Russia. Lenin ordered the Bolsheviks to secure this agreement to end the war so that they could focus on the work they needed to do in Russia.
The Allies maintained a naval blockade on Germany after the war, which was detrimental because Germany relied on imports. Therefore, the blockade resulted in roughly 523,000 deaths due to the lack of food and further problems for the German economy.
Benito Mussolini forms the Fascist movement in Milan Italy.
A. Mitchell Palmer epitomized the 'return to normalcy' when he deported socialist, anarchists, and other people considered political undesirables. This was a part of the first red scare.
Black Shirts: Military tool for Mussolini’s political movement. They used violence and intimidation against Mussolini’s opponents, were used throughout Mussolini's regime.
The US became isolationist, nativist, and ended Progressive Era reforms.
The US becoming more isolationist failed to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. The Lodge reservationists were particularly against Article X of the T of V which required all nations to intervene in violations of the treaty. This was the collective security clause.
The establishment of a federal republic and parliamentary democracy, which replaced Kaiser Wilhelm’s authoritarian regime.
The League of Nations was unable to effectively prevent acts of war because it did not involve all nations, it lacked an army, it could not rapidly make decisions, and it was essentially powerless. Its unsuccessfulness was demonstrated by its inability to handle Italian imperialism in Ethiopia.
An international government organization founded after WWI at the Paris Peace Conference. It goals were to solve disputes through negotiations and prevent wars with collective security and disarmament. The United States did not join the League of Nations because of the collective security requirement in Article X.
The Treaty of Versailles confiscated territory from Germany, labeled Germany with all the blame for WWI through the War Guilt Clause, forced it to pay heavy reparations, limited its arms, and blocked it from the League of Nations. The treaty alienated Germany, and left it in a state of crippling debt- a state that encouraged the election of Hitler. The tension that grew from the establishment of the Treaty of Versailles set the stage for WWII.
This treaty was signed at the Paris Peace Conference and ended WWI between Germany and the Allied Powers. It contained the war-guilt clause which made Germany accept the blame for causing WWI and also made Germany pay hefty reparations which damaged their economy.
Young Western women in the 1920s began to have more modern values and move away from strict traditional values. These new values were embodied by the “Flappers” the term for these new age women. Flappers originated during the liberal period of the Roaring Twenties.
The Nazi Party is formed, with Hitler giving emotional speeches between February and March.
Allies occupied Constantinople (istanbul) and the Ottoman empire collapsed. The Allies signed the Treaty of Sevres on August 10, 1920 to dismember the remaining Ottoman territories. The break-up of the Ottoman Empire helped to create the modern Middle East and resulted in increased hostilities in that region (a long term cause of the Arab-Israeli conflict)
The 19th amendment granted women the right to vote, also known as women’s suffrage.
The first of three Republican presidents. Considered one of the least effective presidents. Mired in scandal.
The founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Has official commitment to communism and Marxism-Leninism
Russia and Germany agree to normalize relations and work toward economic and military cooperation.
An annual rally of the Nazi Party, used as propaganda to challenge the Weimar Government. Attended by Brown Shirts (slang term for Nazi), Aryan Supremacists (ideal race), Hitler Youth (parliamentary), and those who challenged the Treaty of Versailles.
Acerbo Law: Gave Mussolini’s fascist party a majority of deputies. This allowed Mussolini’s reign to be uninhibited by proportional representation that would allow him to have a clear majority. Allowed at duel leadership with King Victor Emmanuel III. Italian industrialists realized that they needed to align themselves with Mussolini to maintain their market share.
"The business of America is business" President during the economic boom of the 1920's.
Also known as Beer Hall Putsch. A failed attempt made by Hitler to take power. Hitler is imprisoned, and he writes “Mein Kampf” while in prison.
Limited immigration from countries considered a threat to US. Eastern European nations and Russia in particular.This restrictive immigration policy stayed in effect with minor alterations until 1965.
Due to the assembly line and other economic factors such as deregulation and the advent of consumer credit the US economy expands at unprecedented rates.
An attempt to solve the problem of Germany's reparations, which were damaging international politics. The plan staggered reparation payments and ended Allied occupation of the Ruhr industrial area of Germany that was causing hyperinflation.
Government successfully maneuvered the German Government through an economic depression, hyperinflation, and the Ruhr Crisis, reestablishing a sense of “normalcy” by 1929.
Sought to secure post-war territorial agreements and improve relations with the defeated Germany. These resulted in the "Spirit of Locarno", which was a renewed optimism that resulted from improved relations.
A conference to extend the naval limitations already put in place by the Washington Naval Treaty which limited the construction of battleships and air craft carriers, but not cruisers, destroyers, or submarines.
Chiang instigated the April 12 Incident of 1927 in Shanghai in which the Communist Party of China and Communist elements of the KMT were purged. The capital of China was moved to Nanjing in order to be closer to the party's strong base in southern China.
The war began in April 1927, amidst the Northern Expedition. The war represented an ideological split (Left vs. Right) between the Communist CPC, and the KMT's brand of Nationalism.
Stalin focuses on the development of iron, steel, machine-tools, electric power, and transport. He demanded a 115% increase in productivity from workers.
A disarmament treaty signed by the US, British, and France attempting to dissuade nations from going to war.
Invasion of Ethiopia: Mussolini aimed to restore the old glory of the Roman Empire by annexing Ethiopia into Italy's newly formed East African colony. Exposed the weak bond that the League of Nations was founded on, because both Italy and Ethiopia were members but the league itself failed to prevent invasion.
After Lenin's death, Stalin become the ruler of the USSR
Adolf Hitler, one of the driving forces of the conflict of WWII, rises to power in 1933 when Gustav Stresemann's Weimar Republic collapses in the late 1920s as a result of the economic turmoil that resulted from the war. The desperate disposition of Germans affected by the depression provided the perfect circumstances for the election of a right-winged politician like Hitler.
President during the beginning of the Great Depression. Laissez-faire attitude results in the deepening of the Great Depression.
The US economy was based too much on speculation by 1929. The major industries(steel, automobiles, appliances) contracted by 1928 but the markets continued to expand into 1929.!
To jumpstart the USSR, Stalin collectivizes farms and forces people to work for the state.
During the 1930s, women began to work outside of the home more than ever before, because of the large amount of men having to leave the workforce to serve in the war. The symbol of empowerment for these women was known as “Rosie the Riveter.”
Hoover's 'rugged individualism' was ineffective in transforming the economic collapse. Hoover begins providing big business with governmental assistance. The RFC is seen as a prototype for the New Deal.
The New York's Bank of the United States crashes which is the largest single bank failure in the nation's history. The bank had over $200 million in deposits.
The Reconstruction Finance Corporation establishment worked on rebuilding the failing areas of America. This lent over $2 billion to banks, agricultural credit organizations, railroads, building associations, loan associations, and insurance companies.
Veterans camped in DC to protest and demand veteran benefits they were not being provided. Hoover tells the mass that they need to abandon their encampment by July 24th and forcibly moves them out on July 28th, 2 veterans are killed.
President during the Great Depression. Re-invented the role of the federal government with the New Deal. President during WWII.
Considered one of the three great US presidents.
Following the ratification of the 19th amendment, women were able to hold positions in the presidents’ cabinet. The first woman cabinet member was Frances Perkins, appointed by FDR in 1933. This was the beginning of many women being able to hold cabinet positions in the years to come.
A decree established by Hindenburg in response to the Reichstag Fire. The decree limited citizens rights, and was used to imprison Nazi opposition.
FDR is inaugurated and the first thing he does is compromise with congress on a plan to help the banking system. On March 9th congress passed the Emergency Banking Act. On March 12th FDR begins his influential and encouraging "fireside chats"
The second large step after RFD to claim dictatorial power. This allowed Hitler and his cabinet the ability to enact laws without Reichstag.
Conference to promote global cooperation during the Great Depression. FDR doesn't attend due to focus on New Deal. Other European nations create global cooperation. Some European nations promote economic nationalism through
Civilian Conservation Corps is a method of relief for young men between the ages of 17 and 27. They are provided with more chances of employment with national forests, parks, and federal land.
National Industrial Recovery Act: designated to maintain price and wage controls
Tennessee Valley Authority: A hydroelectric program that aids with many natural projects involving agriculture and parks/forests
Civil Works Administration is established and attempts to employ up to 4 million people. This administration also helps build up schools, parks, roads, highways, airports, and hospitals.
A German film director that made a documentary of the Nazi party in 1934. Her career was destroyed after WWII because of her involvement with Hitler. “Triumph of the Will”.
Hitler began increasing his military forces in secret. He developed warships, German air forces, and a compulsory military service. Such acts increased tension within the region.
Just when the economy was starting to improve, a three day storm blows off 350 million tons of terrain off the West and Southwest and carries it into New York and other areas of the East. This effected the American agricultural industry greatly.
A purge in Germany, which consisted of the murders of political leaders who could have possibly have challenged Hitler.
Regardless the restrictions of the treaty, Hitler begins to rearm Germany to increase the nation's protection.
Lateran Treaty: Ended the arguments between the papacy and the Italian government. The papacy recognized the state of Italy, with Rome as its capital. Italy in return recognized papal sovereignty over the Vatican City, and secured full independence for the pope. Papacy recognized Mussolini as the leader of the state of Italy (accepting a fascist society). If the church agrees with the regime, it gives the regime more legitimacy.
Hitler decides to ignore the Treaty of Versailles, and reoccupy the land that it took from Germany- land that Germany had been economically dependent on. Hitler started with Rhineland, which was then followed by the reclaiming of Austria and Sudetenland.
Anyone considered an "enemy of the state" was executed or put into work camps. This included regular citizens, but most notably, many young leaders in low rankings.
Prime Minister of Britain, Neville Chamberlain, outwardly recognized that the Treaty of Versailles was unfair towards Germany. From this acknowledgement came the idea of "Appeasement", which was the act of giving in to Hitler's seemingly-reasonable requests. However, the Policy of Appeasement quickly got out of hand, and the region accelerated towards the beginning of WWII.
Second Red Scare provides opportunities for the HUAC to become more active in persecutions
Meaning “living space”. This was one of Hitler’s political ploys and a part of the Nazi ideology that German people need more space and lesser races were taking up that space.
Nazi Germany’s occupation and Annexation of Austria
Hitler pursues one of the early acts of violence of WWII when he leads the German forces in invading Czechoslovakia. Conflict between Czechoslovakia, and France and Russia increases when France and Russia both fail to offer assistance that had been promised to Czechoslovakia in case of attack years before.
A pact between Germany, Italy, France, and Great Britain which appeased the countries and formed an alliance.
A mob attack against jews throughout Nazi Germany.
Pact of Steel: Germany and Italy's pact of friendship and alliance based on the assumption that war would break out in the next three years. It tied economic, military, and foreign policies together. Hitler looked up to Mussolini because Mussolini set the "tone" for what a fascist society should look like.
The systematic plan to annihilate the Jewish race, to be led by Heinrich Himmler. After Eisenstadt Gruppen complained about psychological affect of mass killing the Final Solution was put into place.
An agreement was made between the Soviets and Germans that the USSR would not be invaded as long the USSR did not open a second front. However, the pact was broken when the Germans invaded.
Hitler's invasion of Poland was the principal starting point of World War Two. Through invading Poland, Hitler aimed to increase "lebensraum", discourage Chamberlain's actions, and prevent Polish resistance towards Germany.
Stalin's successes as a leader were glorified as he was seen to be a protector of the USSR.
FDR is the only president that serves three terms each term enacting more laws and legislation's. His success with his New Deal's are what made him more successful than any of the politicians that went against him.
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps. Auschwitz was the largest of the Nazi concentration camps and included Auschwitz I (the base camp); Auschwitz II–Birkenau (the extermination camp); Auschwitz II (a labor camp); and 45 satellite camps. About 1.3 million people died at Auschwitz.
Pearl Harbor was bombed by Japan. This was an attack on American soil, and it drew the Americans into World War II. MAJOR turning point.
Project by the US government and military, aided by the UK and Canada, to create the first atomic bomb. In 1945, the goal of developing an atom bomb was achieved, and "Fat Boy", the name of the bomb, was detonated on July 16, 1945 in a New Mexico Desert. Successful testing led to the development of the 2 atomic bombs used on Japan to conclude World War 2.
The battle is considered to be the bloodiest in modern history with over 2 million casualties. It was the first large-scale defeat of the Nazis, and became Stalin's "claim to fame" as a successful Soviet Leader.
Stalin was desperate to create a "second front" in order to lessen Germany's impact on the soviet army. By enacting a full scale invasion of western Europe, Stalin was able to free the eastern Germany border and ultimately causing the USA to slip north through France and encourage Germany's surrender.
Mussolini Arrested and Imprisoned. In July 1943, Allied troops landed in Sicily. Mussolini was overthrown and imprisoned by his former colleagues in the Fascist government.
At these conferences (Tehran, Yalta, and Potsdam), Germany, Poland, Eastern Europe, Japan, and the UN were discussed by the Allies. One of the decisions was that elections in all European countries would be democratic and based on free elections (which would later be violated by the USSR).
USA, UK, and USSR during WW2
The USSR and the USA were both top competitors for the ultimate world superpower. WIth Japan's WWII influence, the use of atomic bombs upon Hiroshima and Nagasaki were viewed essential by americans to end WWII. The Arms Race consisted of large amount of national capital from both nations spent on nuclear missile research.
The horrors of WWII forced Stalin to use all of the nation's resources, including the church. He opened churches and allowed services to increase the people's morale during the war.
American and Allied forces landed in Normandy, France and began advancing on Berlin, Germany. This was a major turning point in WWII
Russia had an estimated death of 26.6 combined soldiers and civilians. This high number of deaths is especially astonishing when considering that there were some 8.7 million military causalities.
Communism and Capitalism were in a driven competition to spread their way of governing. The wrecked nations of Europe were prime targets considering their need to rebuild.
The USSR was in control of many Eastern European states, creating a "satellite empire." They were tied to Moscow by military power, Salami tactics, state police and spy networks, and COMECON.
The postwar capitalism boom was a period in America's history of which societal and technological advancements were made following the termination of the second world war.
German in charge of propaganda in Nazi Germany. Goebbels used radio broadcasts and movies to spread his views amongst a wide variety of people. Goebbels presented Hitler as a god to increase his popularity and authority.
President at the end of WWII. Truman Doctrine and containment theory are major parts of Cold War foreign policy.
Deportation and mass evacuations were enacted due to border disputes of affiliation disputes. Families and friends were separated by not only borders but also government association.
The Creation of the UN was prompted by the League of Nation's inability to sustain world peace.
Hitler kills himself as Russian troops advanced on Berlin.
Mussolini was then killed by communist partisans. After being shot, kicked, and spat upon, the bodies were hung upside down on meathooks from the roof of an Esso gas station. The bodies were then stoned by civilians from below. This was done both to discourage any Fascists from continuing the fight and as an act of revenge for the hanging of many partisans in the same place by Axis authorities.
VE Day is the public holiday to mark the date when the World War II Allies formally accepted the unconditional surrender of the armed forces of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitler's Third Reich, thus ending the war in Europe.
Trinity is the code name for the project which detonated the world first atomic bomb. At 5:30 A.M, the bomb was dropped from a 100 foot steel structure for detonation. Instantaneously following the detonation, temperature rose to 10,000,000 degrees, and devastated any life form within a half mile radius of the explosion. The successful explosion gave the green light for the use of atomic bombs in Japan
On this date, the "Big Three", Truman, Stalin, and Churchill, met in Potsdam Germany to discuss arrangement following the war, as well as further plans in the war with Japan. Negotiations revolving around how to handle Germany were prominent. Agreement were made, including disarmament of Germany.
On August 6, 1945, an American bomber, named "Enola Gay", dropped an atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima, in Japan. The explosion directly killed 80,000 people, and completely destroyed 90% of the city. Throughout the years following the bombing, tens of thousands of more people died as a result of radiation exposure from the bomb. 3 days following the Hiroshima bombing, a second atom bomb was dropped in the city of Nagasaki, Japan. The event killed 40,000.
Within the first two to four months of the bombings, the acute effects killed 90,000–166,000 people in Hiroshima and 60,000–80,000 in Nagasaki, with roughly half of the deaths in each city occurring on the first day. The Hiroshima health department estimated that, of the people who died on the day of the explosion, 60% died from flash or flame burns, 30% from falling debris and 10% from other causes. In a US estimate of the total immediate and short term cause of death, 15–20% died from radiation sickness, 20–30% from burns, and 50–60% from other injuries, compounded by illness. In both cities, most of the dead were civilians.
On September 2, 1945, a formal surrender ceremony was performed in Tokyo Bay, Japan, aboard the battleship USS Missouri.
The US has the number one air force in the world as a result of the second world war. The USSR has the strongest army in the world.
A period immediately after the second World War in which Americans expanded their population dramatically due to the prosperous economy and availability of resource.
The US diplomat in Moscow, George Kennan, sent a telegram to the US about Soviet's foreign policy. It stated that the USSR's view of the world was that of insecurity, the Soviets wanted to advance Stalinist ideology, and that the Soviet regime was cruel and repressive. He also claimed that the USSR was frantically hostile to the west.
In this speech, Churchill commented on the Soviet-dominated communist governments in Eastern Europe, which violated the Yalta Conference agreements that there would be free and democratic elections. It is considered one of the defining moments of the Cold War.
Stalin responded to the Iron Curtain Speech with outrage, comparing Churchill to Hitler. He withdrew from the IMF and stepped up propaganda. He also initiated the five-year strengthening plan. This led to further tension between the USSR and the US.
Instills fear into Americans known as the Second Red Scare
Truman made a speech to the US Congress in which he said that the US had the obligation to "support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside forces." The US was no longer isolationist, and the USSR interpreted this as the US trying to expand its sphere of influence.
This new constitution was a parliamentary system of government that ensured fundamental human rights. This constitution forever changed Japan in that it made the role of an emperor entirely ceremonial. The Marshall plan was the United States' solution to rebuilding Europe. The USA provided 13 billion dollars in full attempt of deterring communism.
George Marshall, the US Secretary of State, believed that the economies of Western Europe needed immediate help from the US, so it followed the Truman Doctrine by providing $17 billion in aid to these countries.
The Soviets viewed the Marshall Plan as dollar imperialism, claiming that the US was trying to establish a European empire. They responded with the Molotov Plain, attempting to tie the economies of Eastern Europe to the USSR's economy.
An unofficial list of screenwriters, actors, actresses, directors, musicians, and other entertainment professionals that were denied employment and fired from current jobs because of their Communist political beliefs or if they were suspected of Communist political beliefs.
Czechoslovakia had expressed interest in receiving aid from the Marshall Plan. This worried Stalin, so he organized pressure on the Czechoslovak coalition government. Non-Communist members were forced to resign, and the prime minister found mysteriously dead. This resulted in the passing of the Marshall Plan in the US Congress, and tension increased.
Germany and Berlin had been divided between the superpowers after WWII. The US had to go through East Germany to get into Berlin. As tension increased, Stalin blocked US access into Berlin. The US airlifted supplies in, and Stalin eventually lifted the blockade, but tension had significantly increased.
In this position he converted China into a single-party socialist state, with industry and business being nationalized under state ownership and socialist reforms implemented in all areas of society.
Hiss was a highly ranked member of the State Department and plead innocence till his death in 1996 while he was incarcerated.
Code named "First Lightning", the Soviets detonate their first atomic bomb at a test site in Kazakhstan. The "First Trinity" was similar in size to the American "Trinity" bomb. US spy planes detected radiation on September 3, an indicator of the successful detonation. A key scientist used in the US's creation of Atomic weaponry was charged with treason for sharing blueprints and knowledge with Soviet scientist.
US has has nearly 25000 nuclear warheads, while the Soviets have less than 5000
Following WWII, domestic stability had finally become attainable for American families. The stability led many people to achieve the luxury of comfortable raising a family. This increased the number of children women had, and then led to a greater number of women staying home to be housewives.
McCarthy reveals the names of 9 alleged Communists in the State Department, the committee does not find any truth in his allegations but the press provides ample coverage positively impacting the popularity of McCarthyism
North Korea invades the South. North Korea is communist.
Korea is an “authoritarian” democracy. North Korea pushes South Korea troops to Pusan perimeter, also called the 38th parallel. This attack immediately got the US involved that immediately produced heavy military and naval involvement.
A proxy war is a war that results when opposing powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly. The Korean War was a proxy war because Truman replaced the US with UN troops (the US fights under the UN flag), who were lead by Douglas MacArthur.
US manages to fight under the UN flag (UN allowed to step in as a proxy). The Korean War is a limited war because President Truman purposely limited US resources. This is because he fears MAD (mutually assured destruction) and an escalating war with China. Using the UN Police Action. "The wrong war, in the wrong place, at the wrong time."
Douglas MacArthur leads a UN action and cuts off supply lines of North Korean troops.
Truman does not want to bring the Chinese into the war. MacArthur wants a larger regional war to end communism. Chinese invade North Korea and US troops are trapped in North Korea.
Pled not guilty as they were charged with conspiracy to commit espionage in 1951. Both were executed in 1953.
Truman dismissed MacArthur for insubordination.
Kim Il Sung was the North Korean leader and hoped to unify Korean peninsula. He needed help of Soviets and Chinese to achieve this. The Korean War was not Stalin’s idea, rather Sung.
President during the end of the Korean War, McCarthyism, Peaceful Coexistence with Khrushchev, and the beginning of the Space Race with the launch of Sputnik.
After a two-year stalemate and 50,000 US casualties a cease fire is signed. A peace treaty is never signed. technically North and South Korea are still at war.
Brown versus Board of Education (1954) was the decisive Supreme Court case that made segregation in public school illegal.
Republican party now worried that the accusations have become ridiculous. Decline in support.
The French, who had occupied the region called French Indochina since the 1880's, are defeated by the Vietminh and North Vietnamese Army. The Vietminh were the freedom fighters in North Vietnam that largely supported Communism. The French decide to withdraw from the region, leaving a void that the U.S. would soon fill.
The U.S.'s involvement in Vietnam was mainly a product of the Domino Theory. Eisenhower described the situation in Vietnam after the French were defeated at Dien Bien Phu: "You have a row of dominoes set up. You knock over the first one, and what will happen to the last one is the certainty that it will go over very quickly." The U.S. was afraid that if Communism was not stopped, it would continue to spread, slowly taking over all of Southeast Asia and beyond.
Quote: "Joseph R. McCarthy... tended to bring the Senate into dishonor and disrepute, to obstruct the constitutional processes of the Senate and to impair its dignity, and such conduct is hereby condemned."
(Montgomery, Alabama) Rosa Parks is arrested after she refuses to give up her seat on the bus to a white passenger. In protest of her arrest, the Montgomery black community organized a bus boycott, which lasted more than a year until the buses were desegregated on December 21st, 1956. Martin Luther King Jr leads the boycott.
Israel invaded Egypt's Sinai Peninsula with covert assent from France and Britain. The European nations had economic and trading interests in the Suez Canal, while Israel wanted to reopen the canal for Israeli shipping and end Egyptian-supported fedayeen incursions and attacks. Israel completely withdrew six months later when Egypt assured Israel unimpeded navigation and safety.
(Little Rock, Arkansas)
Central High School, an all-white school, is integrated, but the nine black students are blocked from entering the school by orders from Governor Oral Faubus. President Eisenhower sends federal troops and the National Guard to back up the nine students, who would later be known as the “Little Rock Nine.”
Martin Luther King Jr, Charles K. Steele, and Fred L. Shuttlesworth created the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. The SCLC encouraged peaceful protests and civil disobedience.
The Soviet R-7 Semyorka was the world's first Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM). The modified rocket helped launch Sputnik, the first artificial satellite, on October 4. The R-7 rocket family was used extensively during the Space Race.
The USSR starts the space race by launching beach-ball sized satellite. US feels as if they have fallen behind the USSR because they haven't successfully launched an ICBM-like rocket.
Laika was a Soviet space dog that became one of the first animals in space. She was the first animal to orbit the Earth. Her survival was unlikely, and she died hours after launch from overheating.
The Great Leap Forward was an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China. Private farming was prohibited, and those engaged in it were labeled as counter revolutionaries and persecuted.
The first US satellite, Explorer I, was the American response to the Soviet Sputnik. It was more advanced and is famous for discovering the Van Allen radiation belts surrounding Earth. The launch of this satellite officially began the Space Race between the two nations.
This act replaced the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) and replaced it with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA was a distinctly civilian agency, as opposed to the military NACA. The agency became operational on October 1, 1958.
This spacecraft was the first to leave geocentric orbit, reach the vicinity of the Moon and orbit the Sun. It was also the first satellite to detect solar wind, or ionized plasma emitted from the sun.
1960- Greensboro, North Carolina)
Black students from the North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College initiate a sit-in at a segregated lunch counter at Woolworth’s. They are refused service but are allowed to stay at the counter.
The event triggers many similar nonviolent protests throughout the South. Six months later the original four protesters are served lunch at the same Woolworth's counter. Student sit-ins would be effective throughout the Deep South in integrating parks, swimming pools, theaters, libraries, and other public facilities. https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/3iLc8Hnx31cmUqVJjC5gEgk-w3YPikWlXekjA23Jeuh6lKZRyWTNmkd1TqaH1NpXcssJ9duvkEBxXwIqYYtvi4aEm2G5de8SM3NopwOU2yMmZxU22RdAWDR_yQ
Brought on in part by Betty Friedan’s “Feminine Mystique,” the second wave of feminism, known as the Women's Liberation Movement came as a fairly delayed reaction against the vast domesticity of women after WWII.
The North Vietnamese Army (NVA) begin using the Ho Chi Minh Trail to carry weapons and supplies to the South, where Communist surges have begun. In 1960, the Vietcong (VC) is formed, the South Communist Force that wages guerrilla war on the U.S. troops.
New generation, "Camelot". President during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Assassinated in November of 1963.
Student volunteers take bus trips through the South to see if new laws that prohibit segregation in interstate travel sites were being upheld. These volunteers were called “freedom riders,” and were often attacked on their rides. The program was sponsored by The Congress of Racial Equality and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.
Yuri Gagarin became the first human being in space when his Vostok spacecraft completed an orbit of Earth. He became an international celebrity and was awarded many medals and titles, including the Hero of the Soviet Union, the nation's highest honor.
A group of Cuban exiles, backed by the US, invades Cuba at the Bay of Pigs in a failed attempt to trigger an anti-Castro rebellion
The first human spaceflight by the USA was the Freedom 7 mission with Alan Shepard as the astronaut. It was also the first spaceflight to be controlled by the pilot: Gagarin never controlled his spacecraft.
Khrushchev and Kennedy hold summit talks in Vienna regarding the Cuban Missile Crisis.
The Strategic Hamlet Program was President Kennedy's attempt to "win the hearts and minds of the locals" in South Vietnam. This program involved moving families from their homes into regions protected by U.S. troops. However, it was a culturally insensitive program that ultimately failed because the Vietnamese had strong ancestral ties to their homes.
Soviet Foreign Minister, Andrei Gromyko, warns that an American attack on Cuba could mean war with the Soviet Union.
The Cuban Missile Crisis is often regarded as the closest the Cold War ever came to evolving into a nuclear war, and thus instating MAD, or Mutually Assured Destruction. US spy planed photographed a missile in Cuba, just 90 miles from the US. The US perceived this as a threat by the Soviets, which is why the situation evolved to be the closest the Cold War came to nuclear warfare
The Joint Chiefs of Staff strongly advise Kennedy to make an air strike
Congressional leaders are shown the photographic evidence of the Soviet missile Cuban installations and the President addresses the nation regarding the Cuban crisis.
U.S. military forces go to DEFCON 3
JFK sends a letter to Khrushchev placing the responsibility for the crisis on the Soviet Union.
Khrushchev sends a letter to President Kennedy proposing to remove his missiles if Kennedy publicly announces never to invade Cuba.
Khrushchev announces over Radio Moscow that he has agreed to remove the missiles from Cuba.
In return the US agrees to the withdrawal of US nuclear missiles from Turkey ending the Cuban Missile Crisis.
This nonfiction book first published in 1963 was widely credited with leading to the second wave of feminism in the US. It criticized the post WWII domestic lifestyle that most women lived, among other astute claims about women in America.
Ngo Dinh Diem, the President of South Vietnam, was fiercely Catholic despite a large Buddhist population in the region. He imposed harsh laws and policies that marginalized Buddhist representation in the area, such as removing Buddhist government leaders from office and replacing them with Catholics. The Buddhists protested through several ways including self-immolation. The U.S. did not approve of Diem’s leadership, and the CIA gave instructions for his murder which were carried out by the South Vietnamese army in 1963.
President during the escalation of the Vietnam War. He waged a war against communism in Vietnam while waging a war against poverty in the US(Great Society Programs)
Valentina Tereshkova became both the first civilian and the first woman to fly in space when she piloted the Vostok 2 spacecraft.
Washington, D.C- The March on Washington- 200,00 people march on Washington, meeting at the Lincoln Memorial, and Martin Luther King Jr delivers his “I Have a Dream” speech.
President Johnson employed many military tactics in an effort to destroy his communist enemies. These included Agent Orange, which consisted of spraying defoliants in orange cans that would expose Vietcong (VC) roads and trails. The U.S. troops also conducted search-and-destroy missions; they used new technology such as helicopters to seek out the enemy, destroy as many soldiers as possible, and then withdraw from the location. Most of the fighting during the Vietnam war was made very difficult due to the VC and NVA using guerrilla tactics and tunnel systems along with the Ho Chi Minh trail that helped them evade the U.S. soldiers fairly easily and made tracking the enemy incredibly difficult for the American and Vietnamese anti-communist fighters.
The 24th Amendment abolishes the poll tax, which originally had been established in southern states after Reconstruction in order to make it difficult for poor blacks to vote.
The Palestine Liberation Organization is founded in Cairo by the Arab League with Ahmad Shuqeiri as its leader. Even though Ahmad Shuqeiri is the official leader, the organization is more or less controlled by the Egyptian government. The PLO states their goal as the destruction of the State of Israel through armed struggle, and replacing it with an "independent Palestinian state" between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea. Others around the world, including the first airplane hijackings.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 gets signed by President Johnson. The Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination of all kinds based on race, color, religion, or national origin. The law also provides the federal government with the powers to enforce desegregation.
In August, North Vietnamese torpedoes allegedly fired on a U.S. ship in the Gulf of Tonkin. After this event, Congress gave President Johnson full permission to take the necessary actions to protect the U.S. forces in Vietnam. Johnson used the incident as an excuse to escalate the war in an effort to defeat communism in Southeast Asia. Because Johnson had been waiting to justify escalation, there has since been evidence to suggest that the event might not have happened and the U.S. Congress with Johnson may have fabricated the course of events.
Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965, making it easier for Southern black people to register to vote. Literacy tests, poll taxes, and other restrictions that were used to obstruct black people from voting are made illegal.
The first extra-vehicular activity, in this case a "spacewalk", was performed by Alexey Leonov. He exited the Voskhod 2 spacecraft and conducted a 12-minute spacewalk.
This organization founded in 1966 was developed within the Women’s Liberation movement to further the advancement of women in society. Founders include Betty Friedan, the writer of the “Feminine Mystique.” The group was well known for advocating the Equal Rights Amendment.
Set into motion by Mao Zedong, then Chairman of the Communist Party of China, its stated goal was to enforce communism in the country by removing capitalist, traditional and cultural elements from Chinese society, and to impose Maoist orthodoxy within the Party.
The Luna 9 spacecraft was the first to successfully land on another celestial body without being destroyed. This is extremely important as it proved that a spacecraft containing a human could also land on the Moon. It also took the first pictures from another celestial body.
In Loving versus Virginia case, the Supreme Court rules that prohibiting interracial marriage is unconstitutional. States that had banned interracial marriage were forced to revise their laws.
Israel launches a strike on Egyptian Air Force (June 5), following Egyptian naval blockade of the Straits of Tiran (May 22) and Egyptian military buildup in the Sinai Peninsula (May 16), interpreted as acts of war. Attack quickly turns into a regional war, in which Israel defeats the combined forces of Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq and their supporters. It captures the Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip from Egypt, East Jerusalem and the West Bank from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria. The number of war casualties is estimated between 15,000 to 25,000.
In January of 1968, the NVA and VC attacked several strategic locations in South Vietnam, including the U.S. embassy in Saigon. Although the U.S. military was caught off guard, they were quickly able to push the forces back and regain most of the territory. Vietnam was one of the first wars during which news could be sent to individual families through TV broadcasts, and many reference it as a “living room war”. Images of the Tet Offensive, specifically Vietcong in the U.S. embassy, were broadcast across the U.S. and sparked what became called the “credibility gap” among U.S. citizens; Americans felt that they had been lied to, believing that the U.S. involvement in Vietnam was a great success and the communist forces had made no advances. After the images of the VC in the U.S. embassy, many Americans did not trust the information the government had been feeding them, and they begin to question the necessity of U.S. involvement in Vietnam. Thus, the Tet Offensive became a turning point in the war, not because of success on behalf of the communist side, but due to the fact that home support for the American front decreased considerably from this point forward.
As the futile attempts on behalf of the U.S. forces continued, President Nixon took secret actions to decrease the power of his enemies. He ordered that bombings of Cambodia and Laos, the countries bordering Vietnam, be carried out in an effort to destroy the Communist supply routes such as the Ho Chi Minh Trail that went through Laos and Cambodia. This program was called “Operation Breakfast”, and continued for fourteen months, unbeknownst to the American public or Congress.
Memphis, Tennessee, Martin Luther King Jr is assassinated at the age of 39
President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968, prohibiting discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing.
After the continued defeat of U.S. troops at the hands of the North Vietnamese Army and Vietcong coupled with an extreme lack of support on the American home front, President Nixon announced the program called “Vietnamization”, whereby U.S. troops would begin training the South Vietnamese Army troops to take over the role of the U.S. in fighting the Communist forces. Vietnamization was Nixon's attempt to create "peace with honor" to avoid U.S. embarrassment. The American soldiers gradually returned to the U.S., leaving the war in the hands of the South Vietnamese Army. By 1975, the last American troops were leaving Vietnam just as Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, fell to the communists and was renamed Ho Chi Minh after the Northern communist leader.
Ended the war in Vietnam. "Peace with honor". Mired in scandal due to Watergate.
Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first human beings to set foot on a celestial body when their Apollo 11 spacecraft touched down on the Moon. They also performed the first space launch from another celestial body. While it was a self-defined goal of the US, landing on the Moon effectively ended the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union.
Detente was the thawing period between the US and USSR during the Cold War. Both nations agreed to SALT, strategic arms limitation talks, and began interactions between leaders Nixon and Brezhnev
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was a proposed amendment for the United States Constitution which had the intent to guarantee equal rights for women. It gained approval by Congress in 1972 after support from the NOW.
Pardoned Richard Nixon. Struggled with stagflation(high unemployment and high inflation)
The PFLP General Command crossed the border into Israel from Lebanon. They entered an apartment building and killed all eighteen residents, half of whom were children.
Title IX is a portion of the Education Amendments of 1972. It aimed to guarantee women equal rights for education and federal financial aid. It had arguably the largest impact on women’s high school and collegiate athletics. The Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) stated the final details of how Title 9 would be implemented in 1975.
Eight Palestinian terrorists in two teams landed by boat in Tel Aviv. Shooting and throwing grenades, they captured the Savoy Hotel and take the guests as hostages. Five hostages were freed and eight were killed. Three Israeli soldiers were also killed.
The festival was a tribute to Zhou Enlai in Tiananmen square on April 2. People placed paper wreaths and white paper chrysanthemums at the foot of the Monument to the People’s Heroes. On April 7, Deng Xiaoping is suspended from all government positions.
Air France Flight 139, originating in Tel Aviv, took off from Athens, Greece, heading for Paris. It was hijacked by four terrorists (two from the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine and two from the radical German militant group Revolutionary Cells). Israel performed a rescue mission to free the 248 passengers and 12 crew members held hostage at Entebbe Airport in Uganda.
Mao's last public appearance was on May 27, 1976, where he met the visiting Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto during the latter's one-day visit to Beijing. He was taken off life support and was pronounced dead at 12:10 am on September 9, 1976.
In late 1977, Deng Xiaoping emerges as the leader of the People’s Republic of China. Following his emergence of leadership, he takes a much more liberal stance than Mao, and enacts several reforms.
President who struggled with economic difficulties.
Stagflation(high unemployment and high inflation)
Had success with the Camp David Accords but experienced real difficulties when the Iranian Revolution resulted in the taking of US hostages.
Deng Xiaoping is restored to positions of power: Vice Premier, Vice Chairman of CCP, and Vice Chairman of the Military Commission and the Army Chief of Staff. This led to Deng Xiaoping’s rise to full leadership of the PRC.
Four Modernizations reforms are enacted: agriculture, industry, national defense, and science and technology. Deng Xiaoping had previously been involved in these modernizations during his rehabilitation period when Mao was still in power.
PRC signed a treaty of peace and friendship with Japan. The treaty consisted of five articles and was strongly opposed by the Soviet Union.
The use of the democracy wall begins. The democracy wall was the focus of democratic dissent. New ideas about democracy were included, and many protests were sparked because of this wall.
Soviet forces seize several urban centers, in an attempt to pacify the Mujaheddin rebels.
A Russian Spetsnaz team storms the Tajbeg Palace, killing Afghan President Hafizullah Amin and 200 of his personal guards.
Backlash to the second wave of feminism occurred starting in the 1970s. Phyllis Schlafly is best known for her anti feminist ideas and her opposition to the Equal Rights Amendment. Schlafly argued that it would take away gender specific privileges such as "dependent wife" benefits under Social Security. Schlafly gained much support from more conservative parties.
Beginning of US involvement in Afghanistan.
A multi-divisional Soviet task force launched nine unsuccessful offensives to capture the strategically important Panjshir Valley, which allowed the Mujaheddin rebels to travel freely between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Grossly underestimating the rebels' numbers and strength, heavy fighting spread throughout the entire valley and into Pakistan.
President during the end of the Cold War. worked closely with Mikhail Gorbachev to reduce nuclear weapons.
Reagan invests in SDI (self defence initiative/star wars), as a result the USSR has to spend money on a new generation of weapons
Gorbachev promoted Glasnost and Perestroika to transform the USSR
No progress was made except that could not be fought or won.
"Intellectual Breakthrough" -Gorbachev
ended without agreement though because Reagan was unwilling to let go of SDI
INF treaty signed abolishing intermediate and shorter range missiles in Europe
Violence, riots, general strikes, and civil disobedience campaigns by Palestinians spread across the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Israeli forces respond with tear gas, plastic bullets, and live ammunition.
Disagree over SDI, USSR is nor longer an "Evil Empire" as stated by Reagan in the middle of Red Square
President at the end of the Cold War. US and UN coalition invade Kuwait to remove Saddam Hussein's Republican Guard.
Shevardnadze declared superpowers had buried the Cold War at the bottom of the Mediterranean.
The fence separating Hungary and non-communist Austria is dismantled by the Hungarian government.
Gorbachev and Xiaoping shake hands as a formal end of hostility between USSR and China. During the negotiations, China demanded that the USSR stop aiding Vietnam in their occupation of Cambodia. This treaty strengthened their international standing and allowed for their countries to start economic reforms.
Goddess of Democracy appears in Tiananmen Square.This was created during the Tiananmen square protests in 1989.It was constructed in four days out of foam and paper-mache. It was created so that it would be hard for the government to dismantle it.
Solidarity wins a majority in election in Poland.
Protests in Tiananmen square for the promotion of democracy were sparked by Hu Yaobang. Deng Xiaoping condemned the demonstration and claimed that they were “anti-socialist.”
Deng Xiaoping resigned his last official position as head of the Central Military Commission. Deng Xiaoping was a very successful leader because he reformed much of China, and improved the living standards and the voices of the people of China.
Article 6 of the 1977 Soviet Constitution placed limitations on the political rights of Soviet citizens. By dropping this from the constitution the USSR showed that many changes were coming to the government and people including the end of communist rule in Russia.
USSR is replaced by the Common-Wealth of Independent States (CIS)
START is the largest and most complex arms control treaty in history. Start was a treaty between the US and USSR to reduce and limit the total number of nuclear arms each nation possessed.
Gorbachev's resignation officially dissolves the USSR
President during an extended economic expansion. Impeached in second term for extra-marital affair.
In 1903, the airplane was invented by the Wright Brothers, Orville and Wilbur Wright. After many tests, the Wright Brothers took the Flyer on a 12-second powered, piloted flight in Kitty Hawk North Carolina. Later in 1904, they successfully flew more than five-minutes. The brothers spent months designing the landing gear, propellers, and wings. The legacy of this invention is demonstrated by the impact airplanes will have on war later in the 20th century.
1905- Albert Einstein published the Theory of Relativity- Albert Einstein was named person of the century by time magazine. His theories revamped physics knowledge that had been accepted for centuries. Einstein's Theory of Relativity argues that space and time can dilate, and that the speed of light does not vary. Einstein also argues that gravity bends space.
1925- Julius Edgar Lilienfeld, from Canada, filed a patent for the field-effect transistor. The transistor is a semiconductor that either amplifies electric signals, or switches and electric signal. Common devices such as telephones and computers are reliant on the transistor to function, and so the transistor paved the way for more modern appliances. In 1947 William Shockley invented the bipolar point-contact transistor, and was award the Nobel Prize in physics.
Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming in Scotland in 1928. Because of Fleming’s discovery that a certain mold had killed the bacteria on the slides he was working with, other scientists were able to derive the antibacterial agent within the mold. Antibacterial penicillin was developed as quickly as possible during WWII, and saved many Allied Lives following the D-day invasion. Bacterial disease could be effectively countered after this discovery, and many lives have been saved. Fleming earned the Nobel Prize for his contribution.
The modern color television system invented in 1942. Television is extremely prevalent in the world we live in today. In order for television to be invented, engineers would have to capture, transmit, and project images very quickly. Leon Theremin in Russia made a drum based television set. In 1942, however, television as we know it came into the picture. A screen with color was another invention in itself, and we have Guillermo Gonzalez Camarena of Mexico to thank.
Colossus was built. It was the first electronic programmable computer, and was invented by Tommy Flowers. It was invented to help British code breakers read the encrypted German messages in World War II. This was a major step for the development of the computer.
The first atomic bomb was built as part of the “Manhattan Project” and then dropped on Japan by the United States. Robert Oppenheimer, David Bohm, and Neils Bohr were some major contributors to the project. Nuclear Warfare was the reason for the MAD concept of the Cold War, and is today an important power source.
The Korean War was the first proxy war, this lead into many events of the Cold War and other proxy wars; the Vietnam War(1957), the Bay of Pigs Invasion(1961), and Cuban Missile Crisis (1962). These wars were crucial in the Cold War.
The communist end stopped and fighting stopped completely. The Cold War started up by the Korean experience would continue to rise in the coming decades.
The compact disk (CD) was invented by James Russell in 1965. It is a disc that stores optical data, and it can hold up to 700 MB. CD’s were available to the consumer by 1982. When the CD was first invented, it had more capacity than the computer hard drive, but now computers far exceed the CD.
The invention of the microprocessor made computers faster and even more useful. A microprocessor is a chip made of silicon that controls most of the digital aspects of a computer. The microprocessor has been designed to be increasingly more fast and are better quality. They are used in supercomputers and other technological devices.
Magnetic resonance imaging was invented by Raymond V. Damadian in 1977. The MRI was made possible with the development of a mathematical technique that would allow scans to take seconds instead of minutes. A full MRI body scan was taken for the first time in 1977. MRI scans allow medical professionals to distinguish pathological tissue from normal tissue, without harming the patient in any way.
The World Wide Web and the WWW language were created by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990. The World Wide Web was accessible to the public by 1993. It allowed easy access to the internet.