AP European History Course - Russia, Soviet Union
peasant strikes, military mutinies.
Resulted in: limited constitutional monarchy.
Feb and Oct.
started with bread riots (like the French Rev)
led by Lenin and Trotsky.
by Sergei Witte.
built railroads (very much needed).
after Ivan's death, there was not a stable leader
- only son died soon with no heir
- family fought over the position
Cossacks = outlaw armies
Cossacks and peasants wanted the "true tsar" to give them freedom and reduce their taxes
captured from Sweden in the Great Northern War.
Peter decided to build a magnificent city there.
got peasants to build it all. they didnt like it. deaths caused by accidents, starvation, and sickness.
Peter made nobles stay there, and pay taxes to fund the rest of the construction.
everybody hated it. (nobles, for the taxes. peasants, for the work)
developed by Dmitri Mendeleev.
came about 300 years late
art and culture
Sweden VS Russia.
Russia invaded Sweden, looking for territorial expansion.
Russia won: Poltava, Ukraine = turning point (in favor Russia)
Japan won, Russia was unprepared.
Treaty of Portsmouth = set the balance of power in the Pacific.
Central Powers VS Allies.
Russia = Allies.
invaded by Nazi Germany.
by Leo Tolstoy.
on how the French invasion (Napoleon) effected Russia.
added new territories by defeating the Mongols.
wife Anastasia died 1560.
wars and purges reduced the population drastically.
military power, territorial expansion.
compulsorily education for noblemen.
established a standing army (200,000 men)
raised taxes threefold in his lifetime
all peasants worked for the military somehow (army/factories/mines/etc.)
brought Russia closer to the developments of Western Europe
German princess who married the Russian tsar, Peter, and then killed him to get the crown.
wanted to westernize Russia, a domestic reform, territorial expansion.
restricted torture, allowed minimal religious toleration, improved education.
took some of Poland, some of Turkey