Middle Ages

Middle Ages

The Byzantine Empire

476

-This is one of the most important dates in all of "The Dark Ages" because it started the Medieval Period.

Medieval period (The Dark Ages)

476 - 1453

-Includes Early Middle Ages (476-1000), High Middle Ages (1000-1300, Late Middle Ages (1300-1453).

Franks

481

-The start of the Franks.
-Led by Clovis
-Then passed down to Charles Martel, Pepin (the short), Charlemagne, then he passed it down to his son who didn't want it, so then he passed it down to his three sons who split the empire into three
-Treaty of Verdun

The Middle Ages

500 - 1500

-The period in Western Europe when the centralized Roman government collapsed.
-Slow decline of the Roman Empire

Clovis (Christianity)

511

-Clovis and his men believe in Christianity.
-Religious Community
-People spreading Christianity.

Battle Of Tours

732

-Charles Martel leads the Franks into battle.
-They defeat the Umayyad Muslims from Spain.
-Considered a hero.
-Europe uses knights in Batle of Tours

Charlemagne

800

-He was crowned emperor.
-promoted education
-He was 6'4 when the average height was 5'5.

Treaty Of Verdun

843

When Charlemagne died he gave it to his son but his son didn't want to be part of the empire. He gives it to his three sons which make the empire split. They call it the Treaty Of Verdun.

Feudalism

850 - 950

-begins to spread across Europe (political, military, social, economic system) based on land holding and protecting alliances
-Includes a King/Lord, Nobility, Knights, Vassals, Serfs/Peasants
-Knights defend the Lords land in exchange for fiefs
-Peasants work for protection and shelter
-Vassals can become very powerful.

Vikings

870 - 1066

-Germanic people from Scandinavia
-When Vikings attack, they attack brutally
-introduced axes
-Invaded to get food and money
-lived in small areas ruled by chieftains

The Saxons defeat

1066

-The battle of Hastings
-The defeat of the Saxons by William

Holy War

1095

-Urban II began to rally help from others.
-He called Western Europeans to be apart of of the holy war against the Moslems.

The First Crusade

1096 - 1099

-various armies meet at Constantinople
-60,000-150,000 troops
-Battle of Nicaea
-held by Turks
-1097 army splits into 2 heads to Antioch
-Turks fled in panic
-1099 they were left 20,000 men

Crusaders

1096 - 1272

-Translated into "Holy War"
-Total of nine crusades
-1095 to 1272
-Western Europe
-Christians vs Muslims

Feudal Latin Kingdom

1099 - 1187

-The crusading knights succeeded in their battle against the Turks in Syria and Asia Minor.
-That created feudal Latin kingdom of Jerusalem.

The Age of Chivalry

1100

-knighthood
-weapons (seige tower, trebutchet, battering ram)
-armor
-castles

The Second Crusade

1144 - 1155

-Muslims recapture Edessa in 1144
-The second crusade launched to get it back from them.

The Third Crusade

1187 - 1192

-1187 Jerusalem falls to the Muslims (leader Saladin of Egypt)
-Christians led by Phillip II, Frederick I, Richard the Lionhearted
-Phillip goes home, Frederick dies, Richard is left by himself
-Richard gets all the glory
-Muslim control: Christians can visit holy places

The Fourth Crusade

1202 - 1204

-1204 they fail to reach the holy place, Jerusalem
-In 1204 Teenagers try to get into action but they fail and get enslaved

Fall of Constantinople

1453

-The empire collapsed