History of Higher Education


Cross (1971)


major philosophies regarding who should go to college
aristocracy- white males of upper class
meritocracy- based on ability
egalitarianism-equal acces

Trow (1974) single most important trend in education


from elite to masses to universal access

Domonkos (1989) History of HE


during the Middle Ages the residential college was established to educate and house poor students but this was nowhere the scale of massive open access witnessed in the year after the GI Bill

but the social composition of the Medieval college was at least beginning to loosen from the clutches of the elite few. despite their claim to open up university beyond the select few,their systematic examinations prove to be formable barriers to the Frenchman of little more than average intelligence

Rudolph (1990) The American College and University


Pincus (1994)


CCs as part of social stratification

Celis (1994) The GI Bill, 50 years. New York Times


another effect of the GI BIll was the boom of the community college which doubled enrollment in three years 1944-1947

Dougherty (1994)


CCs as democratizing access to higher education

Marcus (1994) GI Bill at the Univ of Miami


1,900 to 7,000 in one year

"GI Bill dramatically changed society by democratizing education"

Lucas (1994) American HE: A history


Kerr (1994)


Clark Kerr predicted a coming “Tidal Wave II [that] will start in 1997 or 1998, when the grandchildren of the (WWII) GIs enter college.” He noted that this wave was “inevitable,” and would last until about 2010

"multiversity" -community of undergrads, graduate students, humanists, professional schools, etc

Uses of the University (1963, his lectures)

Clinton (1995)


CCs as fault line of America's education

Grubb (1999) Honored but invisible: A look at teaching at CCs


almost half of undergrads do so through community colleges

Brubacher & Rudy (1999)


Higher Education in transition

Cohen & Brawer (2003) Community Colleges


Cohen and Brawer point out, the community college so often has been the only viable choice for pursuing a postsecondary education (2003).

Palmer’s (2000) notion of community colleges as “the neighborhood schools of American higher education.”

Greenberg (2004)How the GI Bill Changed Higher Education


the increase in purchasing power of the veterans (average age 26 years old) changed the "physical and social landscape" of the country

higher education shifted from "hope to an expectation"

status of women was elevated due to the GI Bill as the kids of these veterans (let's say of them being female) went to college

the GI Bill was "revolutionary" and "major tipping point" in the history of our country.

Cohen & Kisker (2010) Shaping of American HE


Altbach, Gumport & Bredahl (2011) Ten Generations of HE


in American Higher Education in the 21st century


Harvard founded


Harvard imported the curriculum and residential patterns from Ox-bridge model (Emmanuel College in Cambridge and also Oxford)

Curriculum comprised of trivium and quadrivium
trivium-grammar, logic, and rhetoric
quadrivium- astronomy, arithmetic, geometry, and music
based on the classics
prescribed curriculum
derived from Europe with little modification until latter half of the 18th century

Dartmouth College Case


gave judicial protection angst state interference with corporate contracts

enhanced growth of corporate enterprise in US

cleared up blurring of public and private status of colleges that existed in 1600 and 1700s

provided increased access and greater diversity

legalized the existence of a great private sector in US HE immune from governmental interference, selective in nature and self-reliant

Dartmounth case momentous in the measure of autonomy it reinforced; this autonomy has allowed private institutions to be selective based on merit and therefore become quality institutions

defended and proclaimed america's strong sense of individualism and individual responsibility

today governmental intervention tends to threaten public more than private institutions of HE

UVA founded


opened for classes in 1825

Thomas Jefferson founded the University of Virginia in 1819. He wished the publicly-supported school to have a national character and stature. Jefferson envisioned a new kind of university, one dedicated to educating leaders in practical affairs and public service rather than for professions in the classroom and pulpit exclusively. It was the first nonsectarian university in the United States and the first to use the elective course system.

Yale Report


The Yale Report was published and declared that a prescribed curriculum featuring "the thorough study of the ancient languages" was the only proper system for a college (Brubacher & Rudy, 2008).

insisted on study of classical languages

rejected professional subjects in college

affirmed lecture and recitation modes of instruction

purpose of college provide discipline and furniture of the mind

defended humanism

teach men to observe and think (not practical/technical ed)

liberate from excessive religious orientation

against open access; pro-meritocracy

Oberlon College admits women


Oberlin admits blacks


1835 Oberlin College Trustees vote to admit blacks to the institution. (Although Oberlin is not the first college to admit blacks, it is the first to admit students without respect to race as a matter of regular policy.)

It was also the first college to grant a degree to an African-American woman: Mary Jane Patterson, OC 1862.

First PhD at Yale (1861)


Morrill Act


act specified that the funds be used to endow at least one college where the major focus was agriculture and the mechanical arts but could not exclude other scientific and classical studies

Emancipation Proclamation


Black HE (1865-1935)


Black HE spurred on by
1. Negro philanthropy
2. Missionary philanthropy
3 Industrial philosophy

Elective principle


Charles Eliot of Harvard promoted this BUT before him, Wayland of Brown Univ adopted a modified elective system but it wasn't very successful--he wanted to expand the curriculum to make it more useful to merchants and farmers and manufacturers

the Civil War (1861-65) era initiated new choices of studies for women and blacks

freedom of choice and self-reliance--serious blow to prescription

criticism: increased secularism, intellectual lethargy, extreme specialization

during this same time period, the major system was introduced

present day: call for a core curriculum in the face of few requirements and hundreds of courses to choose from; this call keeps alive the tension of prescription versus choice

Cornell -First American university


why? first Ivy League Co-ed school

revolutionarily egalitarian version of HE and mission of outreach and public service

admitted qualified students regardless of nationality, race, social circumstance, gender, or religion

Johns Hopkins Univ-First university dedicated to research and grad training


While Columbia and Yale and Harvard became universities, JHU began as one (Brubacher & Rudy, 1999)

Morrill Act


federal land grants proved to be the major stimulus for the founding of state colleges
occupational utility apparent in the development of land grant colleges

saved the cause of public, state institutions of higher learning

wanted to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the pursuits and professions of life

1890 Act: no appropriations went to states that denied admissions to the colleges on the basis of race unless they set up separate but equal facilities

land grants according to Rudolph (1990) became the temple for applied science and industrializing the american respect for the immediately useful

state college became synomous with opportunity

helped american people achieve popular HE for the first time

Cornell was the institution that helped to achieve respectability for land grant idea.

at the time there was a great deal of dissatisfaction for the traditional liberal arts college in the US

Land grant idea was to further the sale of land not to further education

first institutions of learning in the US to welcome applied science and the mechanic arts and give them a place in the college curriculum

fostered emancipation of american HE from classical and formalistic tradition

force of democracy--every citizen is entitled to receive some form of higher education

Growth and Standardization

1890 - 1914

assimilation of women into HE

universities becoming compartmentalized institutions; admin structures needed to serve autonomous sectors

by 1908 able to recognize standard US university: admitting only HS grads, 2 yrs of gen ed, then specialized; credits, majors, etc


Carnegie Foundation

associations created to standardize-AAU, NASU

AAU founded


the association defines the minimum standards of a PhD--German prototype

Joliet Junior College


The nation's first community college was founded in 1901. In the beginning community colleges taught "general liberal arts studies" (American Association of Community Colleges, 2009).

Founded by Harper from Univ of Chicago

College Entrance Examination Board is founded


AAUP champions faculty rights and academic freedom


First EdD from Harvard (1920)


University of Miami founded




The first SAT was administered in the US which has become a predictor of success for the college curriculum (Public Broadcasting Service, 2009).

GI Bill


released billions of dollars to help underwrite the cost of college for millions of returning vets

largest scholarship grant in history

national concern over the welfare of vets

most vets came from family backgrounds.. never thought of college before

between 1945-1949 2.2 million vets attended college (three times that was projected)

Harvard Report


-promoted a concern for knowledge beyond the Western sphere
-more education monies (increase in ed budgets)
-gave students more freedom in their classes
-end to old curriculum

Truman Commission on Community Colleges


Brown v Board of Education


This landmark Supreme Court decision declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students, denying black children equal educational opportunities unconstitutional.

American College Testing Program is founded


Civil Rights Act of 1964


vote, use facilities, gain employment without discrimination

affirmative action instituted

Higher Education Act


Pell grants
Stafford loans

Title IX of Educational Amendments Acts of 1972


Title IX of the Educational Amendments Act of 1972 amended the Higher Education Act of 1965

no sex bias in education programs or admissions

assured legal enforcement

governmental presence in HE

Univ of Phoenix founded


John Sperling took his university of Phoenix public in 1994

Bakke v University of California


a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States that ruled unconstitutional the admission process of the Medical School at the University of California at Davis, which set aside 16 of the 100 seats for student who were African-American, Chicano, Asian, Native American, or members of other ethnic minorities

Middle Income Assistance Act


Bayh-Dole Act of 1980


allowed universities and small business to retain the title of inventions

First US News and World Report college rankings


UC-Davis-first unit to end racial preferences criteria in admisisons


Grutter vs Bollinger; Gratz vs Bollinger U of M cases


Time Periods

Colonial and Revolutionary Times

1636 - 1789

9 colleges before the Revolutionary War (1775-1783)--these are the colonial colleges

Emergent Nation

1790 - 1869

University Transformation

1870 - 1944

emergence of the state university (all purpose institution) due to..?
-industrial and scientific revolution post Civil war
-expansion of US public school system
-Morrill Acts

these institutions responsible for educating larger portions of AMerican society

Mass Higher Education Era

1945 - 1974

1973 five racial categories identified

1970 legislation shifted from institution to individual aid and created marketization of HE

golden age of optimism

500% increase in enrollments

state systems & CCs

sputnik, NSF

Cold War

Truman Report


HArvard Report

Consolidated Era

1975 - 1993

very concerned with equality..era of litigation re: discrimination
first time had heard of COMPLIANCE

mid-1970s defined racial categories (1997 added multiracial)

tuition doubled in 1980s (Cohen & Kisker, 2010)

increase in PT faculty--way to balance budgets

Contemporary Era

1994 - 2013

in 1999 80% of students were working (Cohen & Kisker, 2010)

92% increase in business, computer science, communications (NCES, 2007)

occupational studies on the rise while multicultural studies fade


American Revolution

1763 - 1775

American Revolutionary War

1775 - 1783

French Revolution


Civil War

1861 - 1865

period of growth of colleges for blacks occurred30 years after Civil War; era dominated by the benevolence and humanitarianism of northern churches

congregationalists founded Howard and they proceeded under the authorization of Freemen's Bureau


1914 - 1918


1939 - 1945