Volcanic Eruptions from Earth's History

Main

Mount Etna

1500 BC - 1499 BC

mount etna
38˚N 15˚E
Catania, Sicily, Italy
active- dating back to 1500 BC (has been active for over half a million years)
basaltic lava
strato volcano
constant threat to people of Sicily but Sicilians have built their homes on the lower slopes of Etna
due to the beneficial traits of the volcano: (fertile soil, tourism, skiing)
located on the african eurasian plate boundary: convergent

Bouvet

50 BC - 49 BC

bouvet
54˚S 3˚E
bouvet island, norwegian dependency
south atlantic subantarctic volcanic island
shield volcano
basalt and rhyolite lava
lsat known eruption in about 50 BC
southern end of the mid atlantic ridge
just off the southwest indian ridge
BUT
on the bouvet hot spot
bouvet triple junction is 275 km west- (where the south american, antarctic and african plates meet)

Mount Vesuvius (A)

79 AD - 80 AD

mount vesuvius
41˚N 14˚E
near Naples, Italy
strato/composite volcano
basaltic and andesetic lava
only active volcano in mainland europe
sits in the crater of the ancient Somma volcano
most famous for it’s 79 AD eruption- destroyed the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum
last eruption in 1944- still is a great threat to many big cities around vesuvius like Naples
over a subduction zone created by the converging African-eurasian plate boundary

Mount Fuji

1707 - 1708

mount fuji
35˚N 138˚E
between the cities Yamanashi and Shizuoka (Japan)
an extinct volcano in south central Honshu that is the highest peak in Japan;
last erupted in 1707; famous for its symmetrical peak; a sacred place also for pilgrimages
composite volcano
basaltic lava
stratovolcano- cone shaped w/alternating layers of lava
ash and lava layers overlying each other
pacific-eurasian-philippine plate boundary: convergent

South/Hohnel Island

1888 - 1889

south island/hohnel island
3°N 37°E
Lake Turkana, Kenya, Eastern Africa
largest of three uninhabited islands
stratovolcano
last known eruption in 1888
basaltic/mafic lava
16 craters on south island
contains numerous tuff cones
fresh lava flows from a North-South fissure extending the 11 or 12-km length of the island, forms much of the eastern shoreline
south island/hohnel island rises 320 m above the lake (to a 800 m height) and is part of a volcanic horst that goes 10 km to the north beneath the lake surface
considered a national park and the island contains a large numbers of crocodiles
East African Rift

Buckle Island

1899 - 1900

Buckle Island
67°S 163°E
Balleny Islands, East Antarctica
uninhabited, ross dependency
stratovolcano
mafic lava field
last known eruption- 1899
in the center of a chain of volcanic islands (the submarine ridge chain reaches north 21 km towards New Zealand) off the coast of Victoria Land (Antarctica)
capped by an ice cap
studies show eruptions in 1839 and 1899
VERY END (south) OF Indian Australian-Pacific plate boundary: convergent

Bárdarbunga

1910 - 1911

Bárdarbunga
65˚N 18˚W
located in Northeastern Iceland
stratovolcano
basaltic lava
second highest mountain in Iceland after Hvannadalshnjúkur
last known eruption was in 1910
eurasian-north american plate boundary (Mid-Atlantic Ridge) : divergent, BUT
on the Iceland Hotspot

Mount Maipo

1912 - 1913

mount maipo
34˚S 70˚W
last known eruption in 1912
conical stratovolcano
on the Chile-Argentina border
southeast of Santiago, Chile
nazca-south american plate boundary: convergent
formed half a million years ago after a massive eruption
basaltic andesite lava

Cotopaxi

1940 - 1941

cotopaxi
1°S 78°W
Ecuador
in the andes mountains
stratovolcano
one of ecuador’s most active volcano
last eruption in 1940
symmetrical and contains glaciers
steep sided cone w/nested summit craters
andesitic lava
this modern cone volcano has been constructed since a major edifice collapse sometime before about 5000 years ago
pyroclastic flows accompanied many eruptions
south american-nazca plate boundary: convergent

Mount Vesuvius (B)

1944 - 1945

mount vesuvius
41˚N 14˚E
near Naples, Italy
strato/composite volcano
basaltic and andesetic lava
only active volcano in mainland europe
sits in the crater of the ancient Somma volcano
most famous for it’s 79 AD eruption- destroyed the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum
last eruption in 1944- still is a great threat to many big cities around vesuvius like Naples
over a subduction zone created by the converging African-eurasian plate boundary

Mount St. Helens

1980 - 1981

mount st helens
46˚N 122˚W
near Woodland, WA, USA
famous explosion in 1980 killing ameatur volcano-watchers
located in southwestern Washington about 50 miles northeast of Portland
composite/strato volcano
dacite lava
located on the north american-juan de fuca plate boundary: convergent

Kilauea

1983 - Present Day

kilauea
22˚N 159˚W
located in mount kilauea, hawaii, usa
shield volcano
pahoehoe lava (basaltic)
since 1952 there have been 34 eruptions
last eruption began in 1983 and has continued since
lava erupting from the cone through a tube system about 11 km down to the sea
formed around 300,000 to 600,000 years ago
most active out of five volcanoes that form hawaii
NOT ON A PLATE BOUNDARY! (on Hawaii Hotspot)

Mount Pinatubo

1991 - 1992

mount pinatubo
15˚N 120˚E
active
luzon, philippines
philippine-eurasian plate boundary: convergent
strato or composite volcano
basalt and andesetic lava (making it explosive)
dormant for 500 years until 1991
one of the most destructive volcanic eruptions of the 20th century
caused forceful damage to the economy and structure of surrounding cities
ejected millions of tons of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere-
contributed to ozone depletion- added on to the size of the hole quickly
formed a cloud over the earth and decreased average worldwide temperatures by almost 1 degree Fahrenheit for several years after the eruption
killed 800 and displaced thousands more
buried the surrounding land with thick ash layers
recovery costs consisted of billions of Philippine pesos

Arenal

2010 - 2011

arenal
10°N 85°S
Costa Rica
youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica
one of the most active costa rican volcanoes
andesitic lava
1670 meter volcano sits beside Arenal Lake
last known eruption was in 2010
earliest known eruptions were about 7000 years ago
Arenal’s growth has been aided by periodic major several-hundred-year explosive eruptions and lava covering the cone
Arenal's most recent eruptive period began with a major explosive eruption in 1968
continuing explosive activity with gradual lava flow and the occasional burst of pyroclastic flows has occurred since then (1968) from vents at the summit
located on the cocos-caribbean plate boundary: convergent

Pacaya

2010 - 2011

Pacaya
14°N 91°W
Guatemala
complex volcano
one of guatemala’s most active volcanoes
last known eruption was 2010
basaltic lava
collapse of the Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche that deposited debris extending 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain leaving an arcuate somma rim (a caldera like structure formed by the collapse of a volcano) inside which the modern Pacaya volcano grew
during the past few decades intermittent lava flow has partially filled in the caldera moat
located on the cocos-north american plate boundary: convergent