The Zollverein was the Prussian economic trading coalition between German states. It helped exclude Austria and diminish its economic supremacy and it also helped bring together the individual german states in similar economic goals.
The national assembly had failed to revise the constitution so that Napoleon III could run for a second term. He then disbanded them and crushed any opposition. He called for universal male suffrage and began one of the most popular reigns in french history.
Napoleon III was one of the most popular rulers in French history. He maintained his power by revising the constitution and giving universal support to all males. He was later named the hereditary emperor of France.
The unification was mainly due to the rising nationalism in Italy. It began with Cavour uniting Sardinia through goading Austria. The south was united through guerilla warfare by Garibaldi. He recruited based on nationalism and stopped when he threatened to invade Rome. It was there that Italy was united with Victor Emmanuel as king.
After the assasination of Alexander II, Sergei Witte led the government to invest lots of money into industry like state owned railroads. He also helped establish high protective tariffs which helped encourage infant industries in Russia
Due to a humiliating loss in the Crimean war, Alexander and his government had to find a way to gain appeal. He did this by freeing all russians of human bondage thus freeing the serfs. They still had to pay high prices for goods but they were no longer tied to the land.
The Zemstvo was the local representative body in Russia. They mainly dealt with local issues but it was seen as a stepping stone to a national assembly. They were disappointed when it remained a subordinate government body.
This was a war manipulated by Bismarck with the intent to rid Austria out of Northern Germany. Prussia used railroads and new weaponry to defeat the Austrian and expel them from northern Germany.
This war was provoked by Bismarck with the intent to create a war that would unite all of Germany in an effort to defeat France. It was successful in raising nationalism after the defeat of France. France suffered a humiliating loss and lost french territory know as the Alsoce-Lorraine.
Germany under Bismarck is going to be the first one's to pass socialist like reforms. They pass social security which is for the disable and elderly which can be given to anyone.
Alfred Dreyfus was a Jewish captain that was falsely accused of treason. He reopened the growing tension between church and state. It was mostly caused by the army and catholics.
This was the event during the russian revolution of 1905. Russian workers were protesting outside of St. Petersburg when the army open fired and killed hundreds of protestors. This ultimately caused the people to become ant-tsar.
The Duma first met and was elected indirectly by universal male suffrage but the Tsar retained most powers with a right to veto everything. The Duma eventually broke down and caused riots until the tsar agreed to revise the electoral laws in 1907.