Issues in HE 21st century
— Growing privatization of public colleges and universities
— A more commercialized and politicized research system?
— Who Benefits?
— Who will attend college? Challenges to access
— The changing and uncertain job market for Ph.D.’s
— Who Decides?
— Accountability, governance, and coordination
On average, states now supply only a little over one-third of public colleges’ revenues.
state tax systems are obsolete – for example, a growing percentage of economic activity is in non-taxed services and Internet sales
an estimated 40-50 percent of state expenditures is locked up in mandated program costs, particularly for K-12 education and Medicaid.
In 1995 a $26 billion backlog in deferred maintenance of existing facilities. A new survey, to be conducted in late 2003, was expected to show that this estimate had increased by at least 25 percent.
While the declining proportion of state funding at some institutions is due in part to success in obtaining more extramural grants and private donations as well as growth in auxiliary enterprises, nationally two-thirds of the change reflects the substitution of tuition and fee income in place of state support… move toward more reliance on private funding for “public” higher education – unless there is a paradigm shift in public support or unless state or federal policy makers impose mandatory tuition limitations.
Many public institutions are themselves pursuing privatization as a means to raise revenues or reallocate scarce state dollars. Some institutions are requiring that certain academic programs, especially high-demand, high-return professional programs like law or business, become fully or nearly fully funded by clients, business…
Community colleges and other institutions are expanding contract education programs with specific businesses or industries. Both public and private universities have adopted commercial technology transfer and other for-profit collaborations with industry. Colleges and universities are “outsourcing” many institu- tional functions to private vendors or other education institutions, including operation of residential dorms, employment training, and even academic functions such as remedial education and beginning language instruction. University hospitals have formed partnerships
Unless sufficient need-based financial aid is provided, low-income students and historically underrepresented ethnic groups may be excluded.
Access, success, and diversity: Over the next decade, many new faculty will be needed, both to replace the large numbers of expected retirements and to teach the growing numbers of students.
Impacts on faculty:According to the American Association of University Professors, the increasing reliance on part-time, temporary, and adjunct faculty threatens the tenure system and may harm the quality of higher education.
Program reallocations:In a more market-driven environment, will institutions (private as well as public) respond by shifting program resources toward fields that promise tuition-paying students high-paying jobs or that bring in more external research grants?
— Narrowing of institutional missions: Will budget cuts result in a contraction of institutional missions?
Impacts on the higher education system as a whole: Will declining state funding, along with government or market limits on tuition, widen the gaps between the “haves” and the “have-nots” in the U.S. higher education system overall – between faculty and student resources at most public institutions and those at well- endowed private institutions, between elite and less elite institutions within the public sector, between tenure- track and non-tenure-track faculty, or between science and non-science fields?
Between 1980 and 2000, industry funding for university research and development (R&D) in science and engineering grew much more rapidly than any other funding source, nearly doubling as a percentage of total university research dollars, from four to almost eight percent.
University/industry partnerships, where researchers in both sectors are jointly involved in research activities, have also grown dramatically over the past two decades… However, such collaboration is also subject to potential problems.
Commercialization: Critics also charge that commercialization may further shift research priorities toward more marketable areas in science and technol- ogy fields, distort traditional academic missions, and replace science dedicated to the public good with the “privatization of knowledge.”
Who Will Attend College? Challenges to Access
“mass higher education.” In 2003, over 60 percent of recent high school graduates and more than one-third of the traditional “college-age” population (18-24-year-olds) were enrolled in postsecondary education institutions.
Total enrollments have increased dramatically, rising nearly 50 percent over the past 25 years, to over 16 million students in 2003.
Poverty is the biggest barrier to college attendance.
Young adults from families in the bottom income bracket are eight times less likely than others in their age group to complete a bachelor’s degree.
The National Center for Education Statistics projects that college enrollments will increase 11 percent nationally between 2003 and 2013,
By the end of the decade, students of color will constitute close to 40 percent of the college-age population nationally
By 2010, for example, California projects that over 40 percent of public high school graduates will be of Latino background,
these changed perceptions come at a time when high school students of all ethnic back- grounds are completing substantially more college preparatory and advanced coursework in science and mathematics than previous generations, as a result of higher state graduation and college admission require- ments.
higher education is increasingly viewed by both policy makers and the general public as primarily a private benefit, rather than a broader social good. Over 90 percent of U.S. adults believe that every high school student who wants a four-year college education should have the opportunity to gain one, accord- ing to a 2003 survey, and two-thirds believe state and federal governments should invest more money in higher education –
First, the growing demand for higher education will collide with forces limiting enrollment: budgetary demands on governments that already have limited revenues to meet other social needs, greater public readiness to consider higher education a private good, and consequent reduction in public funding for higher education… Many private institutions and some public ones will have a seller’s market, allowing them to become more selective. More institutions may “leverage” financial aid funds by directing more of their limited dollars to relatively well-off, tuition-paying students.
over the past 25 years, federal, state, and institutional financial aid programs have increasingly shifted away from both grants and need-based support. Federal financial aid has moved overwhelmingly toward loans, rising from about half to about 70 percent of all federal aid, and aid eligibility has been expanded to include more middle-class students.
hird, financial support alone will not ensure access and success in college. Low-income, underrepresented ethnic minority, and first-generation students often come from schools with fewer academic resources, have less academic preparation, and may have lower expectations. In Jonathan Kozol’s view, the differences in the resources available to rich and poor school districts have created “savage inequalities” in the education their