He was elected for 3 main reasons: he had the famous name of his uncle, he came off as a tough ruler, and he had a positive 'program' in mind to improve France, which would guide him through his reign.
After serving his four year term, Napoleon conspired with army officers and illegally dismissed the assembly. He then immediately crushed any uprisings and restored universal male suffrage, calling upon the people to legalize his actions, and then make him emperor for life, which they did.
Napoleon III came to Sardinia's defense, but after their victory he suddenly abandoned Carvour and made a compromise with Austria. Sardinia only recieved Lombardy from these battles. Carvour then resigned from power.
He then gained France's support by giving Savoy and Nice to France. After that, the people of central Italy voted to join Sardinia, creating a northern Italian state.
This guerrilla band outwitted the 20,000 man royal army, and took Palermo, Naples, and prepared to attack Rome before Cavour sent Sardinian forces to stop them and occupy most of the papal states.
This was one of the first step toward modernizing Russia, abolishing human bondage forever.
In response to this, King William called on Otto von Bismarck to lead a new ministry and defy parliament.
The Danish king tried to claim Schleswig-Holstein for Denmark, and Prussia briefly joined Austria and defeated Denmark. Prussia then tried to force Austria out of German affairs, leading to the Austro-Prussion war of 1866.
Following Austria's decisive defeat, Prussia gave Austria very fair terms of surrender, and the German Confederation was dissolved.
German forces defeated the French army at Sedan on September 1, 1870. Then, Louis Napoleon was captured. After that, French patriots declared another French republic and fought for another 5 months until their surrender in January 1871.
This new constitution combined a parliament with a hereditary emperor as chief of state. It won with a vote of 7.5 million to 1.5 million.
This caused the era of reform and modernization to come to an abrupt end.
Through a series of violent and nonviolent protests, the Tsar was eventually forced to declare the October Manifesto, which granted full civil rights and created a popularly elected duma.
In England this bill was passed in order to increase spending on social welfare services.