Chapter 24


Edwin Chadwick's Report on Sanitation


Chadwick had conducted a study in Britain regarding the current sanitation and health. It was his report that successfully linked the excrement that flooded the streets to the susceptibility to disease. His report helped bring several health reforms throughout London.

Modernization of Paris

1850 - 1870

This was a period where leaders of Paris began to redesign its structure. This included more orderly streets for the introduction of the street car and wider streets in the case of avoiding blockades from revolutions.

Fermentation and Pastuerization


Louis Pasteur creates the Germ Theory which linked micro-organisms to spoilage. He found that fermentation required the beverage to be heated. His discovery led to ground breaking reforms in society and health

Madame Bovary


This book written by Gustave Flaubert reflects the growing popularity of realism in literature. In this novel she depicts the middle class as petty and hypocritical.

On the Origin of Species


This was a scientific discovery by Charles Darwin regarding evolution by natural selection. It gave scientific proof that man had descended from species over generations. It had both scientific and social implications in the form of social darwinism.

Emile Zola defends novel


Emile Zola was one of the most infamous realist authors of the time. People criticized her work as being pornographic. She was really only reporting and retelling the shilling reality of society which reflects the realism of the time period.

Periodic Table


Joseph Mendeleev creates the periodic table which outlines specific facts about each element known to man. This is the first source of this nature and enables new ground breaking work to begin in the field of chemistry.

Beginning of Birthrate decline


Parents became more emotionally involved with their children so they had less to focus on them. This was a rising trend of parental care. Other parents also wished to raise their economic standing by having less kids.

The Brothers of Karamazou


This book, written by Dostoevski tells a tale of Russian brothers that plot to kill there father. This shows the poor relation between a father and child during this time. This was when the mother became a brighter and more liked figure, while the father remained disliked.

Electric Street Cars


Electric street cars are introduced to Europe from America and soon become a popular form of transportation. It replaced walking and the carriages that the upper classes often traveled with.

Domestic servants


As economic conditions grew worse, more women were encouraged to enter the work force at a younger age. The most prominent position was a domestic servant. One in Seven girls worked as a servant. They worked under harsh conditions. Little pay, long hours and often sexually exploited by men.