Mussolini begins his fascist movement and gains power in Italy. This fascist movement later spreads to Germany, where it creates Nazi Germany.
Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand
28 June 1914
The Archduke of Austria was assassinated by Serbian nationalists. This event sparked World War II.
Japan makes 21 demands on China:
18 January 1915
Japan had become a powerful country after its victories in the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War and it wanted to expand its influence in China. The demands, which ended up only being 13, did not give Japan much that they did not already have.
25 April 1915 - 9 January 1916
This campaign resulted in an Allied failure. Britain and France attempted to capture Constantinople to secure a sea route to Russia, but failed.
German resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare
Germany resumed this submarine warfare to draw America into the war. This plan worked and America joined the war after seven of their merchant ships were sunk.
Civil war in Russia
November 1917 - October 1922
The Russian Civil War was a war between the Bolshevik Red Army and the anti-Bolshevik White Army. This war resulted in the establishment of the Soviet Union.
7 November 1917 - 8 November 1917
A revolution that overthrew the Russian Provisional Government and gave power to the soviets. This was an important step in the creation of the Soviet Union.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
3 March 1918
This treaty consisted of negotiations for Russia’s exit from World War I. Russia gave Germany land in return for a cease-fire.
Paris Peace Conference
18 January 1919 - 21 January 1919
The conference was the meeting of the Allied powers after their victory in World War I. They created treaties that imposed war guilt and financial penalties upon Germany and reshaped borders in Europe.
Civil disobedience movement in India
1920 - 1929
Gandhi used civil disobedience for India to gain independence from Britain. Civil disobedience was a non-violent way of revolting against British rule
First Meeting of the League of Nations
The League first met in 1920 without Germany, Russia, or the Soviet Union. It was the first meeting of any international peace organization.
Lenin’s Economic Policy
21 March 1921
Lenin’s economic policy, called the New Economic Policy, was a plan to institute state capitalism. This plan included a mixed economy, nationalized industry, and abolished forced grain requisition.
Ataturk proclaims Republic of Turkey
29 October 1923
Ataturk proclaimed the Republic of Turkey, abolishing the Ottoman Empire. Ataturk continued to convert the new Republic into a secular, modern nation-state.
First Soviet Five-Year Plan
1928 - 1932
The First Soviet Five-Year Plan was a list of economic goals created by Joseph Stalin. Stalin’s goal was to help strengthen the economy for communism by building heavy industry.
US stock market crash
The US stock market crashed and sent the economy into ruin. This affected the entire world. Things were not restored until after World War II.
Japanese invasion of Manchuria
18 September 1931 - 27 February 1932
The Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria, which was owned by the Republic of China. There the Japanese set up a puppet state, called Manchukuo, which they kept until the end of WWII.
Sandino is murdered in Nicaragua
21 February 1934
Sandino became a national hero after being killed. His icon continues to shape the national identity of Nicaragua.
Hitler is ruler in Germany
2 August 1934 - 23 May 1945
Hitler ruled Nazi Germany from 1934-1945. He made Germany a fascist state and involved them in World War II, which they lost and he committed suicide.
Long March by Chinese Communists
October 1934 - October 1935
The march was the retreat of Mao Zedong’s Chinese Communist Party across China. This spread Communism widely throughout China and the Communists gained power.
Stalin’s “Great Purge” in USSR
1936 - 1939
The “Great Purge” was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union. Stalin purged the Communist Party and government officials, repressed the peasants, and instituted widespread police surveillance.
Invasion of China by Japan
7 July 1937 - 2 September 1945
This invasion was also known as the Second Sino-Japanese War. The Chinese were victorious as a part of the Allied victory in the Pacific War.
Cardenas nationalizes oil industry in Mexico
Cardenas claimed all oil and its industry as property of the state. This faced much opposition from around the world as many countries would no longer buy oil from them.
German Anschluss with Austria
12 March 1938
Austria was annexed into Nazi Germany. This act went against the Treaty of Versailles and did not bode well with the Allies.
Invasion of Poland by Germany
1 September 1939
Germany and the Soviet Union invaded Germany. This was the starting event of World War II.
German Invasion of USSR
22 June 1941
Germany betrayed the Soviets and invaded them. This caused the Soviet Union to join the Allies and fight against Germany from the East.
Soviet victory at Stalingrad
23 August 1942 - 2 February 1943
A major and decisive battle of World War II, the Battle of Stalingrad was fought between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. The Soviets were victorious and this served as a turning point of the war in Europe.
D-Day, Allied invasion at Normandy:
6 June 1944
The Allied forces landed at Normandy Beach in France to establish a front against the Germans. The invasion was successful, as it ended with a decisive allied victory.
Division of Berlin and Germany:
11 February 1945
The Allied Powers divided Germany into four occupation zones at the Yalta Conference in 1945. There was one zone for each of the four powers; Britain, the United States, France, and the Soviet Union.
Capture of Berlin by Soviet forces
2 May 1945
The capture of Berlin ended World War II in Europe. Along with this capture came the suicide of Adolph Hitler.
Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
6 August 1945 - 9 August 1945
The United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japan. This led to Japanese surrender and the end of World War II. These bombings also caused much debate about the use of such weapons of mass destruction.
Establishment of the United Nations:
24 October 1945
The United Nations was established as a successor to the League of Nations. The League failed after WWII and the UN was created to prevent future wars.
Partition of India
The partition of India was the split of British India because of religious demographics. It spilt into Pakistan, for the Muslims, and India, for the Hindus.
Apartheid in South Africa
1948 - 1994
A system of racial segregation curtailing the rights of black inhabitants and enhancing white supremacy. The black inhabitants were the majority, while the whites were the minority. This policy faced much opposition and resistance until it finally ended in 1994 with a multi-racial election.
Creation of Israel
14 May 1948
The creation of the Israeli state was backed by the United Nations and recognized by both the United States and the Soviet Union. The Arab League did not agree with this and attempted to take back their land, but were unsuccessful.
15 May 1948 - 10 March 1949
War between Israel and the Palestinian Arab forces. The Israelis were victorious, creating Israel. There were massive demographic changes as Palestinian Arabs were expelled from Israel and Jews immigrated to Israel.
Establishment of NATO
4 April 1949
NATO was established in 1949 as an organization to provide mutual defense in case war, especially with the Soviets, occurred. This put pressure on the Soviet Union.
Establishment of the People’s Republic of China:
1 October 1949
Mao Zedong proclaimed the People’s Republic of China after winning a Civil War by driving Chinese Nationalist forces under Chiang Kai-shek out of mainland China. The PRC was established as a communist state.
25 June 1950 - 27 July 1953
The war was an important Cold War battle between the US-backed South Korea and the Communist-backed North Korea. The result was a stalemate. North and South Korea were divided at the 38th parallel.
French defeat at Dien Bien Phu
13 March 1954 - 7 May 1954
The French were defeated in the First Indochina War by the Viet Minh. This was important for the US because they backed France while the Chinese, who were communist, backed the Viet Minh.
Algerian war of liberation
Nov. 1, 1954 - Mar. 19, 1962
This was a war between France and Algerian independence movements. An important decolonization war as Algeria gained its independence. This war left France deeply weakened.
Establishment of the Warsaw Pact
14 May 1955
The Warsaw Pact was created by the Soviet Union in response to the US’s forming of NATO. Members of the Warsaw Pact included the Soviet Union, East Germany, and others in East Europe.
US troops in Vietnam
1 November 1955 - 30 April 1975
The United States sent troops to South Vietnam to help prevent a Communist takeover from North Vietnam. The United States eventually withdrew, as the war at home was not popular, and North Vietnam was victorious.
Uprising in Hungary
23 October 1956 - 10 November 1956
The uprising was a spontaneous revolt of Hungary against its Soviet imposed policies. The Soviets managed to crush the revolution soon after it began.
29 October 1956 - 7 November 1956
The crisis was a military and diplomatic confrontation with Egypt on one side and Britain, France, and Israel on the other. Egypt had attempted to nationalize the Suez Canal, and these countries did not like that. The Egyptians won the war, as they got to keep the canal.
Great Leap Forward in China
1958 - 1966
Mao wished to free China from Soviet domination. He instituted the Great Leap Forward to transform China into a radical egalitarian society. The plan ultimately did not work.
Castro comes to power in Cuba
16 February 1959
Castro becomes the Prime Minister of Cuba and immediately makes Communist reforms, including nationalizing almost all industry. This leads to conflict with the United States.
1960 - 1989
The Sino-Soviet Rift, or split, was the worsening of relations between the People’s Republic of China and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. This created a weakness in communism, as they were not standing together on issues.
Construction of the Berlin Wall
13 August 1961
East Berlin, under Soviet control, built the Berlin Wall to separate from West Berlin, which was controlled by the United States, because citizens were fleeing to the west. This wall symbolized the Iron Curtain between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
Creation of PLO
28 May 1964
The Palestine Liberation Organization was created with the purpose of creating an independent State of Palestine. Their goal was to regain Palestinian territory from the Jews.
Revolution in Iran
January 1978 - February 1979
The revolution in Iran was the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who was supported by the United States. The Shah was replaced with Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. This was bad for the US because their Shah was overthrown.
22 September 1980 - 20 August 1988
This war, where Iraq invaded Iran, is also known as the First Persian Gulf War. The United States aided Iraq, which was led by Saddam Hussein. The war resulted in a stalemate and was resolved by the United Nations.
Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan
15 May 1988 - 15 February 1989
The Soviet withdrew their troops from Afghanistan. When Gorbachev came to power he decided to withdraw troops and that is what he did. This gave America a small victory.
Persian Gulf War
2 August 1990 - 28 February 1991
The Gulf War was a war waged against Iraq in response to Iraq’s invasion and annexation of Kuwait. The result was a decisive victory against Iraq, who withdrew from Kuwait.
Reunification of Germany
3 October 1990
The reunification of Germany was the rejoining of East and West Germany. This occurred directly after the removal of the Berlin Wall.
Collapse of USSR
26 December 1991
The USSR collapsed and Vladimir Putin became the new president. Russia lost its position as a superpower and the United States effectively won the Cold War
Transfer of Hong Kong to China
1 July 1997
The United Kingdom gave sovereignty of Hong Kong to China. This marked the end of British rule in Hong Kong and China.
Uprisings in Ukraine, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan
2003 - 2005
These uprisings occurred in former soviet countries. The people revolted, and with good success, removed leaders from their countries. These are called the Color Revolutions.