Russia

AP European History Course - Russia, Soviet Union

Politics

Revolution

1905

peasant strikes, military mutinies.
Resulted in: limited constitutional monarchy.

Bolshevik revolution

1914

Feb and Oct.
started with bread riots (like the French Rev)
led by Lenin and Trotsky.

Economy

Modernization

1892 - 1899

by Sergei Witte.
built railroads (very much needed).

Social

Revolts

1584

after Ivan's death, there was not a stable leader
- only son died soon with no heir
- family fought over the position
Cossacks = outlaw armies
Cossacks and peasants wanted the "true tsar" to give them freedom and reduce their taxes

St. Petersburg

1701

captured from Sweden in the Great Northern War.
Peter decided to build a magnificent city there.
got peasants to build it all. they didnt like it. deaths caused by accidents, starvation, and sickness.
Peter made nobles stay there, and pay taxes to fund the rest of the construction.
everybody hated it. (nobles, for the taxes. peasants, for the work)

Emancipation of serfs

1861

Periodic table

1869

developed by Dmitri Mendeleev.

Agrarian reforms

1907 - 1912

agricultural reforms

Industrialization

1930

came about 300 years late

Satilite in orbit

1939

Cultural purge

1946 - 1952

art and culture

Cold War

1947 - 1991

DeStalinization

1955 - 1962

Cosmonaut orbits the globe

1961

End of USSR

1991

Military

Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

Sweden VS Russia.
Russia invaded Sweden, looking for territorial expansion.
Russia won: Poltava, Ukraine = turning point (in favor Russia)

Russo-Japanese War

1904 - 1905

Japan won, Russia was unprepared.
Treaty of Portsmouth = set the balance of power in the Pacific.

World War I

1914 - 1918

Central Powers VS Allies.
Russia = Allies.

World War II

1939 - 1945

invaded by Nazi Germany.

Religious

Cultural

War and Peace

1869

by Leo Tolstoy.
on how the French invasion (Napoleon) effected Russia.

Leaders

Ivan the Terrible

1533 - 1584

added new territories by defeating the Mongols.
wife Anastasia died 1560.
wars and purges reduced the population drastically.

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

Monarchical Absolutist.
military power, territorial expansion.
compulsorily education for noblemen.
established a standing army (200,000 men)
raised taxes threefold in his lifetime
all peasants worked for the military somehow (army/factories/mines/etc.)
brought Russia closer to the developments of Western Europe

Catherine the Great

1762 - 1792

German princess who married the Russian tsar, Peter, and then killed him to get the crown.
very enlightened
wanted to westernize Russia, a domestic reform, territorial expansion.
restricted torture, allowed minimal religious toleration, improved education.
took some of Poland, some of Turkey

Lenin

1918 - 1921

Stalin

1924 - 1953

collectivization
police terror