Egypt!

Rulers

King Djoser

2686 bc - 2648 bc

Builds first stone mortuary complex at Saqqara

King Sneferu

2613 bc - 2589 bc

Builds three pyramids at Meidum and Sahshur

King Khufu

2589 bc - 2566 bc

Builds Great Pyramid at Giza

King Djedefra

2566 bc - 2558 bc

Begins pyramid at Abu Rawash

King Khafra

2558 bc - 2532 bc

Builds second pyramid at Giza and Great Sphinx

King Menkaura

2532 bc - 2503 bc

Builds third pyramid at Giza

King Shepseskaf

2503 bc - 2498 bc

Builds colossal mastaba at Saqqara

King Userkaf

2494 bc - 2487 bc

Builds pyramid at Saqqara and solar temple at Abusir Widow Khentkaus 1 may have held kingship briefly

King Nyuserra

2445 bc - 2421 bc

Builds pyramid at Abusir and solar temple at Abu Ghurab

King Unas

2375 bc - 2345 bc

Earliest preserved Pyramid Texts appear in his tomb

King Pepy 1

2321 bc - 2287 bc

Period of prosperity

King Pepy 2

2278 bc - 2184 bc

Longest rule of ancient Egyptian history in Manetho's list
Regionalization of power becomes visible

King Wahankh Intef 2

2112 bc - 2063 bc

Starts to use title King of Upper and Lower Egypt

King Mentuhotep 2

2055 bc - 2004 bc

Terminates the competing dynasty of Herakleopolis
Constructs mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri

King Mentuhotep IV

1992 bc - 1985 bc

Confusion at court

King Amenemhat 1

1985 bc - 1956 bc

Re-establishes order
Founds new capital at Itj-tawi

King Senusret 1

1956 bc - 1911 bc

Builds extensively all over Egypt, including at Amun temple at Karnak
Builds pyramid at Lisht
Campaigns in Lower Nubia

King Amenemhat 2

1911 bc - 1877 bc

Leaves annalistic account of his reign (now fragmentary)

King Senusret 2

1877 bc - 1870 bc

Starts the development of the Fayyum region

King Senusret 3

1870 bc - 1831 bc

Campaigns in the Levant and especially in Nubia
Office of nomarch disappears from the offical record

King Amenemhat 3

1831 bc - 1786 bc

Further develops the Fayyum

Queen Sobekneferu

1777 bc - 1773 bc

Last ruler of the 12th Dynasty

Classical Kerma phase in Nubia

1750 bc - 1500 bc

King Ahmose

1550 bc - 1525 bc

Expels the hyksos and conquers Sharuhen in southern Palestine
Raids Nubia south of the second cataract
Builds last royal pyramid at Abydos

King Amenhotep 1

1525 bc - 1504 bc

Campaigns in Nubia at least as far as the third cataract
Possibly establishes workers' village at Deir el-Medina

King Thutmose 1

1504 bc - 1492 bc

Campaigns in Nubia between fourth and fifth cataracts
Defeats the Kingdom of Kush and destroys Kerma
Campaigns in Syria as far as the Euphrates River
Fathers Thutmose 2 and Hatshepsut with wives Mutnofret and Ahmose respectively

King Thutmose 2

1492 bc - 1479 bc

Confronts rebellion in northern Kush

King Thutmose 3

1479 bc - 1425 bc

Rules Egypt in name only while Hatshepsut is in control, 1479 - 1458
Campaigns extensively in Syria and Palestine, 1458 - 1449
Fights battle of Megiddo, 1457
Possibly establishes full Egyptian control over Nubia
Initiates much temple construction

Queen Hatshepsut

1473 bc - 1458 bc

Acts as regent for young Thutmose 3, 1479 - 1473
Becomes king of Egypt in or before 1473
Sends expedition to land of Punt
Byilds mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri
Disappears from the record around 1458

King Amenhotep 2

1427 bc - 1400 bc

Presents himself as great huntsman, charioteer, and archer
Initiates diplomatic contacts in the Near East after period of military campaigns

King Thutmose IV

1400 bc - 1390 bc

Marries Mittanni princess

King Amenhotep 3

1390 bc - 1352 bc

Initiates major construction activity in Thebes and throughout Egypt
Marries two Mittanni princesses, Kelu-Heba and Tadu-Heba
Celebrates three sed-festivals

king Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten

1352 bc - 1336 bc

Focuses all official attention on the Aten sun disk
Moves his capital to Akhetaten
Marries Nefertiti and raises her to a status equal to himself

King Tutankhamun

1336 bc - 1327 bc

Is forced to abandon Akhetaten for Memphis
Restoration of traditional cults starts

King Ay

1327 bc - 1323 bc

Ascends throne as old man with government experience

King Horemheb

1323 bc - 1295 bc

Becomes king after career as commander-in-chief
Dismantles Akhenaten's buildings in Karnak
Starts erasing the memory of his predecessors

King Rameses 1

1295 bc - 1294 bc

Crowned king after career in army and administration

King Sety 1

1294 bc - 1279 bc

Campaigns in Syria, western desert, and Nubia
Initiates much building activity
Involves crown-prince Rameses in royal functions from year 7 on

King Ramesses 2

1279 bc - 1213 bc

Commissions massive building activity throughout Egypt and Nubia
Fights Hittites in battle of Qadesh, 1275
Concludes peace treaty with Hittites, 1259
Marries Hittite princess, 1246
Receives cult as god while alive

King Merenptah

1213 bc - 1203 bc

Claims victory over invading Libyans and Sea Peoples, 1209

Kings Sety 2 and Amenmessu

1203 bc - 1194 bc

Civil war for 2 to 3 years

King Saptah

1194 bc - 1188 bc

Placed on the throne by butler Bay
Executes Bay in year 5, 1190

Queen Tausret

1188 bc - 1186 bc

Wife of Sety 2 who ascended throne after her regency in Saptah's reign

King Sethnakht

1186 bc - 1184 bc

Takes throne as non-royal and seeks to restore order

King Rameses 3

1184 bc - 1153 bc

Builds mortuary temple at Medinet Habu
Claims victories over invading Libyans, 1180 and 1174
Claims victory over Sea Peoples, 1177
Grants huge tracts of land to temples
Strikes of the Deir el-Medina workforce
Harem conspiracy

Kings Rameses IV-X

1153 bc - 1099 bc

Mostly brief and poorly documented reigns of middle-aged men
Tomb robberies
Successive strikes by Deir el-Medina workers

King Rameses XI

1099 bc - 1069 bc

Temple robberies
Civil war in Thebes
Proclaims "Era of restoration" starting in year 19, 1081
High priest of Amun becomes independent

King Shabaqo

715 bc - 702 bc

Unites Nubia and Egypt, ca. 711
Develops Memphis as his northern capital

King Shabitqo

702 bc - 690 bc

Confronts Assyria at Eltekeh in Palestine, 701

king Taharqo

690 bc - 664 bc

Embellishes monuments throughout Egypt and Nubia
Flees Memphis under Assyrian pressure, 671
Recaptures northern Egypt, 669
Chased from Egypt by Assurbanipal, who raids Thebes and deposes vassal rulers, except Nekau and Psamtek of Sais, 667-666

King Tanutamani

664 bc - 656 bc

Recaptures Egypt, 664
Is permanently removed from Egypt by Assurbanipal who reinstates Psamtek as his primary vassal, 663

King Psamtek 1 [Greek Psammetichos]

664 bc - 610 bc

Proclaims himself King of Upper and Lower Egypt, 657-656

King Nekau 2 [Greek Necho]

610 bc - 595 bc

Fails to save last Assyrian king in Harran, 610
Loses battle of Carchemish against Babylonians, 605

King Psamtek 2 [Greek Psammetichos]

595 bc - 589 bc

Invades Nubia, 593
Invades Palestine, 591
Erases memory of 25th-dynasty rulers

King Haaibra [Greek Apries]

589 bc - 570 bc

Fails to annex Cyrene

King Ahmose 2 [Greek Amasis]

570 bc - 526 bc

Regularizes Greek presence at Naukratis

King Psamtek 3 [Greek Psammetichos]

526 bc - 525 bc

Suffers defeat by Persian Cambyses a few months into his reign

King Cambyses

525 bc - 522 bc

Conquers Egypt, but fails in his attempts to extend empire to Cyrene, the Egyptian oases, and Nubia

King Darius 1

522 bc - 486 bc

Orders the collection of Egyptian laws
Develops temple in Kharga oasis and builds Red Sea canal

King Amyrtaios

404 bc - 399 bc

Ruler from the Delta whose authority reached southern Egypt only in 400

King Nepherites 1

399 bc - 393 bc

Ruler from Mendes who replaced 28th dynasty

King Hakor [Greek Achoris]

393 bc - 380 bc

Wins out against two other claimants to the throne
Organizes military campaign to Cyprus

King Nectanebo 1

380 bc - 362 bc

Seizes throne as military commander
Commissions much building activity
Prevents Artaxerxes 2 from retaking Egypt, 374/3

30th Dynasty

380 bc - 343 bc

King Teos [Greek Tachos]

362 bc - 360 bc

Invades Syria

King Nectanebo 2

360 bc - 343 bc

Usurps throne

King Artaxerxes 3 Ochus

343 bc - 338 bc

Institutes oppressive regime upon reconquest of Egypt

King Darius 3 Codoman

336 bc - 332 bc

Loses empire to Alexander of Macedon

Overall Periods

Late Predynastic-Early Dynastic Period

3400 bc - 2686 bc

Late Naqada Period

3400 bc - 3000 bc

Growth of regional centers at Naqada, Hierakonopolis, and Abydos
Monumental tombs at Abydos

Old Kingdom

2686 bc - 2345 bc

Late Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period

2345 bc - 2055 bc

Middle Kingdom

2055 bc - 1650 bc

Second Intermediate Period

1700 bc - 1550 bc

Late Period

715 bc - 332 bc

dates are more or less

Dynasties

Dynasty 0

3200 bc - 3000 bc

Kings Scorpion, Narmer, etc
First attempts at full unification of Egypt
End of A-group culture in Nubia

1st Dynasty

3000 bc - 2890 bc

Definitive unification of Egypt
Capital at Thinis (near Abydos cemetery)
Establishment of Memphis near junction of Upper and Lower Egypt

2nd Dynasty

2890 bc - 2686 bc

First royal tombs at Saqqara (alongside Memphis)
First known writing of entire Egyptian sentences

3rd Dynasty

2686 bc - 2613 bc

Memphis becomes the royal burial site

4th Dynasty

2613 bc - 2494 bc

5th Dynasty

2494 bc - 2345 bc

6th Dynasty

2345 bc - 2181 bc

7th and 8th Dynasties

2181 bc - 2160 bc

Numerous kings from Memphis often called Neferkara in imitation of Pepy 2

9th and 10th Dynasties

2160 bc - 2025 bc

Rulers from Herakleopolis with power limited to northern
Middle Egypt and the Delta

11th Dynasty, first half

2125 bc - 2055 bc

Rules southern Egypt only from Thebes

11th Dynasty, First Half

2125 bc - 2055 bc

Rules southern Egypt only from Thebes

11th Dynasty, second half

2055 bc - 1985 bc

12th Dynasty

1985 bc - 1773 bc

13th Dynasty

1773 bc - 1650 bc

Numerous kings, mostly ephemeral, but some with long reigns
Royal court moves from Itj-tawi to Thebes, ca. 1700

14th Dynasty

1700 bc - 1650 bc

Minor rulers in northern Egypt

Later 13th Dynasty

1700 bc - 1650 bc

Court leaves Itj-tawi for Thebes
Egypt loses control over Lower Nubia

16th Dynasty

1650 bc - 1580 bc

Minor rulers in northern Egypt, subject to the Hyksos

15th Dynasty

1650 bc - 1550 bc

Six Hyksos kings rule northern Egypt from Avaris
King Apepi confronts the Theban ruler Kamose

17th Dynasty

1650 bc - 1550 bc

Theban successors to 13th dynasty
King Seqenenra Taa dies violently, possibly in battle
King Kamose initiates campaign against Hyksos and the Kingdom of Kush, ca. 1555

Early 18th Dynasty

1550 bc - 1390 bc

Late 18th Dynasty

1390 bc - 1295 bc

Early 19th Dynasty

1295 bc - 1203 bc

Late 19th and 20th Dynasties

1213 bc - 1070 bc

21st - early 25th Dynasties

1069 bc - 715 bc

21st Dynasty

1069 bc - 945 bc

Royal dynasty of Tanis shares power with High Priests of Amun at Thebes
High Priests hide New Kingdom royal mummies in caches
Tanis developed as counterpart to Thebes in the Delta

22nd Dynasty

945 bc - 715 bc

Kings in Tanis acknowledge Libyan background overtly
King Sheshonq 1 concentrates power in Tanis and raids Palestine
Increased fragmentation of power between families related by blood and marriage, ca. 850

23rd Dynasty

818 bc - 715 bc

Grouping of rulers from multiple centers in parallel to Manetho's 22nd to early 25th dynasties
Office of God's Wife of Amun gains great importance

Early 25th Dynasty

750 bc - 715 bc

King Kashta places daughter Amenirdis as God's Wife in Thebes, ca. 750
King Piy raids throughout Egypt, 728

24th Dynasty

727 bc - 715 bc

Two Libyan kings at Sais
King Tefnakt seeks hegemony over northern Egypt

Later 25th Dynasty

715 bc - 656 bc

26th Dynasty

664 bc - 525 bc

27th Dynasty

525 bc - 404 bc

First period of Persian occupation

28th Dynasty

404 bc - 399 bc

29th Dynasty

399 bc - 380 bc

31st Dynasty

343 bc - 332 bc

Second period of Persian occupation