Chapter 23

Main

Metternich serves as Austria’s foreign minister

1809 - 1848

Metternich was the infamous Austrian foreign minister that denounced nationalism and was historically conservative. He created the Holy Alliance and used his power to prevent revolutions.

Holy Alliance is formed

1815

The Holy Alliance was Austria, Russia and Prussia. They were a conservative coalition that strove to prevent the disruption of society and prevented revolutions in countries like Italy.

Revision of Corn Laws

1815

This was an attempt to help the British peasants by indirectly lowering the price of food, especially bread. However, the aristocracy was able to manipulate it to greatly benefit them.

Carlsbad decrees issued

1819

This was laws passed by Metternich in the German Confederation that prevented any revolutionairy talk. It also created a spy system in Germany.

Greece gains independence

1830

Greece gains independence from the turks. This was mainly associated to the recent rise of nationalism in Greece and the eventual military support from Great Britain.

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

He was the monarch of France during the revolution of 1830 and 1848. He had also agreed to accept the Constitutional Charter of 1814 to gain favor and support.

Hunchback of Notredame

1831

This was one of the more popular Romantic novels that emerged during this time. Victor Hugo was the artist and it reflects the new art movement of Romanticism.

Reform Bill

1832

This gave more power to the House of Commons and effectively eliminated "Rotten Borroughs". The redistributed the seats and the number of eligible voters increased.

Great Famine

1845 - 1851

Ireland's diet was so dependent of Potatoes that a bad harvest led to a massive famine. Poor harvests in 1845, 1846, 1848 and in 1851 led to horrible conditions in Ireland and a massive emigration to countries like America.

Revolution in France

1848

The government's refusal to bring electoral reform and worsening economic situation led to a revolution. Workshops emerged and voters massed the polls but it just ended with the gov. disbanding the workshops.

Revolution in Prussia

1848

Frederick William granted a constitution but the workers drafted democratic reforms. Elected a prussian constituent assembly. They rewrote a constitution and named Frederick William the emperor of Germany. He then disbanded the assembly.

Communist Manifesto

1848

This was the outlining ideals of communism by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles. It didn't have as much influence currently due to the opposition to socialism but it would eventually become big.

Revolution in Austria

1848

Beginning with a Hungarian revolt, Austria demanded better rights and the government abolished serfdom. However, the coalition eventually broke down and the Hungarian's were violently put down. They were violently put down in Prague.