Three approaches to it:
1.) Radical program of Giuseppe Mazzini. Universal Male suffrage, democratic government.
2.) Vincenzo Gioberti's plan. Federation of States
3.) Autocratic kingdom
Marx would be the founder of Marxism, eventually being socialism and communism.
The constitution called for a fair degree of civil liberties and real parliamentary government, with elected deputies.
Applied Mill's idea of an Utilitarianism to society and state. Mill writes to establish standards for the relationship between authority and liberty.
The Industrialization of Russia was what caused Russia to get back into the economic game in Europe, and caused competition to rise. They left agriculture and leaned more to factories. The Russian economy would grow.
Assembly was granted greater powers and the opposition got more freedom, which they used to their advantage.
The serfdom in Russia was abolished, and the serfs were freed. This established a new sort of freedom in Russia, and was a huge step towards the modernization of Russia.
Danish King attempted to claim Schleswig-Holstein as Denmark territory, and Prussia joined Austria to fight back. The Austrians and Prussians won, and further conflicts between them led to the Austro-Prussian war.
Napoleon's opposition, which was mostly Republican, consisted of 45% of the votes for the election.
The Constitution called for a combination of Parliament and the hereditary emperor as chief of state. The new draft won a crushing victory with a 7.5 million to 1.5 million votes.
Kulturkampf was the secularity and the influence of the Roman Catholic church on the German government under Bismarck. The German population was 38% Roman Catholic at the time, making it easy for the church to gain power in the government, as they did.
The growth of Socialism afftected the balance of government throughout the European continent.
This brought the time period of reform to a grinding halt.
Founded by Russian exiles in Switzerland. Gained popularity and influence.
Bloody Sunday took part in Russia, and was the day when peaceful protesters were fired upon by armed guards of the Tsar. The firings caused an uproar, as the protestors were unarmed. Part of the casue of the Revolution.
The revolution of 1905 was caused by many reasons, including Bloody Sunday caused the October Manifesto to be issued by the Tsar. The Revolution was a time period of social and political unrest and duress throughout the Russian empire. Led to the establishment of the Duma, and the constitutional monarch in Russia.
New budget in England for only social welfare services.
By 1912, millions were followers of the Marxian style of government.