College Students in the United States (Diversity & Generational)


Rendon & Hope (1996)


Educating a New Majority: Transforming America's Educational System for Diversity
increase in older students too

By the year 2012, students of color are expected to make up twenty-four percent of the under eighteen population in the United States.

Educating a New Majority provides a comprehensive assessment of how well our educational system—from kindergarten through college—serves disadvantaged minority students, and offers a wealth of ideas for strengthening the entire educational pipeline. ..the book presents a holistic, highly coordinated, systemwide approach to improving the education of minority students.

The authors advocate not only for change within the school, but also for building partnerships between schools and postsecondary institutions as well as alliances with community organizations.

And they show why leadership is needed at all levels—schools and colleges, parents, the community, and state and federal agencies—to refashion an educational system that works for all students.

Gurin (1999)three different outcomes of diversity


Gurin, P. (1999). Expert report of Patricia Gurin. In The compelling need for diversity in higher education. Part of expert testimony prepared for Gratz et al. v. Bollinger et al., no 97-75321 (E.D. Mich.), and Grutter et al., v. Bollinger et al., no 97-75928 (E.D. Mich.). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

-learning outcomes
-democracy outcomes ( diversity experiences contribute to the development of the skills and dispositions that students will need to be leaders in a pluralistic democracy)

MIlem's chapter in Chang & Witt's Compelling Interest (2003)


Examining the evidence on racial dynamics in colleges and universities

Black (2010)


see chart in Dr. Phekoo's notes

McClellan & Larimore (2011) "Demographics are destiny"


Chapter Twelve "Changing student population" in Handbook of Student Affairs Administration

Almanac of HE (2012)


Social Networking/Technology

Nicoletti & Merriman (2009) Using Technology in Twenty-first Century Schools


Part I. Why use technology in our schools?
Chapter 1. Today's students and how we teach them

Manago, Taylor, Greenfield (2012). Me and my 400 friends:


General Knowledge

Levin & Cureton(1998) When hope and fear collide


Today's college undergraduates are frightened. They are afraid that they will not have enough money to complete college. They are afraid of not finding a job after graduation. They are afraid that they will be victims of crime. And, after watching their parents or others close to them divorce, they are afraid of intimacy.

Wellman (1999) Benefits from a more educated citizenry


improved economic competitiveness
higher levels of productivity, enhanced government revenues
enhanced social equality
more likely to vote
use new technologies
less likely to be improved criminal activities
support advanced education for their children and their communities
assume civic leadership positions

Pascarella & Terenzini (2005) How College Affects Students


increased levels of college can lead to:
higher salaries
more career mobility
increased quality of life
less likely to be unemployed for long periods
less prone to miss work due to health problems
report being happier and more satisfied with life

Altbach, Gumport, & Berdahl, (2011). American HE in 21st Century


Roska & Arum (2011) Academically Adrift


45 percent of students "did not demonstrate any significant improvement in learning" during the first two years of college.
36 percent of students "did not demonstrate any significant improvement in learning" over four years of college.

The main culprit for lack of academic progress of students, according to the authors, is a lack of rigor.

Students majoring in liberal arts fields see "significantly higher gains in critical thinking, complex reasoning, and writing skills over time than students in other fields of study."

Braskamp & Engberg (2011)colleges can affect devlpmt of global perspective


How colleges can affect the development of a global perspective

Students differ on their global perspective-taking depending on their gender, ethnicity, and age.

Students differ on their global perspective-taking depending on their class status.

Students differ on their global perspective-taking depending on the type of college in which they are enrolled.

Student views of their college as a community. Students who had more positive perceptions of their campus community were associated with higher levels of global perspective-taking,

Student involvement in cocurricular activities. As students became more engaged in cocurricular activities, they expressed higher scores across all three dimensions of the GPI

Student enrollment in diversity courses.

Service learning as a curricular/pedagogical strategy.

Influence of a semester abroad experience on global perspective-taking.

Roska & Arum (2012 )Life after college:Challenging transitions of acad'ly adrift


Gender and race gap

Ewert (2012) Fewer diplomas for men


Women's advantage in college graduation is evident at all socioeconomic levels and for most racial and ethnic groups. This study examines whether college experiences critical to persistence to graduation, including college major, attendance patterns, social integration, and academic performance, contribute to this gender gap in graduation.

The results show that attendance patterns and academic performance benefit women relative to men in college graduation while higher rates of participation in sports increase the likelihood of graduation for men compared to women.

-men had more disrupted attendance patterns
-women participated in more social and academic clubs than men
-women had higher GPA
-men are 21% less likely to graduate
-sports are more beneficial for men than women
-men are less academically integrated

Harper & Kuykendall (2012) Institnl efforts to improve AA male achievement


Nationally, less than 1/3 of black undergraduate men earn bachelor's degrees within 6 years--the lowest college-completion rate among both sexes and all racial groups in US (Harper, 2012).

-Black undergraduate men are less prepared for the college-level work compared to peers from other races (Bonner & Bailey, 2006; Palmer, Davis, & Hilton, 2009). They are less engaged than others in college classrooms, clubs and campus and educational activities

what to do?
1. Data are used to guide institutional activities.
2. Black undergraduate men are meaningfully engaged as collaborators
3. Learning, academic achievement, student development, and improved degree attainment rates are prioritized over social programming (entertainment-like stuff).
4. Initiatives are grounded in published research on college men and masculinities in general and on black male undergraduates in particular.
5. Efforts are enhanced by insights from black male student achievers.
6. Institutional agents engage in honest conversations about racism
7. At every level, institutional agents are held accountable

Millenials/Generational stuff/Typologies

"the Millennials," people born between 1982 and 2004 or thereabouts

Howe & Strauss (2000) Millenials Rising


This idea is the underpinning of Mr. Howe's conclusion that each generation turns a historical corner, breaking sharply with the previous generation's traits and values.

Howe & Strauss (2003) Millienials go to College



generational characteristics: each generation has its own biography

Coomes & Debard (2004) Serving the millennial generation


Changing student demographics
-Minorities, biracial, multiracial
-immigrants, ELLs
-access to college restricted
-sexual orientation-transgender
-different family structure

Attitudes towards diversity and social justice
-diversity: race and racism; gender sexism; sexual orientation
-political attitudes: civic engagement & social justice behaviors

Luo & Jamieson–Drake 2005


typological schema is predictive of student outcomes in terms of self reported gains and future plans

the outcome for many of our student engagement and transformative learning intentions seem to be greatly influenced by the type of student we enroll

Bonner (2010) Diverse Millenials in College


Many nonwhite students, he says, were not brought up to think of themselves as "special."

Many other kinds of students have not come from backgrounds where they felt safe, sheltered, and secure, or from schools that recognized their gifts and talents,"

"It's not that many diverse parents don't want to treat their kids as special," he says, "but they often don't have the social and cultural capital, the time and resources, to do that."

Twenge (2010) Generation Me


"self-esteem movement" has led to a rise in narcissism

"I see no evidence that today's young people feel much attachment to duty or to group cohesion." Ms. Twenge wrote.

"Young people have been consistently taught to put their own needs first and to focus on feeling good about themselves."

Ms. Twenge defined Generation Me as anyone born in the 1970s through the 1990s. Born in 1971, the author thus included herself in this generation.

Hu & McCormick (2011)


10 college student typologies
based off of peer group influences/tendencies

Hu, Katherine, Kuh (2011) Student typologies in HE


Using Typological Approaches to Understand College Student Experiences and Outcome (Hu & Li, 2011)

students grouped by similarities in preferences and predispositions (Clark & Trow, 1966) or values and attitudes (Astin, 1993) or activities, behaviors, and outcomes (Kuh, Hu & Vesper, 2000; Hu & McCormick, 2011)

Renn & Reason (2012) College Students in the US


trends in college enrollment
attitude and beliefs

Levine & Dean (2012) Generation on a tightrope: A portrait...


snapshot of today's undergraduates
most diverse generation in history of US
less hate incidents
less interested in discussions about diversity
mitosis of student groups
females believe they have more opportunities
less polarization
greater homogeneity between race/ethnic /gender groups--more alike than separate
greater diversity within groups

they are coddled, dependent, entitled, immature, little involved on campus, connected but isolated
digital natives
lacking in F2F skills, pessimistic about the future in general but optimistic about their future, disenchanted

Academic Dishonesty

Center for Academic Integrity (1999)


75% of students have cheat but only 2% get caught

students don't feel it is wrong and don't feel that asking for a higher grade is wrong because they deserve it

Gross (2011) Clashing Values


Gross, Emma R. "Clashing values: contemporary views about cheating and plagiarism compared to traditional beliefs and practices." Education 132.2 (2011):

First Generation

Hsiao (1992)


Hsiao (1992) summarized that “parents, siblings, and friends who have no experience of college or its rewards may be non-supportive or even obstructionist.”

Brown (1997)


Brown, O. G. (1997). Helping African-American students prepare for college.

first gens lack parental support in attending college

Kuh & Love (2000)


Students from lower socio-economic status (SES) experience the bureaucratic sphere of the institution more acutely because these students quite often have less knowledge of what to expect and how things are done at university (Kuh & Love, 2000, p. 203).

Ting(2003)Lngtl study of non-cogntv variabls in predctng 1stgen academc success


First-generation learner part-time status was a result of their low socioeconomic status and their need to work to provide for themselves and pay their tuition (Ting, 2003).

Hurtado, Saenz, Santos & Cabrera (2008)


latinos most likely to be first gens

McClellan & Larimore (2009) Handbook of Student Affairs Administration


"The needs and experiences of first-generation and lower-income students are likely to require intensive and intentional efforts to help them understand and navigate the culture and systems of any campus"

Higher Education Research Institute (2012)


21% of enrolled Freshmen are first generation...

By 2005, the proportion of first- generation college students declined to 16.5 percent of all entering freshmen 38% of these are Hispanic (2005)

A 2010 study by the Department of Education found that 50 percent of the college population is made up of first-generation students, or those whose parents did not receive education beyond a high school diploma. The National Center for Education Statistics released numbers in 2010 that broke down the educational levels of parents of current college attendees. Minority groups made up the largest demographics of students with parents that had a high school education or less, with 48.5 percent of Latino and Hispanic students and 45 percent of Black or African-American students included. The parents of students of Asian descent came in at 32 percent with a high school diploma or less, and Native Americans at 35 percent. Of students that identified themselves as Caucasian, only 28 percent were first-generation college students.

30% of entering freshmen in the U.S. are first-generation college students, but many won't graduate. Huffington Post, 2013


Provitera McGlynn (2008) consumer and convenience-oriented


Magolda & Baxter Magolda (2011) Contested Issues in Student Affairs


Have it Your Way U—Tracy Davis, Western Illinois University
Response—Lisa Boes, Harvard University