The Missouri Compromise kept the number of slave and free states even, by making the Missouri and Maine territories into states, whith Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state.
In 1831, a black slave named Nat Turner started a slave rebellion in Southhampton County, Virginia. Turner and his followers killed over 60 white people in one night. Turner was captured and executed.
The Underground Railroad was a network of secret paths to help black slaves in the South reach safety in the North. The Underground Railroad was at its height from 1850 to 1860.
The compromise of 1850 was a group of five bills passed in 1850. The effects of these bills included:
1.Texas giving away land to pay off debts
2.California was admitted as a free state
3.Utah and New Mexico territories could become slave states in the future
4.Fugitive Slave Act forced northerners to report escaped slaves
5.Slave trade banned in Washington D.C.
The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 required state or government officials to report slaves that had escaped to the North. Officials who did not report slaves were subject to a fine of $1000($28,000 in today's money).
Uncle Tom's Cabin was one of the most popular books of the 19th century, second only to the Bible. It sympathized with slaves and created anti-slavery feelings across the country.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act made Kansas and Nebraska official territories, and repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, allowing the states/territories to decide if they would have slavery through popular sovereignty.
The Dred Scott case, a very important case in which Scott(a slave) sued his master for his freedom as he was in Illinois, a free state. The Supreme Court decided that slaves aren't citizens, so they cannot sue.The second ruling was that the federal government had no power to regulate slavery in any territory
Lincoln won the 1860 presidential election by a landslide, with more than 100 more electoral votes than the second place candidate. His election cause the South to secede from the Union.
In response to Lincoln's election, the southern states began to secede from the Union, because of Lincoln's strong anti-slavery views.
The Confederate States of America was a country created by the southern states that had seceded from the United States of America. Their country was short lived, however, as it was forced to rejoin the Union after losing the Civil War.
The Confederate attack of Fort Sumter was the first major battle of the Civil War. Confederate cannons fired on the fort for 34 hours straight. The Union soldiers surrendered to the Confederates, and the fort was lost.
The Battle of Antietam was the first major battle of the Civil War to be fought on Union soil. After one day of fighting, the Confederacy and Union combined for 22,717 dead, wounded and missing. The Union army, even with a two to one advantage, failed to destroy Lee's forces, who were able to retreat back to Virginia.
The Emancipation Proclamation was an order that proclaimed all slaves in the Confederate States of America to be free, and ordered soldiers of the Union to treat them as free. This proclamation motivated many African-Americans to join the war or escape to the Union.
The Battle of Vicksburg was a decisive Union victory that lasted over a month. The two major assaults(May 19 and May 22, 1863) caused heavy casualties for the Confederates and forced them to fall back to the city of Vicksburg. This Union victory is sometimes considered as the turning point of the war.
The Battle of Gettysburg had the most casualties of any battle in the Civil War. Lee led his second invasion of the North, but this time, he was defeated by the Union.
The Gettysburg Address is one of the most famous of all speeches in America. Lincoln honored those lost in the Civil War, and declared the Civil War a struggle for the principle of human equality.
The election of 1864 was another victory for Lincoln, who won by nearly 200 electoral votes more than the other candidate, George McClellan.
With Lee's army exhausted, starving, and surrounded, Lee had little choice but to surrender to Grant. After exchanging notes about the terms of the surrender, they agreed to meet at Appomattox to surrender and end the war.
Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth while Lincoln was at a theater in Washington D.C. He was shot in the head, and died from the wounds the next morning.
Once Lee surrendered, the Confederates were forced by the Union army to rejoin the United States.