Chapter 24


Jeremy Bentham's lifetime

1748 - 1832

Bentham was a British philosopher in the 19th century. Bentham was a leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law. Bentham's ideas strongly influenced welfarism. Advocated individual freedoms. Was a very liberal influenced philosopher.

Illegitimacy Explosion

1750 - 1850

The sharp increase of births outside of wedlock. In larger countries, about one out of every three child births were outside of Wedlock. Although, in Vienna, and Stockholm, one out of two child births were outside of Wedlock.

Erwin Chadwick's lifetime.

1800 - 1890

Erwin Chadwick was an English reformer. He strived for reforms in the Poor Laws, and Sanitary laws. He was assigned to do a report on the living conditions in England, and the reports were published in 1842. The reports led to reform in the Poor Laws, as well as improvements in sanitation and living conditions in Europe.

Population boom in England and Wales

1801 - 1891

The population in England and Wales boosted from 1.5 million to approximately 15.6 million people.

Louis Pasteur's lifetime

1822 - 1895

Louis Pasteur was one of the most influential men in France during the nineteenth century. Pasteur developed the idea of Pasteurization, which is "partial sterilization of foods at a temperature that destroys harmful microorganisms without major changes in the chemistry of the food."

Joeseph Lister's lifetime

1827 - 1912

Lister would be the one to develop the Germ Theory, and cause great reformations in medicine, and the theory would lead to cures to many diseases being discovered, and such. Great accomplishment in the medical field were due to Lister.

Poor Law of 1834

1834 - 1948

The Poor Law was a law passed by Parliament and the Whig government intended to reform the poverty relief system in Great Britain (except for Scotland.) It was called after an investigation by Chadwick, and others.

Keen investigations of water

1840 - 1859

The keen investigations of water discovered that bad drinking water was a primary source of the transmission of disease widespread throughout all of Europe, which led to calls for new food safety.

Chadwick's reports published


Led to reforms in living conditions and the Poor Laws in England.

Government investigations of living conditions in Scotland.


The investigations in Scotland would cause an improvement of said conditions.

Robert Koch's lifetime

1843 - 1910

Koch would develop pure cultures of harmful bacteria and trace their lifestyles, and describe them.

Chadwick's reports reform England


The Chadwick reports would become the basis for the first public Health Law in England.

Condition of Working Class improves

1850 - 1914

The series of Laws pushed through the European governments from Health care to equality to working conditions caused the working class to be in a better position.

Domestic servant industries flourish


Domestic servant jobs did not pay very much at all, but with the industry beginning to flourish, more job opportunities opened, and competition became huge. More Europeans gained employment, and poverty was less common.

Flaubert, Madame Bovary


Madame Bovary is considered a masterpiece. The novel was about a doctor's cheating wife, and the novel was attacked by the public for obscenity.

Unification of Italy

1859 - 1870

The Unification of Italy was when the many states of the Italian peninsula came together as the one nation of Italy. The process began at the Congress of Vienna, and ended with the Capture of Rome.

Darwin, on the Origin of Species


Would outline the Evolutionary process, and become a combatant against Creationism. The evolution process would be a reform in European thinking, as it became an alternative to creationism. This would cause havoc in Europe with the churches. More scientifically based, and outlined the Survival of the Fittest, and such ideas.

Adequate Water supplies

1860 - 1879

Larger European cities would begin to use adequate water supplies, as opposed to using the dirty waters that transported diseases. The new water system would reduce diseases in Europe. This was a part of the Public Health Laws

Lifetime of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec

1864 - 1901

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec was a French artist, specializing in paintings. Henri's parents were first cousins, making him a product of incest. Henri was also an alcoholic. One of Henri's more popular pieces, titled "Inside a Paris Brothel" depicted the inside of a brothel in Paris.

Austro-Prussian war


The Seven Weeks War between the Germans under the Austrians and the Prussians. This resulted in the German states being dominated by the Prussian government.

Mendeleev creates periodic Table


The Peridic Table of Elements would become one of the most useful tools in science and would help to identify elements and compounds. the table would evolve over time. It is still the most widely used tool in Science.

Connection between germs and disease found


A general connection between germs and diseases and sickness has been uncovered by this time. This led to revolutions in the medical field, leading to new theories, and medicines.

Franco-Prussian War

1870 - 1871

The Franco-Prussian war was a war between the Second French Empire and the Prussian kingdom and its allies. The Prussian forces were victorious due to numbers and technology, and the war resulted in the Unification of the German empire.

Prostitution increase

1871 - 1903

Prostitution spike in Europe. In these years, about 155,000 women were registered prostitutes in Paris, alone. 750,000 throughout Europe.

New ways of sterilization

1880 - 1889

During the 1880s, German surgeons discovered new ways to sterilize everything. Not only wounds, but tools, hands, etc. This would lead to safer surgeries, and better sanitation overall.

Dostoevski, The Brothers Karamazov

1880 - 1881

The Brothers Karamazov was a novel about ethics, God, and free will.

Electric Streetcars introduced in Europe

1890 - 1899

The American produced electric Streetcar became readily available to the Europeans in the 1890s. The Electric streetcar was much more cost efficient, faster, dependable and more comfortable.

Higher life spans


In industrialized areas, the life spans began to reach an equilibrium with the rural areas. If not reach an equilibrium, they were somewhat lower. This was a great effect from all of the sanitation laws from the Poor Laws, to the Pasteurization. The Chadwick reports also helped the industrialized city life spans increase, as well as the Germ Theory and all that came from it.

United States

U.S. Civil War

1861 - 1865

The U.S. Civil War was the most gruesome war in American history, which was the turning point of U.S. history. The Confederacy wished to form their own country, and remain segregated from the Union. The war ended with a Union victory, and the two nations were unified once more.