Prehistory Cultures

Mesopotamia

Iraq/ Iran

Hassuna

6000 BC - 5250 BC

Northern Tigris River Valley
Dry Farming
No Social Stratification

Samarra

5500 BC - 4400 BC

Better Water Sources
Floodwater Irrigation
Wheat, Barley, and Linseed

Ubaid

5000 bc - 3500 bc

hierarchial settlements
larger communities
temples with ceremonial centers
communities linked through trade networks

Halafian

5000 bc - 4700 bc

Extensive trade network
small villages linked to regional cheifdoms
luxery status/goods
widespread ceramic forms

Uruk

3500 bc - 3100 bc

first cities
increasing social stratification
rapid population growth
start of cuneiforms (3400 BC)
preist king
ox-drawn plow

Sumerian

2900 bc - 2000 bc

highly urbanized
increasing rivalry among cities
division of secular and religious power
copper smelting

Babylonian

2000 bc - 1350 bc

hammarabi and his law code
started to use bronze
standardized farm implements

Indus Valley

Southeast Asia/ Pakistan and India

Neolithic

6300 bc - 5300 bc

site of Menrgarn
mud brick farm villages

Early Indus/ Pre-Urban

3200 bc - 2600 bc

site of Kot Diji
trade between farmers and craft producers
billages located in floodplain
fortified towns with flood control

Mature Harappan/ Urban

2600 bc - 1900 bc

start of large craft specilization
development of writing
several large planned cities on artificial mounds
Moneno daro: great bath
Harrappa: large cities apartment like homes

Late Harappan/ post urban

1900 bc - 1500 bc

cities abandoned because of changing environment and rivers
possible transfer of religion to hinduism
Rujdi: not abandoned; reveals continuity from mature harappan to late harrapan

Egypt

Neolithic

5200 bc - 4900 bc

located in Fayum Depression
small farming villages

Upper Egypt

4800 bc - 3650 bc

Badari: elaborate burials (Merimba)
Nagda: floodplain ag, domesticated, growing pop, craft specilization

lower egypt

4800 bc - 3650 bc

Merimba 4800 - 4400: simple
Maadi 3500: simple burials

Old Kingdom

3050 BC - 2134 bc

united under Narmer
created pyramids
highly centralized government
forced labor

First Intermediate Period

2134 bc - 1941 bc

shift to local power

Middle Kingdom

1941 bc - 1736 bc

shift of power to thebes
conqured nubia
spread of trade networks

Second Intermediate Period

1635 bc - 1517 bc

Hyksos Invasion

New Kingdom

1530 bc - 1070 bc

Imperial dynasty
Valley of the Kings

Temperate Europe

Varna

4200 bc - 4000 bc

Cemetary with differing levels of burial goods
some had lots of copper and gold some had none

Battle Axe/ Kurgan

3000 BC - 2800 Bc

Pontiac Steepe
cord marked pottery
single family dwellings
megalithic tombs
charriots and copper axes

Beaker People

2700 Bc - 2000 bc

occupied a large area of western europe
burial mounds with beakers
small individual family dwelings
stonehenge (2700 BC)

Bronze Age

2500 bc - 1300 bc

2500 Czech Republic: early part time specilization
2200 plows, increased clearing of forests
increasing pop and social complexity
1300 many social centers using bronze
role of oxen
secondary products becoming important (ex milk)
emerging warrior class

Iron Age

800 bc - 0 bc

importance of trade
ability to increase ag production
continuing warfare
Halscatt (800-450)
towns spread across trade routes
increasing agricluture productivity
La Tene (450-0)
Primarily in Rhine and Danube river valleys
oppidum sites

Mesoamerica

Formative

2000 bc - 250 ad

sedentary farming villages
slash and burn ag
local elites
appearance of monumental architecture

Olmec

1500 bc - 500 bc

Gulf coast of mexico
rich in substistence material
significant variation in house size
trade in exotic goods
mother culture
San Lorenzo (earliest site)
la Venta leading ceremonial center
Large heads

Valley of Oxaca

1500 BC - 500 Bc

San Jose Mongole (huge)
egalitarian
religious and public structures
1150 increase in size dramatically
social differentiation indicated by house size
more elaborate trade
Monte Alban (500 bc)
irrigation ag
intensive craft specilization
large

Basin of Mexico

1400 BC - 750 ad

1400 = early farming
650-300= emergence of the state
irrigation ag
competing regional centers
Culculico
burried by volcano in 150 bc
Teotlhuacan
classical period ad 150-750
extensive trade networks
apartment complexes
Aztecs

mayan lowlands and highlands

1000 bc - 900 ad

evidence of shared religious ideologies
trade network
ad 250-900 emergence of numerous small competing centers
Palenque and Tikal (man with no thing bones or skull)
ad 900 maya collapse and shift to northern Yucatan

Andean States

maritime Villages

4500 bc - 3000 bc

reliance upon ocean resources

preceramic

3000 bc - 1800 bc

La Paloma (transition from hunter gather to sedentary society)
Rio Seco
monumental architecture
social differentiation through house size

initial period

1800 bc - 900 bc

inland villages
beginning of irrigation ag
public architecture
u shaped platform mounds
El Paraiso: ceremonial center
fine textiles

Early Horizon

900 bc - 200 bc

Chavin de Huantar (mother culture)
broad art style
llamas used for trade

Early intermediate

200 bc - 600 ad

Nazca: capital city cahuachi
Paracas: cemetary mummies

moche state

600 ad - 700 ad

1st unified political group
consolidation of several river valleys
large temple complexes

Middle horizon

600 ad - 1000 ad

Tiwanaku in southern highlands
raised fields ag
highland area
llams
stone architecture
copper trade
Huari: located in highlands
terrace ag
monumental architecture
trade infastruture

Late intermediate

1000 ad - 1476 ad

small competing kingdoms
elaborate irrigation systems
chan chan
chimu ad 1000

Late horizon

1476 ad - 1532 ad

inca
superstate unifying highlands and lowlands
massive architecture
forced labor
cuzco
Macho Pichu

Eastern North America

Poverty Point

1600 bc - 600 bc

Mississippi floodplain
hunters and gathers
large earthworks and population
long-distance trade

early woodland period

1000 bc - 200 bc

growing trade in exotic goods
elaborate burials

Adena Complex

700 bc - 800 ad

ohio valley
hunting and gathering plus ag
burial mounds
trade
ceremonial elaboration

Middle woodland period

200 bc - 400 ad

widespread trade networks
development of the hopewell interaction sphere
(widespread network of trade in midwest and southeast)

Mississippian

800 ad - 1500 ad

european contact
dependent on maize based ag and hunting and gathering
large fortified settlements and ceremonial centers
Cahokia and Ethowan