Chapter 25


Ideas of Unified Italy

1815 - 1848

Three approaches to it:
1.) Radical program of Giuseppe Mazzini. Universal Male suffrage, democratic government.
2.) Vincenzo Gioberti's plan. Federation of States
3.) Autocratic kingdom

Karl Marx's lifetime

1818 - 1883

Marx would be the founder of Marxism, eventually being socialism and communism.

Victor Emanuel retains liberal constitution

March 1848

The constitution called for a fair degree of civil liberties and real parliamentary government, with elected deputies.

Reign of Napoleon III in France

1852 - 1871

Mill, On Liberty


Applied Mill's idea of an Utilitarianism to society and state. Mill writes to establish standards for the relationship between authority and liberty.

Industrialization of Russia

1860 - 1900

The Industrialization of Russia was what caused Russia to get back into the economic game in Europe, and caused competition to rise. They left agriculture and leaned more to factories. The Russian economy would grow.

Napoleon Liberalizes his empire

1860 - 1869

Assembly was granted greater powers and the opposition got more freedom, which they used to their advantage.

Russian Serfs freed


The serfdom in Russia was abolished, and the serfs were freed. This established a new sort of freedom in Russia, and was a huge step towards the modernization of Russia.

Danish-prussian war


Danish King attempted to claim Schleswig-Holstein as Denmark territory, and Prussia joined Austria to fight back. The Austrians and Prussians won, and further conflicts between them led to the Austro-Prussian war.

The Opposition uses their freedom


Napoleon's opposition, which was mostly Republican, consisted of 45% of the votes for the election.

Napoleon III's new Constitution


The Constitution called for a combination of Parliament and the hereditary emperor as chief of state. The new draft won a crushing victory with a 7.5 million to 1.5 million votes.


1870 - 1878

Kulturkampf was the secularity and the influence of the Roman Catholic church on the German government under Bismarck. The German population was 38% Roman Catholic at the time, making it easy for the church to gain power in the government, as they did.

Growth of Socialist parties


The growth of Socialism afftected the balance of government throughout the European continent.

Alexander II in Russia assassinated


This brought the time period of reform to a grinding halt.

Russian Socialist Democratic Party


Founded by Russian exiles in Switzerland. Gained popularity and influence.

Bloody Sunday


Bloody Sunday took part in Russia, and was the day when peaceful protesters were fired upon by armed guards of the Tsar. The firings caused an uproar, as the protestors were unarmed. Part of the casue of the Revolution.

Revolution of 1905


The revolution of 1905 was caused by many reasons, including Bloody Sunday caused the October Manifesto to be issued by the Tsar. The Revolution was a time period of social and political unrest and duress throughout the Russian empire. Led to the establishment of the Duma, and the constitutional monarch in Russia.

The People's Budget


New budget in England for only social welfare services.

Marxian government gains followers


By 1912, millions were followers of the Marxian style of government.