Chapter 27

Main

Three emperors league

1873

The three emperors league was created by Bismarck between Austria-Hungary, Germany and Russia. It was intended to be a sort of defensive alliance. But it eventually broke down after Bismarck upset Russia at the Berlin Conference.

First Balkan War

1912

The first Balkan war ultimately led to the chain of events that would lead to the first world war. Serbia joined Greece and Bulgaria to fight the turks. Serbia and Bulgaria then quarelled over the spoils of wars leading to the second world war.

World War I

1914 - 1918

Also known as the Great War, this was one of the most destructive wars in all of history.

Assasination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand

1914

He was the heir to the Austrian throne and he was assassinated by a Serbian radical. This led Austria to give Serbia a Ultimatum of war or Austrian influence. This ultimately pulled every country into the conflict.

Nicholas II orders partial mobilization against Austria and Hungary

1914

Nicholas II responds to Austria's advance on Serbia by mobilizing his troops against Austria and their ally, Germany. Their partial mobilization led to their early defeat in the war.

Triple Entente

1914

This was the allied forces that came together to fight Germany and Austria. The Triple Entente consisted of France, Great Britain and Russia.

Nicholas leaves for front line

1915

As Russia begins to lose morale on the home front and battle front, Nicholas moves his headquarters in an attempt to boost morale. It ultimately led to the break down of his government through the mismanagement by his wife and Rasputin.

Ministry of Munitions

1915

Socialist first became a practicle government application during this time. Countries that entered total war used the government to control many aspects of the economy. Great Britain's version of this was the Ministry of Munitions.

Growth of anti-war

1916 - 1918

As the war grew longer and more lives were lost, people began to resent their involvement. The strain of total war and the rationing that the government imposed was too much for the people and all across Europe anti-war protests emerged.

US Joins war

1917

Several factors led to the emergence of the united states. First of all, Germany sent the Zimmerman telegram to Mexico, encouraging them to invade America. Secondly, Germany's use of unrestricted submarine warfare affected American sailors too the point of America's involvement.

Army Order num. 1

1917

This was a Russian law that pretty much stripped all officers of their authority in the army leading to massive military disheaval and discertion.

Russian Revolution

1917

Poor economic conditions and leadership led to the breakdown of the government and a revolution. a Provisional government was imposed with Kerensky in charge but their continual support for the war led to more revolts. Eventually, the Bolsheviks under Lenin took power and ended Russian involvement in the war

Treaty of Versailles

1919

As Germany declares unconditional surrender. France, America, Britain and Italy run peace negotiations in Versailles. President Wilson advocates his 14 points which suggest no reparations and a general European defense alliance. Ultimately France's vengance succedes and Germany is forced to accept blame.