During this period, sexual experimentation led to a massive explosion of children born out of wedlock. It was most common among the working classes, as the middle classes kept closer watch over their children.
Discoveries in electromegnetism
1830 - 1849
These discoveries by Michael Faraday led to the first dynamo, and opened up the way for things such as the electric motor, the telegraph, and the light bulb.
Britain's revised Poor Law of 1834
This law allowed Edwin Chadwick to collect data on the sanitary conditions of the English poor, and ultimately improve their living conditions.
Germ Theory of disease
Louis Pasteur came up with this theory at the request of brewers. He found that fermentation requires the presence of living organisms and that the organisms can be repressed via pasteurization.
1856 - 1939
Sigmund Freud was a revolutionary psychologist, who came up with the revolutionary ideas that a son is constantly competing with his father for his mother's attention, and unconscious mental devices called defense mechanisms.
In this novel, Gustave Flaubert tells the story of a middle-class housewife who has an affair and is betrayed by her lover. It displays the middle class as petty, smug, and hypocritical.
'On The Origin of Species'
Written by Charles Darwin, this work argued that differences among organisms allows some to survive while others die. This led to many religious disputes, as well as social darwinism.
Joseph Lister came up with this idea based off of Pasteur's research on bacteria. He found that chemical disinfectants would "destroy the life of the floating particles," leading to sterilization of medical equipment and wounds.
Periodic table created
Created by Dmitri Mendeleev, this table organized all of the elements in chemistry according to periodic laws.
Women in England given full property rights
This law was a huge triumph for middle class feminists, as it came one step closer to gender equality.