Chapter 24 Timeline


Illegitimacy explosion

1750 - 1850

During this period, sexual experimentation led to a massive explosion of children born out of wedlock. It was most common among the working classes, as the middle classes kept closer watch over their children.

Discoveries in electromegnetism

1830 - 1849

These discoveries by Michael Faraday led to the first dynamo, and opened up the way for things such as the electric motor, the telegraph, and the light bulb.

Britain's revised Poor Law of 1834


This law allowed Edwin Chadwick to collect data on the sanitary conditions of the English poor, and ultimately improve their living conditions.

Germ Theory of disease


Louis Pasteur came up with this theory at the request of brewers. He found that fermentation requires the presence of living organisms and that the organisms can be repressed via pasteurization.

Sigmund Freud

1856 - 1939

Sigmund Freud was a revolutionary psychologist, who came up with the revolutionary ideas that a son is constantly competing with his father for his mother's attention, and unconscious mental devices called defense mechanisms.

'Madame Bovary'


In this novel, Gustave Flaubert tells the story of a middle-class housewife who has an affair and is betrayed by her lover. It displays the middle class as petty, smug, and hypocritical.

'On The Origin of Species'


Written by Charles Darwin, this work argued that differences among organisms allows some to survive while others die. This led to many religious disputes, as well as social darwinism.

Antiseptic Principle


Joseph Lister came up with this idea based off of Pasteur's research on bacteria. He found that chemical disinfectants would "destroy the life of the floating particles," leading to sterilization of medical equipment and wounds.

Periodic table created


Created by Dmitri Mendeleev, this table organized all of the elements in chemistry according to periodic laws.

Women in England given full property rights


This law was a huge triumph for middle class feminists, as it came one step closer to gender equality.