European Wars


War of Roses

1455 - 1485

Cause: Fight between Yorks and Lancasters over the English Throne

Result: Henry Tudor (Lancaster) won and started the Tudor Dynasty

Schmalkaldic Wars

1546 - 1555

Cause: Schmalkaldic League was an alliance of Lutheran German Princes against Charles V

Result: War ended in a truce. Peace of Augsberg- rulers of German region can choose Catholicism or Lutheranism for their country

People: Charles was winning at first, but Henry II of France supported the princes.

French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

Cause: Religious issues Nobles, towns and provinces are trying to resist centralization

Result: Edict of Nantes clarified the religious situation with the Huguenots

People: Duke of Guise, Henry of Navarre

Key Facts: St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, War of Three Henry's

Spanish Religious Wars (Dutch Revolt)

1566 - 1648

Cause: Dutch revolted because they didn't like that Phillip was trying to prevent the spread of Protestantism and they also didn't like that their tax money was going to Spain

Result: Southern Netherlands (Union of Arras) remained part of Spain, and Spain recognized the independence of the Nothern Provinces (Union of Utrecht)

People: Duke of Alva, Duke of Parma, William the Silent

Key Facts: Pacification of Gent

30 Years' War

1618 - 1648

Cause: France felt surrounded by the Hapsburgs, Spain wanted to recapture the Netherlands, Hapsburgs wanted to get rid of prtestants and centralize authority

Immediate Cause: Defenestration of Praugue

Result: Treaty of Westphalia- german rulers can choose Calvinism, and winning countries gain land.

People: King Christian IV of Denmark, Wallenstein, Gustavus Adolpus, Cardinal Richelieu

Key Facts: War started religious but ended political and dynastic

English Civil War

1642 - 1649

Cause: Charles needed money to put down Scots revolt, but needed money so he had to call Parliament

Result: Radicals won, king was executed and Oliver Cromwell set up a military dictatorship with himself as Lord Protector

People: Cavaliers and Roundheads, Oliver Cromwell, Rump Parliament

Louis XIV's Dutch Wars

1643 - 1715

Cause: Louis XIV wanted "natural frontiers"

Result: after 2 wars, France gained very little land (Franche Comte)

War of the League of Augsburg

1689 - 1697

Cause: Louis annexed Alsace-Lorraine, and Stasburg, so other countries formed the League of Augsburg

Result: Treaty of Ryswick- France lost most of its' land, but kept Stasbourg and parts of Alsace

Key Facts: Economic Problems in France made Louis desperate for money to fund the war

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

Cause: Spanish ruler left the throne of Spai to Louis XIV's grandson. Other countries feared coalition of Spain and France would ruin the balance of power in Europe.

Result: Peace of Utrecht and Treaty of Rastaat- Phillip became the ruler of Spain, but the thrones of France and Spain could never unite, Prussia gained respect, and England gained a lot of land (Gibralter and America).

People: John Churchill

Key Facts: Important because of international cooperation

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1790

Cause: Prussia seized Silesia from Austria (Maria Theresa), defying the Pragmatic Sanction

Result: Treaty of Aix la Chapelle- status quo except prussia kept Slesia

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

Result: Treaty of Hubertsburg- status quo and Prussia kept Silesia, Treaty of Paris- France lost its' North American possessions to Britain

People: Switch sides- Austria and France were allies in this war

Key Facts: Russia allied with Austria (and they were winning) but then switched sides

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Cause: Monetary problems and calling the Estates General

Result: Thermador Reaction, Directory

People: Louis XVI, Robespierre, Danton, jacobins, Gironde, Mountain

Key Facts: storming the Bastille, women's march to Versailles, Tennis Court Oath, National Assembley, Legeslative Assembley, National Convention, Paris Commune, Committee of Public Safety, Reign of Terror

Napoleonic Wars

1803 - 1815

Cause: Napoleon wanted to expand the French empire and rule over more territory

Result: Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo, Congress of Vienna- balance of power, legitimacy, conservatism, created the Concert of Europe

People: Napoleon Bonaparte

Key Facts: Creation of the Confederation of the Rhine, Duchy of Warsaw. When Napoleon conquered an area, he would proclaim French Revolutionary ideals

2nd French Revolution

1830 - 1831

Cause: King Charles X issued the July Ordiances, which limited power of the people and increased the power of the king and aristocrats a July Revolution

Result: Louis Phillipe became king and promised to abide by the 1814 constitution

3rd French Revolution

1848 - 1849

Cause: Banquet was held to discuss ideas, but the government banned it a revolt for UMS and a new constitution. Workers revolted also when the National Workshops were closed

Result: New constitution 1848 with a unicameral legislature and a president, Louis Napoleon

Wars for Italian Unification

1848 - 1870

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

Cause: ottoman Empire was weak and the powers wanted to see what they could take

Immediate Cause: Russia wanted to protect Christians in Palestine, but France had already been granted the right

Result: Suffering and death (Florence Nightingale), Russia gave up land and control of the Black Sea, and realized they needed to modernize, France gained prestige, ended the Concert of Europe

Key Facts: first modern war

Wars for German Unification

1862 - 1871

Cause: Bisamrk fought 3 wars to isolate Austria and France and gain territory to create a unified Germany

Result: Germany was unified

Key Facts: Danish War, Austro-Prussian War, Franco-Prussian War

Russian Revolution

1905 - 1917

1st Balkan War

1912 - 1913

Cause: Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece, who organized a Balkan League to defeat the Ottomans

Result: Received provinces of Macedonia and Albania

2nd Balkan War

1913 - 1914

Cause: The Balkan League could not decide how to divide the conquered Ottoman provinces of Macedonia and Albania to Greece, Serbia, Romania, and the Ottoman Empire attacked Bulgaria

Result: Bulgaria only obtained a small part of Macedonia, and the remained was divided between Serbia and Greece

World War One

1914 - 1918

Cause: Militarism, alliances,imperialism, nationalism, Trigger- murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Result: Paris Peace Conference/ Congress of Vienna, Germany received full blame for the war and had to pay reparations. Eastern European nation received nation self-determination. League of Nations was created.

People: German generals Von Ludendorff and Von Hindenburg

World War Two

1939 - 1945

Cause: Hitler wanted Lebensraum- room for Germans to live and expand. Trigger: Hitler invaded Poland

Result: Allies defeated the Axis powers. Germany was split into 4 zones, Eastern Europe had national self determination but they had to be pro Soviet, United Nations was created

People: Hitler, Mussolini, Churchill

Key Facts: Blitzkrieg, Holocaust, appeasement, nuclear weapons