Timeline No. 3

Main

Event

1862

The Pony Express ended.

Composer

August 22, 1862 - March 25, 1918

Claude Debussy was a French composer. His music reflected a form of art known as impressionism. Debussy hated this term as a description of his music but that is what it was. He would construe his harmonic language to make everything a blur or make it vague as to what was going on.

Event

1863 - 1865

The Polish rise again the Russians.

Event

1865 - 1877

Reconstruction in the United States is taking place.

Event

April 9, 1865

Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia.

Event

April 14, 1865

Abraham Lincoln is assassinated while attending a performance at Ford's Theatre.

Event

1867

The United States buys Alaska from Russia.

Event

1869

First Transcontinental Railroad completed in the United States.

Event

1869

The periodic table is invented by Dmitri Mendeleev.

Event

1871 - 1914

The second Industrial Revolution happened.

Event

1872

First Nation Park is created and is named Yellowstone National Park.

Event

1873

Both blue jeans and barbed wire are invented in the same year.

Composer

September 13, 1874 - July 13, 1951

Arnold Schoenberg was an Austrian composer. He was a prominent figure in the development of atonality. Schoenberg hated this term for his music but he started the movement towards it. The twelve-tone technique was invented by him.

Composer

October 20, 1874 - May 19, 1954

Charles Ives was an American modernist composer. He was one of the first composers to start real experimental music. Ives' techniques included polytonality, polyrhythm, tone clusters, and quarter tones.

Event

1879

Thomas Edison tests first light bulb.

Composer

March 25, 1881 - September 26, 1945

Béla Bartók was a Hungarian composer and pianist. Along with Liszt, they were considered two of the best pianists. Through the study of folk music, Bartók helped start ethnomusicology.

Composer

June 17, 1882 - April 6, 1971

Igor Stravinsky was a Russian pianist and composer. He was mostly a ballet composer and one of is greatest hits was "The Rite of Spring" that upon first hearing, started a riot in the crowd. Stravinsky was always pushing the limits of music, especially rhythmically and harmonically making it hard to count and hard to tell what key you were actually in.

Composer

December 3, 1883 - September 15, 1945

Anton Webern was an Austrian composer and conductor. He was a student of Schoenberg employing the twelve-tone technique. Webern also was responsible for starting total serialism which is a certain organization of pitch, rhythm, and dynamics.

Event

1884

Mark Twain publishes the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.

Composer

February 9, 1885 - December 24, 1935

Alban Berg was an Austrian composer. He was prominent in his use of the Schoenberg twelve-tone technique.

Event

1886

Karl Benz sells first commercial automobile, Coca-Cola is invented, and the construction of the Statue of Liberty is going on.

Event

1889

The Eiffel Tower is inaugurated in Paris.

Event

1889

Aspirin in invented and Van Gogh paints Starry Night.

Event

1890

Invention of the cardboard box.

Event

1892

Basketball is invented.

Event

1895

Volleyball is invented.

Composer

May 11, 1895 - December 3, 1978

William Grant Still was an African-American composer. He was the first African-American conductor to lead a major symphony orchestra in the US.

Composer

November 16, 1895 - December 28, 1963

Paul Hindemith was a German-born American composer, violist, violinist, teacher, and conductor. He hated the twelve-tone technique.

Composer

September 26, 1898 - July 11, 1937

George Gershwin was an American composer and pianist. He was known in a wide span of genres. Gershwin composed opera as well as television scores and Broadway musicals. He became so popular to the American culture that he now has jazz standards out of some of his tunes and has tunes that most people know.

Composer

December 31, 1899 - October 5, 1940

Silvestre Revueltas was a Mexican composer, violinist, and conductor.

Composer

November 14, 1900 - December 2, 1990

Aaron Copland was an American composer, composition teacher, writer, and a conductor. He was responsible for basically inventing the actual "American" style of composing. The way Copland went about actually composing things and the was they sounded was unique and labeled as the American style. He also started eventually Schoenberg's twelve-tone technique.

Composer

July 3, 1901 - November 18, 1953

Ruth Crawford Seeger was a modernist composer and a specialist in American folk music.

Event

1905

Albert Einstein theory of relativity proposed and Las Vegas is founded.

Composer

September 25, 1906 - August 9, 1975

Dmitri Shostakovich was a Russian composer and pianist. He had a very hybrid style of composing by mixing the sounds of composers like Stravinsky and Mahler.

Event

1908

First commercial radio transmissions. The Ford Motor Co. invents the Model-T.

Composer

December 10, 1908 - April 27, 1992

Olivier Messiaen was a French composer and organist. He was extremely religious. Messiaen's music came from improvisations of his and he was extremely interested in complex rhythms from various sources. His music was also very modal.

Composer

March 9, 1910 - January 23, 1981

Samuel Barber was an American composer spanning the genres of orchestral music, opera, choral, and piano music. Almost all of his compositions have been recorded. His most famous piece with a place in history all on its own is Adagio for Strings which he had written at a young age.

Event

1912

Arizona becomes the last state to be admitted to the continental Union.

Composer

September 5, 1912 - August 12, 1992

John Cage was an American composer and music theorist. He is responsible for using instruments not as they are intended to be used. Cage was also a pioneer of electroacoustic music. Cage made was for avant-garde music as a composer.

Event

1913

Ford Motor Co. starts using assembly lines.

Composer

November 22, 1913 - December 4, 1976

Benjamin Britten was an English composer, conductor, and pianist. He wrote everything from film score to opera. His main claim to fame was an opera called Peter Grimes. After this opera, Britten wrote many more operas excelling in this genre.

Composer

May 10, 1916 - January 29, 2011

Milton Babbitt was an American composer, music theorist, and teacher. He was very instrumental in the area of electronic music and his serial music.

Event

1918

End of WW1

Composer

August 7, 1921

Karel Husa is a Czech born composer and conductor.

Event

1923

Walt Disney Company is founded and Time Magazine is first published.

Event

1924

The FBI gets started under J. Edgar Hoover.

Event

1928

Discovery of penicillin. Mickey Mouse is created.

Event

1929

Stock Market crash

Composer

October 24, 1929

George Crumb is an American composer. He explores unusual timbres of instruments such as the seagull sound of the cello and the metallic vibrato of a piano. Crumb does not compose electronic music but some pieces call for amplification.

Event

1931

"The Star Spangled Banner" is made the official national anthem of the United States.

Composer

October 24, 1931

Sofia Gubaidulina is a Russian composer. She is known for her use of unusual instrumental combinations.

Composer

November 23, 1933

Krzysztof Penderecki is a Polish composer and conductor. He is considered one of Polands greatest living composers. He has written in nearly all genres and has several famous pieces including a string quartet focusing on the semitone and tritone and a piece named Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima.

Composer

September 11, 1935

Arvo Pärt is an Estonian composer. He uses the minimalist technique and pulls inspiration from Gregorian chant.

Event

1938

Superman makes his first appearance for DC comics.

Event

1939

Nazi's invade Poland beginning World War II.

Composer

April 30, 1939

Ellen Taaffe Zwilich is an American composer and the first woman ever to win the Pulitzer Prize for Music.

Event

1941

Attack on Pearl Harbor.

Event

1944

D-Day happens and first computer comes online.

Event

1945

End of World War II.

Composer

February 15, 1947

John Adams is an American composer. He specializes in the minimalist technique. Adams has a famous piece called Short Ride in a Fast Machine as well as some famous operas like Doctor Atomic which is about the creation of the atomic bomb.

Event

1953

Discover of DNA.

Composer

December 6, 1955

Bright Sheng is a Chinese-American composer, conductor, and pianist.

Event

1957

Launch of Sputnik.

Event

1963

Assassination of John F. Kennedy.

Event

1968

Assassination of Martin Luther King.

Event

1975

End of Vietnam War.

Event

1976

Steve Jobs finishes Apple I.

Event

1989

Fall of the Berlin Wall.