The 20th Century

Here are the topics we are going to learn this year. We hope this helps you.

Main

Treaty of London

April 18 1839 - April 19 1839


A treaty that was signed between the United Kingdoms and Belgium. This instated that Belgium would remain neutral during war, and confirmed Belgium's independence.

Joseph Stalin is Born

12/18/1878

Dual Alliance

October 16 1879 - October 17 1879


A treaty signed between Austria-Hungry and Germany. This treaty, meant to limit war, would ensure that Austria-Hungary and Germany would aide each other in the chance that either was attacked by Russia.

Mussolini is Born

July 29 1883

Franco-Russian Alliance

1892 - 1917


An alliance between the French Third Republic and the Russian Empire. This alliance ended the isolation of France, and would overpower the 'supremacy' of the German empire, and allowed France to be a principal ally of Russia.

Anglo-German Arms Race

January 1898 - December 1913


Grand Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz created four Fleets acts, which went from 1898 to 1912 and 1902 to 1910. During the arms race, the focus was on creating more ships like the 'Dreadnought', which was created by the Royal Navy. The race was abandoned byt the Germans before war erupted, but was a factor that lead the United Nations to join the Triple Entente.

The First Hague Convention

August 29 1898 - July 29 1899


The convention was propsed on August 29th, 1898 and opened on May 18th, 1899, which was the Tsar's birthday. The convention ended on July 29th, 1899, and the treaties, declarations and acts 'came into force, on September 4th, 1900. The convention covered the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the laws to be followed in all wars on land between signatories, the protection of marked hospital ships and how hospital ships must treat all wounded and shipwrecked sailors, the declaration that no missiles of explosives shall be launched from balloons "or by other new methods of a similar nature," the declaration that requires all parties in a war must avoid using projectiles "the sole object of which is the diffusion of asphyxiating or deleterious gases," and the declaration that all parties in a war must avoid using "bullets which expand or flatten easily in the human body."

Boxer Rebellion

November 1899 - 7 September 1901


The Boxer Rebellion was an anti-foreign, proto-nationalist movement by the Righteous Harmony Society in China. The happened during drought and economic disruption in response to growth of foreign spheres of influence.

Theodore Roosevelt

1901 - 1909


The first president of the 20th C. progressive leader and builder of Panama Canal

Building of the Panama Canal

1904 - 1914

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Started by the French in the 1880's. Symbolizes the US technological and geopolitical aspirations for the 20th c.

Stalin Meets Lenin

1905

Schlieffen Plan

January 1906 - September 1914


The developed based off the geography of German, in which Germany was located against two of it's enemies, France and Russia. The plan called for German mobilization through e Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Belgium, which would then head into France for an invasion. This plan was a prepared pre-emptive strike in order for the Germans to launch an assault before the Russians could plan the first attack.

The Second Hague Convention

June 15 1907 - October 1907


This conference was meant to expand upon the points made during the First Hague Convention. This conference expanded upon the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the limitation of the employment of force for recovery of contract debts, the procedure for a declaration of war, the respect of the laws of war, the rights and duties of a neutral party during war, the legal position of enemy merchant ships when hostilities arise, laying automatic submarine contact mines, bombardment of naval forces, adaptation of marinetime warfare on the principles of the Geneva Convention, restrictions on the right to capture enemy soldiers during war, the International Prize Court, prohibiting projectile explosives from being launched by balloons.

Bosnian Crisis

October 6 1908 - April 1909

The crisis started when Austria-Hungary announced it had annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina. The crisis did not end until the April of 1909, when the Treaty of Berlin was amended. The act of annexnation by Austro-Hungary lead to bad relations between Russia and Serbia.

Joseph McCarthy is born

November 14, 1908 - November 15, 1908

William Howard Taft

1909 - 1913


President during Progressive Era. A more effective trust buster than Roosevelt. Known for Dollar Diplomacy with Latin America.

Balkans Wars

1912 - 1913


This was a time of international tension between Russia and Austria, and this also led to the downfall of Turkey and Bulgaria, which allowed Serbia to gain power. This led to a disruption of power within Europe which favored Russia.

Stalin is elected to the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Revolution

January 1912

Fall of Qing Dynasty

February 12 1912


The 1911 Wuchang Uprising of the New Army ended with the overthrow of the Empress Dowager Longyu and the infant Puyi on February 12, 1912. Despite the declaration of the Republic of China, the generals would continue to fight amongst themselves for the next several decades during the Warlord Era.

Sun Yat-sen as leader of the KMT

August 25 1912 - 1927


The Kuomintang refer reverentially to founder Sun Yat-sen as the "Father of the Nation." The party played a significant part in the first Chinese first National Assembly where is was the majority party. However the KMT failed to achieve complete control.

Woodrow Wilson

1913 - 1921

President with Moral Diplomacy foreign policy
WWI
Created 14 Points
Died trying to ratify Treaty of Versailles

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

June 28 1914


Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir tot he Austro-Hungarian throne, was killed in Sarajevo, on June 28th, by a Serbian Nationalist.

Austro-Hungary Ultimatium

July 23 1914 - July 25 1914

Issued on July 23rd, 1914 in response tot he assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The Ultimatum demanded that the Serbian government suppress all anti-Austria-Hungary propaganda, to allow Austria-Hungary to inquire about who killed the Archduke, and to eliminate terrorists groups in Serbia. Serbia did not follow these demands, choosing to ignore the ultimatium, leading Austria-Hungary to declare on Serbia.

Sykes-Picot Agreement

16 May 1916

signed between Britain, France and Russia, in which it was agreed in the event of a successful conclusion of the war the former Ottoman lands of Palestine, Jordan and Iraq would become mandates for Britain, France would take control of Lebanon and Syria, whilst Russian would take large areas of Eastern Turkey and Istanbul.

Balfour Declaration

2 November 1917

British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour sends a letter to Lord Rothschild, President of the Zionist Federation, declaring his government would "view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people".

Russian Civil War

1918 - 1920

Lenin is elected chairman and Trotsky and Stalin also come to power.

Germany and Russia's dissatisfaction with the outcome of WWI

1918

Germany and Russia were both less than pleased with the results that World War One yielded- Germany was left in an economic and political train wreck, and Russia had to remove itself from the conflict. The breakout of World War Two could have been encouraged by the unresolved aims of the two nations.

British Mandate over Palestine

1918 - 1948

Influenza Epidemic

1918

American forces infected with the influenza virus spread the virus to Europe and eventually around the world. The virus was mistakenly referred to as the "spanish flu" and spread easily because many people were weakened from famines during the war. Roughly 50 million people worldwide died from the flu pandemic.

Wilson's Fourteen Points

January 8, 1918

Wilson's idealistic goals for foreign policy that lacked practicality needed to be implemented, but helped to pressure the German's to surrender. Wilson's fourteen points pushed the US towards a "return to normalcy" after WWI because they were too idealistic.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

March 3, 1918

A separate peace agreement that ended the war between Germany and Russia. Lenin ordered the Bolsheviks to secure this agreement to end the war so that they could focus on the work they needed to do in Russia.

Blockade of Germany

November 11, 1918 - June 28, 1919

The Allies maintained a naval blockade on Germany after the war, which was detrimental because Germany relied on imports. Therefore, the blockade resulted in roughly 523,000 deaths due to the lack of food and further problems for the German economy.

Formation of the Fascist Movement

1919

Palmer Raids

1919 - 1920

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A. Mitchell Palmer epitomized the 'return to normalcy' when he deported socialist, anarchists, and other people considered political undesirables. This was a part of the first red scare.

Formation of the Black Shirts

1919

Black Shirts: Military tool for Mussolini’s political movement. They used violence and intimidation against Mussolini’s opponents, were used throughout Mussolini's regime.
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"The Return to Normalcy"

1919 - 1924


The US became isolationist, nativist, and ended Progressive Era reforms.

US Senate fails to ratify Treaty of Versailles

1919 - 1921


The US becoming more isolationist failed to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. The Lodge reservationists were particularly against Article X of the T of V which required all nations to intervene in violations of the treaty. This was the collective security clause.

Weimar Republic

1919 - 1923

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The establishment of a federal republic and parliamentary democracy, which replaced Kaiser Wilhelm’s authoritarian regime.

Weakness of the League of Nations

1919 - 1946

The League of Nations was unable to effectively prevent acts of war because it did not involve all nations, it lacked an army, it could not rapidly make decisions, and it was essentially powerless. Its unsuccessfulness was demonstrated by its inability to handle Italian imperialism in Ethiopia.

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League of Nations

June 1919

An international government organization founded after WWI at the Paris Peace Conference. It goals were to solve disputes through negotiations and prevent wars with collective security and disarmament. The United States did not join the League of Nations because of the collective security requirement in Article X.

Tension that Resulted From the Treaty of Versailles

June 28, 1919 - September 1, 1939

The Treaty of Versailles confiscated territory from Germany, labeled Germany with all the blame for WWI through the War Guilt Clause, forced it to pay heavy reparations, limited its arms, and blocked it from the League of Nations. The treaty alienated Germany, and left it in a state of crippling debt- a state that encouraged the election of Hitler. The tension that grew from the establishment of the Treaty of Versailles set the stage for WWII.

Treaty of Versailles

June 28, 1919

This treaty was signed at the Paris Peace Conference and ended WWI between Germany and the Allied Powers. It contained the war-guilt clause which made Germany accept the blame for causing WWI and also made Germany pay hefty reparations which damaged their economy.

(Sam Frenduto)

Women in the 1920s

1920 - 1929

Young Western women in the 1920s began to have more modern values and move away from strict traditional values. These new values were embodied by the “Flappers” the term for these new age women. Flappers originated during the liberal period of the Roaring Twenties.

Nazi Party Formed

January, 1920

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The Nazi Party is formed, with Hitler giving emotional speeches between February and March.

Collapse of the Ottoman Empire

August 10, 1920

Allies occupied Constantinople (istanbul) and the Ottoman empire collapsed. The Allies signed the Treaty of Sevres on August 10, 1920 to dismember the remaining Ottoman territories. The break-up of the Ottoman Empire helped to create the modern Middle East and resulted in increased hostilities in that region (a long term cause of the Arab-Israeli conflict)

19th Amendment Ratified

August 18, 1920

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The 19th amendment granted women the right to vote, also known as women’s suffrage.

Warren Harding

1921 - 1923


The first of three Republican presidents. Considered one of the least effective presidents. Mired in scandal.

Formation of the CCP

July 1921


The founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Has official commitment to communism and Marxism-Leninism

Treaty of Rapallo

1922 - 1923

Russia and Germany agree to normalize relations and work toward economic and military cooperation.

Nuremberg Rallies

1923 - 1938

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An annual rally of the Nazi Party, used as propaganda to challenge the Weimar Government. Attended by Brown Shirts (slang term for Nazi), Aryan Supremacists (ideal race), Hitler Youth (parliamentary), and those who challenged the Treaty of Versailles.

Acerbo Law

1923

Acerbo Law: Gave Mussolini’s fascist party a majority of deputies. This allowed Mussolini’s reign to be uninhibited by proportional representation that would allow him to have a clear majority. Allowed at duel leadership with King Victor Emmanuel III. Italian industrialists realized that they needed to align themselves with Mussolini to maintain their market share.

Calvin Coolidge

1923 - 1929


"The business of America is business" President during the economic boom of the 1920's.

Munich Putsch

November 8, 1923 - November 9, 1923

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Also known as Beer Hall Putsch. A failed attempt made by Hitler to take power. Hitler is imprisoned, and he writes “Mein Kampf” while in prison.

Quota Act

1924 - 1965


Limited immigration from countries considered a threat to US. Eastern European nations and Russia in particular.This restrictive immigration policy stayed in effect with minor alterations until 1965.

economic boom of 1920's

1924 - 1928

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Due to the assembly line and other economic factors such as deregulation and the advent of consumer credit the US economy expands at unprecedented rates.

The Dawes Plan

August 1924

An attempt to solve the problem of Germany's reparations, which were damaging international politics. The plan staggered reparation payments and ended Allied occupation of the Ruhr industrial area of Germany that was causing hyperinflation.

Gustav Stresemann

1925 - 1929

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Government successfully maneuvered the German Government through an economic depression, hyperinflation, and the Ruhr Crisis, reestablishing a sense of “normalcy” by 1929.

Locarno Treaties

October 16, 1925

Sought to secure post-war territorial agreements and improve relations with the defeated Germany. These resulted in the "Spirit of Locarno", which was a renewed optimism that resulted from improved relations.

Geneva Naval Conference

1927

A conference to extend the naval limitations already put in place by the Washington Naval Treaty which limited the construction of battleships and air craft carriers, but not cruisers, destroyers, or submarines.

Chaing-Kai Shek as leader of KMT

1927 - 1975


Chiang instigated the April 12 Incident of 1927 in Shanghai in which the Communist Party of China and Communist elements of the KMT were purged. The capital of China was moved to Nanjing in order to be closer to the party's strong base in southern China.

Chinese Civil War

April 1927 - 1950


The war began in April 1927, amidst the Northern Expedition. The war represented an ideological split (Left vs. Right) between the Communist CPC, and the KMT's brand of Nationalism.

Stalin's First Five Year Plan

1928

Stalin focuses on the development of iron, steel, machine-tools, electric power, and transport. He demanded a 115% increase in productivity from workers.

Kellogg-Briand Pact

August 1 1928 - 1929

A disarmament treaty signed by the US, British, and France attempting to dissuade nations from going to war.

Invasion of Ethiopia

1929

Invasion of Ethiopia: Mussolini aimed to restore the old glory of the Roman Empire by annexing Ethiopia into Italy's newly formed East African colony. Exposed the weak bond that the League of Nations was founded on, because both Italy and Ethiopia were members but the league itself failed to prevent invasion.
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Stalin Becomes Dictator of the USSR

1929

After Lenin's death, Stalin become the ruler of the USSR

Collapse of the Weimar Republic of Germany

1929 - 1933

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Adolf Hitler, one of the driving forces of the conflict of WWII, rises to power in 1933 when Gustav Stresemann's Weimar Republic collapses in the late 1920s as a result of the economic turmoil that resulted from the war. The desperate disposition of Germans affected by the depression provided the perfect circumstances for the election of a right-winged politician like Hitler.

Herbert Hoover

1929 - 1933


President during the beginning of the Great Depression. Laissez-faire attitude results in the deepening of the Great Depression.

Stock Market Crash

Oct 1 1929 - Oct 29 1929


The US economy was based too much on speculation by 1929. The major industries(steel, automobiles, appliances) contracted by 1928 but the markets continued to expand into 1929.!

Great Depression: Stock Market Crash

October 24, 1929 - October 29, 1929

Stalin Collectivizes Agriculture

1930

To jumpstart the USSR, Stalin collectivizes farms and forces people to work for the state.

Women in the Workforce

1930 - 1940

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During the 1930s, women began to work outside of the home more than ever before, because of the large amount of men having to leave the workforce to serve in the war. The symbol of empowerment for these women was known as “Rosie the Riveter.”

Reconstruction Finance Corporation

1931 - 1933

Hoover's 'rugged individualism' was ineffective in transforming the economic collapse. Hoover begins providing big business with governmental assistance. The RFC is seen as a prototype for the New Deal.

Great Depression: Bank Collapse

December 1931 - January 1932

The New York's Bank of the United States crashes which is the largest single bank failure in the nation's history. The bank had over $200 million in deposits.

Great Depression: RFC establishment

January 1932 - 1941

The Reconstruction Finance Corporation establishment worked on rebuilding the failing areas of America. This lent over $2 billion to banks, agricultural credit organizations, railroads, building associations, loan associations, and insurance companies.

Great Depression: Bonus Army Clearing

July 24, 1932 - July 28, 1932

Veterans camped in DC to protest and demand veteran benefits they were not being provided. Hoover tells the mass that they need to abandon their encampment by July 24th and forcibly moves them out on July 28th, 2 veterans are killed.

Franklin Roosevelt

1933 - 1945


President during the Great Depression. Re-invented the role of the federal government with the New Deal. President during WWII.
Considered one of the three great US presidents.

Women as Cabinet Members

1933

Following the ratification of the 19th amendment, women were able to hold positions in the presidents’ cabinet. The first woman cabinet member was Frances Perkins, appointed by FDR in 1933. This was the beginning of many women being able to hold cabinet positions in the years to come.

Reichstag Fire Decree

February 28, 1933

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A decree established by Hindenburg in response to the Reichstag Fire. The decree limited citizens rights, and was used to imprison Nazi opposition.

Great Depression: FDR's first reforms

March 6, 1933 - March 12, 1933

FDR is inaugurated and the first thing he does is compromise with congress on a plan to help the banking system. On March 9th congress passed the Emergency Banking Act. On March 12th FDR begins his influential and encouraging "fireside chats"

Enabling Act

March 23, 1933

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The second large step after RFD to claim dictatorial power. This allowed Hitler and his cabinet the ability to enact laws without Reichstag.

London Economic Conference

April 1933 - June 1933


Conference to promote global cooperation during the Great Depression. FDR doesn't attend due to focus on New Deal. Other European nations create global cooperation. Some European nations promote economic nationalism through
protectionism.

Great Depression: CCC established

April 1933

Civilian Conservation Corps is a method of relief for young men between the ages of 17 and 27. They are provided with more chances of employment with national forests, parks, and federal land.

Great Depression: NIRA and TVA

May 1933

National Industrial Recovery Act: designated to maintain price and wage controls
Tennessee Valley Authority: A hydroelectric program that aids with many natural projects involving agriculture and parks/forests

Great Depression: CWA

October 1933

Civil Works Administration is established and attempts to employ up to 4 million people. This administration also helps build up schools, parks, roads, highways, airports, and hospitals.

Leni Riefenstahl

1934

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A German film director that made a documentary of the Nazi party in 1934. Her career was destroyed after WWII because of her involvement with Hitler. “Triumph of the Will”.

Hitler and the Theory of Deterrence

1934

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Hitler began increasing his military forces in secret. He developed warships, German air forces, and a compulsory military service. Such acts increased tension within the region.

Great Depression: Dust Bowl

May 1934

Just when the economy was starting to improve, a three day storm blows off 350 million tons of terrain off the West and Southwest and carries it into New York and other areas of the East. This effected the American agricultural industry greatly.

Night of the Long Knives

June 30, 1934 - July 2, 1934

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A purge in Germany, which consisted of the murders of political leaders who could have possibly have challenged Hitler.

Hitler's Defiance to the Treaty of Versailles

1935

Regardless the restrictions of the treaty, Hitler begins to rearm Germany to increase the nation's protection.

Lateran Treaty

1935

Lateran Treaty: Ended the arguments between the papacy and the Italian government. The papacy recognized the state of Italy, with Rome as its capital. Italy in return recognized papal sovereignty over the Vatican City, and secured full independence for the pope. Papacy recognized Mussolini as the leader of the state of Italy (accepting a fascist society). If the church agrees with the regime, it gives the regime more legitimacy.
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Hitler's Reoccupation of Confiscated Territory

1936

Hitler decides to ignore the Treaty of Versailles, and reoccupy the land that it took from Germany- land that Germany had been economically dependent on. Hitler started with Rhineland, which was then followed by the reclaiming of Austria and Sudetenland.

Stalin's Great Purge

1936 - 1938

Anyone considered an "enemy of the state" was executed or put into work camps. This included regular citizens, but most notably, many young leaders in low rankings.

Policy of Appeasement

1937

Prime Minister of Britain, Neville Chamberlain, outwardly recognized that the Treaty of Versailles was unfair towards Germany. From this acknowledgement came the idea of "Appeasement", which was the act of giving in to Hitler's seemingly-reasonable requests. However, the Policy of Appeasement quickly got out of hand, and the region accelerated towards the beginning of WWII.

House of Un-American Activities Committee is formed

1937 - 1938

Second Red Scare provides opportunities for the HUAC to become more active in persecutions

Lebensraum

1937

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Meaning “living space”. This was one of Hitler’s political ploys and a part of the Nazi ideology that German people need more space and lesser races were taking up that space.

Anschluss

1938

Germany invades Czechoslovakia

1938

Hitler pursues one of the early acts of violence of WWII when he leads the German forces in invading Czechoslovakia. Conflict between Czechoslovakia, and France and Russia increases when France and Russia both fail to offer assistance that had been promised to Czechoslovakia in case of attack years before.

Munich Pact

September 29, 1938

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A pact between Germany, Italy, France, and Great Britain which appeased the countries and formed an alliance.

Kristallnacht

November 9, 1938 - November 10, 1938

Pact of Steel

1939

Pact of Steel: Germany and Italy's pact of friendship and alliance based on the assumption that war would break out in the next three years. It tied economic, military, and foreign policies together. Hitler looked up to Mussolini because Mussolini set the "tone" for what a fascist society should look like.
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The Final Solution

1939

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The systematic plan to annihilate the Jewish race, to be led by Heinrich Himmler. After Eisenstadt Gruppen complained about psychological affect of mass killing the Final Solution was put into place.

Soviet Non-Aggression Pact with Germans

August 23, 1939 - June 22, 1941

An agreement was made between the Soviets and Germans that the USSR would not be invaded as long the USSR did not open a second front. However, the pact was broken when the Germans invaded.

Germany Invades Poland

September 1, 1939

Hitler's invasion of Poland was the principal starting point of World War Two. Through invading Poland, Hitler aimed to increase "lebensraum", discourage Chamberlain's actions, and prevent Polish resistance towards Germany.

Joseph Stalin is named Time Magazine's Person of the Year

January 1, 1940

Stalin's successes as a leader were glorified as he was seen to be a protector of the USSR.

Great Depression: FDR serves three terms

1940

FDR is the only president that serves three terms each term enacting more laws and legislation's. His success with his New Deal's are what made him more successful than any of the politicians that went against him.

Auschwitz

May, 1940 - January, 1945

Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps. Auschwitz was the largest of the Nazi concentration camps and included Auschwitz I (the base camp); Auschwitz II–Birkenau (the extermination camp); Auschwitz II (a labor camp); and 45 satellite camps. About 1.3 million people died at Auschwitz.

Pearl Harbor

December 7, 1941

Pearl Harbor was bombed by Japan. This was an attack on American soil, and it drew the Americans into World War II. MAJOR turning point.

Manhattan Project

1942 - 1946

Project by the US government and military, aided by the UK and Canada, to create the first atomic bomb. In 1945, the goal of developing an atom bomb was achieved, and "Fat Boy", the name of the bomb, was detonated on July 16, 1945 in a New Mexico Desert. Successful testing led to the development of the 2 atomic bombs used on Japan to conclude World War 2.

Battle of Stalingrad Begins

July 17, 1942

The battle is considered to be the bloodiest in modern history with over 2 million casualties. It was the first large-scale defeat of the Nazis, and became Stalin's "claim to fame" as a successful Soviet Leader.

Second Front Controversy

1943

Stalin was desperate to create a "second front" in order to lessen Germany's impact on the soviet army. By enacting a full scale invasion of western Europe, Stalin was able to free the eastern Germany border and ultimately causing the USA to slip north through France and encourage Germany's surrender.

Mussolini Arrested and Imprisoned

1943

Mussolini Arrested and Imprisoned. In July 1943, Allied troops landed in Sicily. Mussolini was overthrown and imprisoned by his former colleagues in the Fascist government.

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Wartime conferences

1943 - 1945

At these conferences (Tehran, Yalta, and Potsdam), Germany, Poland, Eastern Europe, Japan, and the UN were discussed by the Allies. One of the decisions was that elections in all European countries would be democratic and based on free elections (which would later be violated by the USSR).

The Strange Alliance is Formed

1943

USA, UK, and USSR during WW2

Arms Race

1943

The USSR and the USA were both top competitors for the ultimate world superpower. WIth Japan's WWII influence, the use of atomic bombs upon Hiroshima and Nagasaki were viewed essential by americans to end WWII. The Arms Race consisted of large amount of national capital from both nations spent on nuclear missile research.

Stalin reestablished the Russian Orthodox Church

September 8, 1943

The horrors of WWII forced Stalin to use all of the nation's resources, including the church. He opened churches and allowed services to increase the people's morale during the war.

D Day

June 6, 1944

American and Allied forces landed in Normandy, France and began advancing on Berlin, Germany. This was a major turning point in WWII

Russia Population Impact Post WWII

1945

Russia had an estimated death of 26.6 combined soldiers and civilians. This high number of deaths is especially astonishing when considering that there were some 8.7 million military causalities.

USA and Russia Try to Influence the Destroyed Europe

1945

Communism and Capitalism were in a driven competition to spread their way of governing. The wrecked nations of Europe were prime targets considering their need to rebuild.

Red Army Occupation of Eastern Europe

1945 - 1947

The USSR was in control of many Eastern European states, creating a "satellite empire." They were tied to Moscow by military power, Salami tactics, state police and spy networks, and COMECON.

US Economy Post WWII

1945 - 1970

The postwar capitalism boom was a period in America's history of which societal and technological advancements were made following the termination of the second world war.

Joseph Goebbels

1945

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German in charge of propaganda in Nazi Germany. Goebbels used radio broadcasts and movies to spread his views amongst a wide variety of people. Goebbels presented Hitler as a god to increase his popularity and authority.

Harry S. Truman

1945 - 1953


President at the end of WWII. Truman Doctrine and containment theory are major parts of Cold War foreign policy.

Post WWII Population Displacement

1945

Deportation and mass evacuations were enacted due to border disputes of affiliation disputes. Families and friends were separated by not only borders but also government association.

Creation of the United Nations

1945

The Creation of the UN was prompted by the League of Nation's inability to sustain world peace.

Hitler's death

April 1945

Mussolini's Death

April 28 1945

Mussolini was then killed by communist partisans. After being shot, kicked, and spat upon, the bodies were hung upside down on meathooks from the roof of an Esso gas station. The bodies were then stoned by civilians from below. This was done both to discourage any Fascists from continuing the fight and as an act of revenge for the hanging of many partisans in the same place by Axis authorities.

VE Day (Victory in Europe)

8 May 1945

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VE Day is the public holiday to mark the date when the World War II Allies formally accepted the unconditional surrender of the armed forces of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitler's Third Reich, thus ending the war in Europe.

Trinity Explosion

July 16, 1945


Trinity is the code name for the project which detonated the world first atomic bomb. At 5:30 A.M, the bomb was dropped from a 100 foot steel structure for detonation. Instantaneously following the detonation, temperature rose to 10,000,000 degrees, and devastated any life form within a half mile radius of the explosion. The successful explosion gave the green light for the use of atomic bombs in Japan

Potsdam Conference

July 16, 1945 - August 2, 1945


On this date, the "Big Three", Truman, Stalin, and Churchill, met in Potsdam Germany to discuss arrangement following the war, as well as further plans in the war with Japan. Negotiations revolving around how to handle Germany were prominent. Agreement were made, including disarmament of Germany.

Atomic Bombing in Japan

August 6, 1945 - August 9, 1945

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On August 6, 1945, an American bomber, named "Enola Gay", dropped an atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima, in Japan. The explosion directly killed 80,000 people, and completely destroyed 90% of the city. Throughout the years following the bombing, tens of thousands of more people died as a result of radiation exposure from the bomb. 3 days following the Hiroshima bombing, a second atom bomb was dropped in the city of Nagasaki, Japan. The event killed 40,000.

First use of atomic bombs

August 6, 1945 - August 9, 1945

Within the first two to four months of the bombings, the acute effects killed 90,000–166,000 people in Hiroshima and 60,000–80,000 in Nagasaki, with roughly half of the deaths in each city occurring on the first day. The Hiroshima health department estimated that, of the people who died on the day of the explosion, 60% died from flash or flame burns, 30% from falling debris and 10% from other causes. In a US estimate of the total immediate and short term cause of death, 15–20% died from radiation sickness, 20–30% from burns, and 50–60% from other injuries, compounded by illness. In both cities, most of the dead were civilians.

VJ Day (Victory over Japan)

September 2, 1945


On September 2, 1945, a formal surrender ceremony was performed in Tokyo Bay, Japan, aboard the battleship USS Missouri.

US and USSR Post WWII

1946

The US has the number one air force in the world as a result of the second world war. The USSR has the strongest army in the world.

Baby Boom

1946 - 1964

A period immediately after the second World War in which Americans expanded their population dramatically due to the prosperous economy and availability of resource.

Kennan's Long Telegram

February, 1946

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The US diplomat in Moscow, George Kennan, sent a telegram to the US about Soviet's foreign policy. It stated that the USSR's view of the world was that of insecurity, the Soviets wanted to advance Stalinist ideology, and that the Soviet regime was cruel and repressive. He also claimed that the USSR was frantically hostile to the west.

Churchill's Iron Curtain Speech

March, 1946

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In this speech, Churchill commented on the Soviet-dominated communist governments in Eastern Europe, which violated the Yalta Conference agreements that there would be free and democratic elections. It is considered one of the defining moments of the Cold War.

Soviet reaction to Iron Curtain Speech

April, 1946

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Stalin responded to the Iron Curtain Speech with outrage, comparing Churchill to Hitler. He withdrew from the IMF and stepped up propaganda. He also initiated the five-year strengthening plan. This led to further tension between the USSR and the US.

Joseph McCarthy is a Republican Senator

1947 - 1957

Instills fear into Americans known as the Second Red Scare

Truman Doctrine

March, 1947

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Truman made a speech to the US Congress in which he said that the US had the obligation to "support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside forces." The US was no longer isolationist, and the USSR interpreted this as the US trying to expand its sphere of influence.

USA Writes Japanese Constitution and Creates the Marshall Plan

May 1947

This new constitution was a parliamentary system of government that ensured fundamental human rights. This constitution forever changed Japan in that it made the role of an emperor entirely ceremonial. The Marshall plan was the United States' solution to rebuilding Europe. The USA provided 13 billion dollars in full attempt of deterring communism.

United Nations Special Committee on Palestine is created

14 May 1947

Marshall Plan

June, 1947

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George Marshall, the US Secretary of State, believed that the economies of Western Europe needed immediate help from the US, so it followed the Truman Doctrine by providing $17 billion in aid to these countries.

Soviet Reaction to Marshall Plan

September, 1947

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The Soviets viewed the Marshall Plan as dollar imperialism, claiming that the US was trying to establish a European empire. They responded with the Molotov Plain, attempting to tie the economies of Eastern Europe to the USSR's economy.

Hollywood Blacklist

November 25, 1947 - 1960


An unofficial list of screenwriters, actors, actresses, directors, musicians, and other entertainment professionals that were denied employment and fired from current jobs because of their Communist political beliefs or if they were suspected of Communist political beliefs.

Czechoslovakian Coup

1948

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Czechoslovakia had expressed interest in receiving aid from the Marshall Plan. This worried Stalin, so he organized pressure on the Czechoslovak coalition government. Non-Communist members were forced to resign, and the prime minister found mysteriously dead. This resulted in the passing of the Marshall Plan in the US Congress, and tension increased.

Berlin Crisis

1948

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Germany and Berlin had been divided between the superpowers after WWII. The US had to go through East Germany to get into Berlin. As tension increased, Stalin blocked US access into Berlin. The US airlifted supplies in, and Stalin eventually lifted the blockade, but tension had significantly increased.

First Arab-Israeli War

15 May 1948 - 10 March 1949

Emergence of Mao Zedong in the CCP

1949


In this position he converted China into a single-party socialist state, with industry and business being nationalized under state ownership and socialist reforms implemented in all areas of society.

Alger Hiss testified to HUAC against Communist charges

January 1, 1949 - January 2, 1949


Hiss was a highly ranked member of the State Department and plead innocence till his death in 1996 while he was incarcerated.

Soviets Detonate Atomic Bomb

August 29, 1949

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Code named "First Lightning", the Soviets detonate their first atomic bomb at a test site in Kazakhstan. The "First Trinity" was similar in size to the American "Trinity" bomb. US spy planes detected radiation on September 3, an indicator of the successful detonation. A key scientist used in the US's creation of Atomic weaponry was charged with treason for sharing blueprints and knowledge with Soviet scientist.

Arms Count

1950 - 1959


US has has nearly 25000 nuclear warheads, while the Soviets have less than 5000

Housewives in the 1950s

1950 - 1959

Following WWII, domestic stability had finally become attainable for American families. The stability led many people to achieve the luxury of comfortable raising a family. This increased the number of children women had, and then led to a greater number of women staying home to be housewives.

Tyding's Committee

March 8, 1950 - March 9, 1950


McCarthy reveals the names of 9 alleged Communists in the State Department, the committee does not find any truth in his allegations but the press provides ample coverage positively impacting the popularity of McCarthyism

The Korean War - Start

June 25 1950


North Korea invades the South. North Korea is communist.
Korea is an “authoritarian” democracy. North Korea pushes South Korea troops to Pusan perimeter, also called the 38th parallel. This attack immediately got the US involved that immediately produced heavy military and naval involvement.

The Korean War - Proxy War

August 1, 1950

A proxy war is a war that results when opposing powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly. The Korean War was a proxy war because Truman replaced the US with UN troops (the US fights under the UN flag), who were lead by Douglas MacArthur.

The Korean War - UN Involvement

August 4 1950


US manages to fight under the UN flag (UN allowed to step in as a proxy). The Korean War is a limited war because President Truman purposely limited US resources. This is because he fears MAD (mutually assured destruction) and an escalating war with China. Using the UN Police Action. "The wrong war, in the wrong place, at the wrong time."

The Korean War - Douglas MacArthur

September 15 1950

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Douglas MacArthur leads a UN action and cuts off supply lines of North Korean troops.

The Korean War - Chinese Invasion

October 25 1950

Truman does not want to bring the Chinese into the war. MacArthur wants a larger regional war to end communism. Chinese invade North Korea and US troops are trapped in North Korea.

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Trial

1951 - 1953


Pled not guilty as they were charged with conspiracy to commit espionage in 1951. Both were executed in 1953.

The Korean War - End

March 1951

Truman dismissed MacArthur for insubordination.

The Korean War - Kim II Sung

1953


Kim Il Sung was the North Korean leader and hoped to unify Korean peninsula. He needed help of Soviets and Chinese to achieve this. The Korean War was not Stalin’s idea, rather Sung.

Dwight D. Eisenhower

1953 - 1961


President during the end of the Korean War, McCarthyism, Peaceful Coexistence with Khrushchev, and the beginning of the Space Race with the launch of Sputnik.

The Korean War

June 1953 - 2000

After a two-year stalemate and 50,000 US casualties a cease fire is signed. A peace treaty is never signed. technically North and South Korea are still at war.

Brown Versus Board of Education

1954 - 1955

Brown versus Board of Education (1954) was the decisive Supreme Court case that made segregation in public school illegal.
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McCarthy conducted public hearings of the accused

April 22, 1954 - June 17, 1954


Republican party now worried that the accusations have become ridiculous. Decline in support.

Vietnam War: Dien Bien Phu

5/7/54 - 5/8/54


The French, who had occupied the region called French Indochina since the 1880's, are defeated by the Vietminh and North Vietnamese Army. The Vietminh were the freedom fighters in North Vietnam that largely supported Communism. The French decide to withdraw from the region, leaving a void that the U.S. would soon fill.

Vietnam War: Domino Theory

5/8/1954 - 1975

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The U.S.'s involvement in Vietnam was mainly a product of the Domino Theory. Eisenhower described the situation in Vietnam after the French were defeated at Dien Bien Phu: "You have a row of dominoes set up. You knock over the first one, and what will happen to the last one is the certainty that it will go over very quickly." The U.S. was afraid that if Communism was not stopped, it would continue to spread, slowly taking over all of Southeast Asia and beyond.

Senate officially condemns and censures McCarthy

December 2, 1954 - December 3, 1954


Quote: "Joseph R. McCarthy... tended to bring the Senate into dishonor and disrepute, to obstruct the constitutional processes of the Senate and to impair its dignity, and such conduct is hereby condemned."

Rosa Parks and the Desegregation of buses

1955 - 1956

(Montgomery, Alabama) Rosa Parks is arrested after she refuses to give up her seat on the bus to a white passenger. In protest of her arrest, the Montgomery black community organized a bus boycott, which lasted more than a year until the buses were desegregated on December 21st, 1956. Martin Luther King Jr leads the boycott.
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Suez Crisis

29 October 1956

Israel invaded Egypt's Sinai Peninsula with covert assent from France and Britain. The European nations had economic and trading interests in the Suez Canal, while Israel wanted to reopen the canal for Israeli shipping and end Egyptian-supported fedayeen incursions and attacks. Israel completely withdrew six months later when Egypt assured Israel unimpeded navigation and safety.

The Little Rock 9

1957 - 1958

(Little Rock, Arkansas)
Central High School, an all-white school, is integrated, but the nine black students are blocked from entering the school by orders from Governor Oral Faubus. President Eisenhower sends federal troops and the National Guard to back up the nine students, who would later be known as the “Little Rock Nine.”
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Southern Christian Leadership Conference

1957 - 1958

Martin Luther King Jr, Charles K. Steele, and Fred L. Shuttlesworth created the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. The SCLC encouraged peaceful protests and civil disobedience.
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First ICBM Launched, Leading to the First Artificial Satellite

August 21, 1957 - October 4, 1957


The Soviet R-7 Semyorka was the world's first Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM). The modified rocket helped launch Sputnik, the first artificial satellite, on October 4. The R-7 rocket family was used extensively during the Space Race.

Sputnik

Oct 4, 1957


The USSR starts the space race by launching beach-ball sized satellite. US feels as if they have fallen behind the USSR because they haven't successfully launched an ICBM-like rocket.

First Animal in Space

November 3, 1957


Laika was a Soviet space dog that became one of the first animals in space. She was the first animal to orbit the Earth. Her survival was unlikely, and she died hours after launch from overheating.

Pragmatic Reform Under Mao Ze-Dong

1958 - 1961


The Great Leap Forward was an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China. Private farming was prohibited, and those engaged in it were labeled as counter revolutionaries and persecuted.

First US Satellite

January 31, 1958


The first US satellite, Explorer I, was the American response to the Soviet Sputnik. It was more advanced and is famous for discovering the Van Allen radiation belts surrounding Earth. The launch of this satellite officially began the Space Race between the two nations.

National Aeronautics and Space Act

July 29, 1958 - October 1, 1958

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e5/NASA_logo.svg
This act replaced the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) and replaced it with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA was a distinctly civilian agency, as opposed to the military NACA. The agency became operational on October 1, 1958.

Launch of Luna I

January 2, 1959


This spacecraft was the first to leave geocentric orbit, reach the vicinity of the Moon and orbit the Sun. It was also the first satellite to detect solar wind, or ionized plasma emitted from the sun.

The Greensboro Sit-in

1960 - 1961

1960- Greensboro, North Carolina)
Black students from the North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College initiate a sit-in at a segregated lunch counter at Woolworth’s. They are refused service but are allowed to stay at the counter.
The event triggers many similar nonviolent protests throughout the South. Six months later the original four protesters are served lunch at the same Woolworth's counter. Student sit-ins would be effective throughout the Deep South in integrating parks, swimming pools, theaters, libraries, and other public facilities. https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/3iLc8Hnx31cmUqVJjC5gEgk-w3YPikWlXekjA23Jeuh6lKZRyWTNmkd1TqaH1NpXcssJ9duvkEBxXwIqYYtvi4aEm2G5de8SM3NopwOU2yMmZxU22RdAWDR_yQ

1960s Second Wave of the Feminist Movement

1960 - 1970

Brought on in part by Betty Friedan’s “Feminine Mystique,” the second wave of feminism, known as the Women's Liberation Movement came as a fairly delayed reaction against the vast domesticity of women after WWII.

Vietnam War: Ho Chi Minh Trail and Vietcong

1960 - 1975


The North Vietnamese Army (NVA) begin using the Ho Chi Minh Trail to carry weapons and supplies to the South, where Communist surges have begun. In 1960, the Vietcong (VC) is formed, the South Communist Force that wages guerrilla war on the U.S. troops.

John F. Kennedy

1961 - 1963


New generation, "Camelot". President during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Assassinated in November of 1963.

"Freedom Riders"

1961 - 1962

Student volunteers take bus trips through the South to see if new laws that prohibit segregation in interstate travel sites were being upheld. These volunteers were called “freedom riders,” and were often attacked on their rides. The program was sponsored by The Congress of Racial Equality and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.
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First Human in Space

April 12, 1961


Yuri Gagarin became the first human being in space when his Vostok spacecraft completed an orbit of Earth. He became an international celebrity and was awarded many medals and titles, including the Hero of the Soviet Union, the nation's highest honor.

The Bay of Pigs

April 17 1961

A group of Cuban exiles, backed by the US, invades Cuba at the Bay of Pigs in a failed attempt to trigger an anti-Castro rebellion

First Pilot-Controlled Spaceflight

May 5, 1961


The first human spaceflight by the USA was the Freedom 7 mission with Alan Shepard as the astronaut. It was also the first spaceflight to be controlled by the pilot: Gagarin never controlled his spacecraft.

Khrushchev and Kennedy

June 3 1961 - June 4 1961

Khrushchev and Kennedy hold summit talks in Vienna regarding the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Vietnam War: Strategic Hamlet Program

1962 - 1963


The Strategic Hamlet Program was President Kennedy's attempt to "win the hearts and minds of the locals" in South Vietnam. This program involved moving families from their homes into regions protected by U.S. troops. However, it was a culturally insensitive program that ultimately failed because the Vietnamese had strong ancestral ties to their homes.

Andrei Gromyko

September 11 1962

Soviet Foreign Minister, Andrei Gromyko, warns that an American attack on Cuba could mean war with the Soviet Union.

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Cuban Missile Crisis

Oct 14, 1962 - Oct 28, 1962

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The Cuban Missile Crisis is often regarded as the closest the Cold War ever came to evolving into a nuclear war, and thus instating MAD, or Mutually Assured Destruction. US spy planed photographed a missile in Cuba, just 90 miles from the US. The US perceived this as a threat by the Soviets, which is why the situation evolved to be the closest the Cold War came to nuclear warfare

EX-COMM's

October 14 1962 - October 17 1962

The Joint Chiefs of Staff strongly advise Kennedy to make an air strike

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Soviet Missile Cuban Installations

October 22 1962

Congressional leaders are shown the photographic evidence of the Soviet missile Cuban installations and the President addresses the nation regarding the Cuban crisis.

Letter to Khrushchev

October 25 1962

JFK sends a letter to Khrushchev placing the responsibility for the crisis on the Soviet Union.

Letter to Kennedy

October 26 1962

Khrushchev sends a letter to President Kennedy proposing to remove his missiles if Kennedy publicly announces never to invade Cuba.

Radio Moscow

October 28 1962

Khrushchev announces over Radio Moscow that he has agreed to remove the missiles from Cuba.

End of the Cuban Missile Crisis

October 28 1962

In return the US agrees to the withdrawal of US nuclear missiles from Turkey ending the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Publication of the Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan

1963

This nonfiction book first published in 1963 was widely credited with leading to the second wave of feminism in the US. It criticized the post WWII domestic lifestyle that most women lived, among other astute claims about women in America.

Vietnam War: Buddhist Protests and Diem Murder

1/1/1963 - 12/31/1963

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Ngo Dinh Diem, the President of South Vietnam, was fiercely Catholic despite a large Buddhist population in the region. He imposed harsh laws and policies that marginalized Buddhist representation in the area, such as removing Buddhist government leaders from office and replacing them with Catholics. The Buddhists protested through several ways including self-immolation. The U.S. did not approve of Diem’s leadership, and the CIA gave instructions for his murder which were carried out by the South Vietnamese army in 1963.

Lyndon Johnson

1963 - 1969

President during the escalation of the Vietnam War. He waged a war against communism in Vietnam while waging a war against poverty in the US(Great Society Programs)

First Woman and First Civilian in Space

June 16, 1963


Valentina Tereshkova became both the first civilian and the first woman to fly in space when she piloted the Vostok 2 spacecraft.

March on Washington

August 28, 1963

Washington, D.C- The March on Washington- 200,00 people march on Washington, meeting at the Lincoln Memorial, and Martin Luther King Jr delivers his “I Have a Dream” speech.

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Vietnam War: Escalation

1964 - 1968


President Johnson employed many military tactics in an effort to destroy his communist enemies. These included Agent Orange, which consisted of spraying defoliants in orange cans that would expose Vietcong (VC) roads and trails. The U.S. troops also conducted search-and-destroy missions; they used new technology such as helicopters to seek out the enemy, destroy as many soldiers as possible, and then withdraw from the location. Most of the fighting during the Vietnam war was made very difficult due to the VC and NVA using guerrilla tactics and tunnel systems along with the Ho Chi Minh trail that helped them evade the U.S. soldiers fairly easily and made tracking the enemy incredibly difficult for the American and Vietnamese anti-communist fighters.

24th Amendment

January 24, 1964

The 24th Amendment abolishes the poll tax, which originally had been established in southern states after Reconstruction in order to make it difficult for poor blacks to vote.
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Palestinian Liberation Organization founded

12 February 1964

The Palestine Liberation Organization is founded in Cairo by the Arab League with Ahmad Shuqeiri as its leader. Even though Ahmad Shuqeiri is the official leader, the organization is more or less controlled by the Egyptian government. The PLO states their goal as the destruction of the State of Israel through armed struggle, and replacing it with an "independent Palestinian state" between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea. Others around the world, including the first airplane hijackings.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964

July 2, 1964

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 gets signed by President Johnson. The Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination of all kinds based on race, color, religion, or national origin. The law also provides the federal government with the powers to enforce desegregation.
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Vietnam War: Gulf of Tonkin Incident and Resolution

8/2/1964 - 8/7/1964


In August, North Vietnamese torpedoes allegedly fired on a U.S. ship in the Gulf of Tonkin. After this event, Congress gave President Johnson full permission to take the necessary actions to protect the U.S. forces in Vietnam. Johnson used the incident as an excuse to escalate the war in an effort to defeat communism in Southeast Asia. Because Johnson had been waiting to justify escalation, there has since been evidence to suggest that the event might not have happened and the U.S. Congress with Johnson may have fabricated the course of events.

Voting Rights Act of 1965

1965 - 1966

Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965, making it easier for Southern black people to register to vote. Literacy tests, poll taxes, and other restrictions that were used to obstruct black people from voting are made illegal.
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First Spacewalk

March 18, 1965


The first extra-vehicular activity, in this case a "spacewalk", was performed by Alexey Leonov. He exited the Voskhod 2 spacecraft and conducted a 12-minute spacewalk.

National Organization of Women (NOW)

1966

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This organization founded in 1966 was developed within the Women’s Liberation movement to further the advancement of women in society. Founders include Betty Friedan, the writer of the “Feminine Mystique.” The group was well known for advocating the Equal Rights Amendment.

Cultural Revolution

1966 - 1976


Set into motion by Mao Zedong, then Chairman of the Communist Party of China, its stated goal was to enforce communism in the country by removing capitalist, traditional and cultural elements from Chinese society, and to impose Maoist orthodoxy within the Party.

First Soft Landing on the Moon

February 3, 1966


The Luna 9 spacecraft was the first to successfully land on another celestial body without being destroyed. This is extremely important as it proved that a spacecraft containing a human could also land on the Moon. It also took the first pictures from another celestial body.

Loving v Virginia- Interracial Marriage

1967 - 1968

In Loving versus Virginia case, the Supreme Court rules that prohibiting interracial marriage is unconstitutional. States that had banned interracial marriage were forced to revise their laws.
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Six Day War

5 June 1967 - 10 June 1967

Israel launches a strike on Egyptian Air Force (June 5), following Egyptian naval blockade of the Straits of Tiran (May 22) and Egyptian military buildup in the Sinai Peninsula (May 16), interpreted as acts of war. Attack quickly turns into a regional war, in which Israel defeats the combined forces of Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq and their supporters. It captures the Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip from Egypt, East Jerusalem and the West Bank from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria. The number of war casualties is estimated between 15,000 to 25,000.

Vietnam War: Tet Offensive

1/1/1968 - 1/2/1968


In January of 1968, the NVA and VC attacked several strategic locations in South Vietnam, including the U.S. embassy in Saigon. Although the U.S. military was caught off guard, they were quickly able to push the forces back and regain most of the territory. Vietnam was one of the first wars during which news could be sent to individual families through TV broadcasts, and many reference it as a “living room war”. Images of the Tet Offensive, specifically Vietcong in the U.S. embassy, were broadcast across the U.S. and sparked what became called the “credibility gap” among U.S. citizens; Americans felt that they had been lied to, believing that the U.S. involvement in Vietnam was a great success and the communist forces had made no advances. After the images of the VC in the U.S. embassy, many Americans did not trust the information the government had been feeding them, and they begin to question the necessity of U.S. involvement in Vietnam. Thus, the Tet Offensive became a turning point in the war, not because of success on behalf of the communist side, but due to the fact that home support for the American front decreased considerably from this point forward.

Vietnam War: Operation Breakfast

1968 - 1969


As the futile attempts on behalf of the U.S. forces continued, President Nixon took secret actions to decrease the power of his enemies. He ordered that bombings of Cambodia and Laos, the countries bordering Vietnam, be carried out in an effort to destroy the Communist supply routes such as the Ho Chi Minh Trail that went through Laos and Cambodia. This program was called “Operation Breakfast”, and continued for fourteen months, unbeknownst to the American public or Congress.

Martin Luther King is Assassinated

April 4, 1968

The Civil Rights Act of 1968

April 11, 1968

President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968, prohibiting discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing.
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Vietnam War: Vietnamization

1969 - 1975


After the continued defeat of U.S. troops at the hands of the North Vietnamese Army and Vietcong coupled with an extreme lack of support on the American home front, President Nixon announced the program called “Vietnamization”, whereby U.S. troops would begin training the South Vietnamese Army troops to take over the role of the U.S. in fighting the Communist forces. Vietnamization was Nixon's attempt to create "peace with honor" to avoid U.S. embarrassment. The American soldiers gradually returned to the U.S., leaving the war in the hands of the South Vietnamese Army. By 1975, the last American troops were leaving Vietnam just as Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, fell to the communists and was renamed Ho Chi Minh after the Northern communist leader.

Richard Nixon

1969 - 1974


Ended the war in Vietnam. "Peace with honor". Mired in scandal due to Watergate.

Yasser Arafat appointed chairman of PLO

2 February 1969

First Humans on the Moon

July 21, 1969


Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first human beings to set foot on a celestial body when their Apollo 11 spacecraft touched down on the Moon. They also performed the first space launch from another celestial body. While it was a self-defined goal of the US, landing on the Moon effectively ended the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union.

Detente

1971

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Detente was the thawing period between the US and USSR during the Cold War. Both nations agreed to SALT, strategic arms limitation talks, and began interactions between leaders Nixon and Brezhnev

The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)

1972

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The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was a proposed amendment for the United States Constitution which had the intent to guarantee equal rights for women. It gained approval by Congress in 1972 after support from the NOW.

Gerald Ford

1974 - 1977


Pardoned Richard Nixon. Struggled with stagflation(high unemployment and high inflation)

Palestinian Insurgency in South Lebanon

1974 - 1982

Kiryat Shmona Massacre

11 April 1974

The PFLP General Command crossed the border into Israel from Lebanon. They entered an apartment building and killed all eighteen residents, half of whom were children.

Title 9

1975

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Title IX is a portion of the Education Amendments of 1972. It aimed to guarantee women equal rights for education and federal financial aid. It had arguably the largest impact on women’s high school and collegiate athletics. The Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) stated the final details of how Title 9 would be implemented in 1975.

Savoy Operation

4 March 1975

Eight Palestinian terrorists in two teams landed by boat in Tel Aviv. Shooting and throwing grenades, they captured the Savoy Hotel and take the guests as hostages. Five hostages were freed and eight were killed. Three Israeli soldiers were also killed.
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Qingming festival

April 2 1976

The festival was a tribute to Zhou Enlai in Tiananmen square on April 2. People placed paper wreaths and white paper chrysanthemums at the foot of the Monument to the People’s Heroes. On April 7, Deng Xiaoping is suspended from all government positions.

Operation Entebbe

4 July 1976

Air France Flight 139, originating in Tel Aviv, took off from Athens, Greece, heading for Paris. It was hijacked by four terrorists (two from the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine and two from the radical German militant group Revolutionary Cells). Israel performed a rescue mission to free the 248 passengers and 12 crew members held hostage at Entebbe Airport in Uganda.

Death of Mao Ze-Dong

September 9 1976


Mao's last public appearance was on May 27, 1976, where he met the visiting Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto during the latter's one-day visit to Beijing. He was taken off life support and was pronounced dead at 12:10 am on September 9, 1976.

Deng Xiaoping becomes leader of PRC

1977

In late 1977, Deng Xiaoping emerges as the leader of the People’s Republic of China. Following his emergence of leadership, he takes a much more liberal stance than Mao, and enacts several reforms.
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Jimmy Carter

1977 - 1981

President who struggled with economic difficulties.

Stagflation(high unemployment and high inflation)
Had success with the Camp David Accords but experienced real difficulties when the Iranian Revolution resulted in the taking of US hostages.

Deng Xiaoping's restoration of power

July 1977

Deng Xiaoping is restored to positions of power: Vice Premier, Vice Chairman of CCP, and Vice Chairman of the Military Commission and the Army Chief of Staff. This led to Deng Xiaoping’s rise to full leadership of the PRC.
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Deng Xiaoping's Four Modernizations reforms

August 1977

Four Modernizations reforms are enacted: agriculture, industry, national defense, and science and technology. Deng Xiaoping had previously been involved in these modernizations during his rehabilitation period when Mao was still in power.

Treaty of Peace and Friendship

1978

PRC signed a treaty of peace and friendship with Japan. The treaty consisted of five articles and was strongly opposed by the Soviet Union.
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Democracy Wall

1978

The use of the democracy wall begins. The democracy wall was the focus of democratic dissent. New ideas about democracy were included, and many protests were sparked because of this wall.
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Soviet Withdrawal

January 1979

Soviet Occupation

December 1979 - February 1980

Soviet forces seize several urban centers, in an attempt to pacify the Mujaheddin rebels.

Russo-Afghan War

December 24, 1979 - February 15, 1989

Operation Storm-333

December 27, 1979

A Russian Spetsnaz team storms the Tajbeg Palace, killing Afghan President Hafizullah Amin and 200 of his personal guards.

Backlash to feminism, Phyllis Schlafly

1980 - 1990

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Backlash to the second wave of feminism occurred starting in the 1970s. Phyllis Schlafly is best known for her anti feminist ideas and her opposition to the Equal Rights Amendment. Schlafly argued that it would take away gender specific privileges such as "dependent wife" benefits under Social Security. Schlafly gained much support from more conservative parties.

Carter's Address to the Nation on the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan

January 4, 1980

Beginning of US involvement in Afghanistan.

Soviet Offensives in the Panjshir Valley

March 1980 - April 1985

A multi-divisional Soviet task force launched nine unsuccessful offensives to capture the strategically important Panjshir Valley, which allowed the Mujaheddin rebels to travel freely between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Grossly underestimating the rebels' numbers and strength, heavy fighting spread throughout the entire valley and into Pakistan.

Ronald Reagan

1981 - 1989

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President during the end of the Cold War. worked closely with Mikhail Gorbachev to reduce nuclear weapons.

Reagan Invests in SDI

1984 - 1989

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Reagan invests in SDI (self defence initiative/star wars), as a result the USSR has to spend money on a new generation of weapons

Gorbachev Promotes Glasnost & Perestroika

1985 - 1990

Geneva Summit

11/1985 - 12/1985

Reykjvik Summit

10/1986 - 11/1986

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"Intellectual Breakthrough" -Gorbachev
ended without agreement though because Reagan was unwilling to let go of SDI

Washington Summit

12/1987 - 1/1988

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INF treaty signed abolishing intermediate and shorter range missiles in Europe

First Intifada

8 December 1987

Violence, riots, general strikes, and civil disobedience campaigns by Palestinians spread across the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Israeli forces respond with tear gas, plastic bullets, and live ammunition.

Moscow Summit

05/1988 - 06/1988

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Disagree over SDI, USSR is nor longer an "Evil Empire" as stated by Reagan in the middle of Red Square

George H.W. Bush

1989 - 1993

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President at the end of the Cold War. US and UN coalition invade Kuwait to remove Saddam Hussein's Republican Guard.

Malta Summit

1989 - 1990

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Shevardnadze declared superpowers had buried the Cold War at the bottom of the Mediterranean.

Soviet Withdrawal Begins

January 1989

The Fence Comes Down

05/1989 - 06/1989

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The fence separating Hungary and non-communist Austria is dismantled by the Hungarian government.

Formal end of hostility between USSR and PRC

May 16, 1989

Gorbachev and Xiaoping shake hands as a formal end of hostility between USSR and China. During the negotiations, China demanded that the USSR stop aiding Vietnam in their occupation of Cambodia. This treaty strengthened their international standing and allowed for their countries to start economic reforms.
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Goddess of Democracy

May 30 1989

Goddess of Democracy appears in Tiananmen Square.This was created during the Tiananmen square protests in 1989.It was constructed in four days out of foam and paper-mache. It was created so that it would be hard for the government to dismantle it.
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Solidarity 1989

06/1989 - 07/1989

Tiananmen Square Massacre

June 4 1989

Protests in Tiananmen square for the promotion of democracy were sparked by Hu Yaobang. Deng Xiaoping condemned the demonstration and claimed that they were “anti-socialist.”
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Deng Xiaoping's Resignation from office

November 1989

Deng Xiaoping resigned his last official position as head of the Central Military Commission. Deng Xiaoping was a very successful leader because he reformed much of China, and improved the living standards and the voices of the people of China.
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Article 6 dropped

01/1990 - 02/1990

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Article 6 of the 1977 Soviet Constitution placed limitations on the political rights of Soviet citizens. By dropping this from the constitution the USSR showed that many changes were coming to the government and people including the end of communist rule in Russia.

Minsk Agreement

01/1991 - 12/1991

START

July 31, 1991


START is the largest and most complex arms control treaty in history. Start was a treaty between the US and USSR to reduce and limit the total number of nuclear arms each nation possessed.

Gorbachev Resigns

12/25/1991 - 12/26/1991

Bill Clinton

1993 - 2001


President during an extended economic expansion. Impeached in second term for extra-marital affair.

Second Intifada

2000

Scientific Innovations

Invention of the Airplane

1903

In 1903, the airplane was invented by the Wright Brothers, Orville and Wilbur Wright. After many tests, the Wright Brothers took the Flyer on a 12-second powered, piloted flight in Kitty Hawk North Carolina. Later in 1904, they successfully flew more than five-minutes. The brothers spent months designing the landing gear, propellers, and wings. The legacy of this invention is demonstrated by the impact airplanes will have on war later in the 20th century.

Theory of Relativity

1905

1905- Albert Einstein published the Theory of Relativity- Albert Einstein was named person of the century by time magazine. His theories revamped physics knowledge that had been accepted for centuries. Einstein's Theory of Relativity argues that space and time can dilate, and that the speed of light does not vary. Einstein also argues that gravity bends space.
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Invention of the Transitor

1925

1925- Julius Edgar Lilienfeld, from Canada, filed a patent for the field-effect transistor. The transistor is a semiconductor that either amplifies electric signals, or switches and electric signal. Common devices such as telephones and computers are reliant on the transistor to function, and so the transistor paved the way for more modern appliances. In 1947 William Shockley invented the bipolar point-contact transistor, and was award the Nobel Prize in physics.
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Discovery of Penicillin

1928

Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming in Scotland in 1928. Because of Fleming’s discovery that a certain mold had killed the bacteria on the slides he was working with, other scientists were able to derive the antibacterial agent within the mold. Antibacterial penicillin was developed as quickly as possible during WWII, and saved many Allied Lives following the D-day invasion. Bacterial disease could be effectively countered after this discovery, and many lives have been saved. Fleming earned the Nobel Prize for his contribution.
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Invention of Color Television

1942

The modern color television system invented in 1942. Television is extremely prevalent in the world we live in today. In order for television to be invented, engineers would have to capture, transmit, and project images very quickly. Leon Theremin in Russia made a drum based television set. In 1942, however, television as we know it came into the picture. A screen with color was another invention in itself, and we have Guillermo Gonzalez Camarena of Mexico to thank.
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Colossus

1943

Colossus was built. It was the first electronic programmable computer, and was invented by Tommy Flowers. It was invented to help British code breakers read the encrypted German messages in World War II. This was a major step for the development of the computer.
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Invention of the Atomic Bomb

1945

The first atomic bomb was built as part of the “Manhattan Project” and then dropped on Japan by the United States. Robert Oppenheimer, David Bohm, and Neils Bohr were some major contributors to the project. Nuclear Warfare was the reason for the MAD concept of the Cold War, and is today an important power source.
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The Korean War leading into the Cold War

1953


The Korean War was the first proxy war, this lead into many events of the Cold War and other proxy wars; the Vietnam War(1957), the Bay of Pigs Invasion(1961), and Cuban Missile Crisis (1962). These wars were crucial in the Cold War.

The Very End of the Korean War

July 27, 1953

The communist end stopped and fighting stopped completely. The Cold War started up by the Korean experience would continue to rise in the coming decades.

CD

1965

The compact disk (CD) was invented by James Russell in 1965. It is a disc that stores optical data, and it can hold up to 700 MB. CD’s were available to the consumer by 1982. When the CD was first invented, it had more capacity than the computer hard drive, but now computers far exceed the CD.
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Invention of the Microprocessor

1971

The invention of the microprocessor made computers faster and even more useful. A microprocessor is a chip made of silicon that controls most of the digital aspects of a computer. The microprocessor has been designed to be increasingly more fast and are better quality. They are used in supercomputers and other technological devices.

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MRI

1977

Magnetic resonance imaging was invented by Raymond V. Damadian in 1977. The MRI was made possible with the development of a mathematical technique that would allow scans to take seconds instead of minutes. A full MRI body scan was taken for the first time in 1977. MRI scans allow medical professionals to distinguish pathological tissue from normal tissue, without harming the patient in any way.

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World Wide Web

1990

The World Wide Web and the WWW language were created by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990. The World Wide Web was accessible to the public by 1993. It allowed easy access to the internet.
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