Churchill and FDR went to Tehran, Iran for their first meeting with Stalin. Soviets agreed to enter Pacific War after hostilities in Europe ended, and Roosevelt promised that an Anglo-American second front would be established within 6 months.
The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944, provided economic and educational assistance to veterans, increasing spending even further.
Was an international conference at which the United Nations was formulated and negotiated among international leaders. The conference held at Dumbarton Oaks, a building on Harvard Campus.
It investigated potential Communists or those suspected of having Communist ties. Convicted many who were innocent.
Peace conference between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Soviet city Yalta. For soviets entering the Pacific War, FDR agreed to return some territory lost in the Russo-Japanese war. No agreement as to the future of Germany. At the end of the war, US, GB, France, and the Soviet Union would hold their own “zone of occupation” in Germany.
Truman, Churchill, and Stalin met in Potsdam, Russian Occupied Germany. Truman accepted the adjustments of the Polish-German border that Stalin demanded, but refused to permit Russians to claim any reparations from the American, French, and British zones of Germany. Divided Germany into Western Zones and Eastern Zone.
The nation’s railroads were completely shut down because two major unions went on strike. By threatening to use the army to run the trains, Truman pressured the workers back to work after only a few days.
John L. Lewis led United Mine Workers out on strike, shutting down coal fields for 40 days. Led to fear of nation failing without coal supplies.
Four large suburban neighborhoods developed by Gordon Levitt. First was in New York with construction from 1947-1951. Was as a result of the increased movement to suburbs.
Fear of Communism that was supported by government and characterized by McCarthy, so it's also known as McCarthyism.
The first African-American to be signed into Major League Baseball. In 1947 the Brooklyn Dodgers signed him.
Policy of the united States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.
Sec. of State George C. Marshall announced plan to provide economic assistance to all European nations that would join in drafting a program for recovery.
Labor-Management Relations Act of 1947. Made illegal the “closed-shop” (in which workers must join a union before they can be hired). Permitted the “union shops” (workers must join a union after being hired). Permitted states to pass “right to work” laws prohibiting union shops.
Reshaped the nation’s major military and diplomatic institutions. New Department of Defense, which combined former Army and Navy departments.
Earth-orbiting satellite sent by the Soviet Union into outer space. Started the Space Race.
Microfilm produced by Chambers of stolen State Dept. documents that implicated Hiss in a Soviet spy scandal and that Chambers supposedly hid in a hollowed out pumpkin in his garden. Led to the conviction of Hiss.
Commercial television experienced a boom shortly after WWII. The television industry emerged directly from the radio industry, and specifically from the National Broadcasting Company, The Columbia Broadcasting System, and the American Broadcasting Company. Industry was driven by advertisement, which had a heavy influence on what was shown. Television soon became the nation's most important vehicle for information. Regular TV broadcasting began in 1948 but most popular in 1950s.
The Supreme Court case established that racial covenants on real estate were unconstitutional based on the 14th Amendment, therefore taking strides to decrease discrimination allowed for by laws
Occurred semi-frequently with the first being in 1948 after America recognized Israel when it proclaimed its independence on May 14. The Palestinian Arabs joined with Israel’s Arab neighbors and fought against the new state.
Stalin blockade West Berlin on June 24, 1948. Truman ordered massive airlift to supply the city with food, fuel, and other needed goods. Continued for 10 months, and nearly 2.5 million tons of material transported, keeping 2 million people alive. Stalin lifted the blockade in spring of 1949.
Hubert Humphrey urged Democratic Party to "get out of the shadow of states' rights and walk forthrightly into the bright sunshine of human rights," which led to a walkout by Southern delegates who later nominated Strom Thurmond as the presidential nominee of the States' Rights Party (Dixiecrats).
The election of 1948 was so close that the newspapers had printed headings that Dewey had defeated Truman when in reality, Truman won.
Provided for the construction of 810,000 units of low income housing accompanied by long term rent subsidies
12 nations signed agreement creating North Atlantic Treaty Organization, declaring that an armed attack against one member would be considered an attack against all. Supposed to defend from soviet invasion,
The practice of radio DJs getting paid to play certain songs. Now has come to mean any secret payment made to cast a song of product in a certain light.
Tried and Convicted in 1950 for perjury and suspected of being a communist spy. Issue brought up by Whittaker Chambers in the Pumpkin Papers affair
It was promoted at times by the United States government, and speculated that if one state in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. The domino theory was used by successive United States administrations during the Cold War to justify the need for American intervention around the world.
The biggest critics of the 1950s middle class in general was a group of young poets, writers, and artists known as the "Beatniks". They wrote harsh critiques of what they considered the sterility and conformity of American life, the lack of meaning in politics, and the lack of originality in popular culture. Showed the restlessness of American youth who had all prosperity of life and expected as such.
The speech allowed VP Nixon to explain away allegations of accepting bribes, such as Checkers the dog. The scandal should have served as a warning to the public but they still elected Nixon for President later.
U.S. successfully detonated the first Hydrogen bomb. Unlike Plutonium and Uranium bombs that use fission (atom splitting) to explode, these bombs used fusion (atom joining between lighter and heavier atoms) to produce much more powerful explosions than any other previously used bombs.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were United States citizens convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage during a time of war, and executed. Their charges were related to the passing of information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. Ethel’s brother, David Greenglass had been a part of the Manhattan Project and named his sister when he was accused.
When McCarthy attempted to attack the Army as communistic, these trials resulted. McCarthy's behavior in these televised hearings led to his downfall
Between the French and Vietnamese which established a division of Vietnam along the 17th parallel. The north would be governed by Ho Chi Minh (Communist) and the South by Ngo Dinh Diem (a pro-Western “democracy”).
Decision that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson and said that “separate but equal” was unconstitutional and schools could not segregate facilities.
Activist in the mid1950ss-1960s who promoted peaceful protests. Gained notoriety through the Montgomery Bus Boycott and then played a very active role in protests and gave many speeches.
Alliance between communist governments of Eastern Europe and Soviet Union. Like NATO.
Case that provided rules for implementing the Brown decision and decided that the desegregation of schools should occur with ‘all deliberate speed’.
12 year old boy who was brutally murdered by KKK members after allegedly whistling at a white woman. Failed to get a conviction because the jury was white men, many KKK members. After the trial some men confessed in interviews to the murder but they couldn't be tried again.
Began the Montgomery Bus Boycott by refusing to move to the back of the bus and was arrested.
Created when the AFL and the CIO combined to make a larger federation of unions, representing nearly all unionized laborers.
Response by southern politicians to the Brown decision that condemned that desegregation of public places.
One of the most significant legislative accomplishment of the Eisenhower administration. It authorized $25 billion for a 10-year project that built over 40,000 miles of interstate highways which was the largest public works project in American history.
Hungarians began an uprising demanding democratic reforms. Within one month, Soviets crushed the uprising and restored a pro-Soviet regime.
Nassar seized control of the Suez Canal from the British and said he would use income from it to build up the dam himself.
October 29, 1956—Israeli forces attacked Egypt.
US feared the crisis would lead the Arab states to Soviet Union and against the US so US denounced and failed to support the invasion. US pressured the French and British to withdraw and helped persuade Israel to agree to a truce with Egypt.
December, 1955-December, 1956—After Rosa Parks was arrested because she refused to move from her bus seat to the back of the bus the blacks in Montgomery began a year-long boycott. The boycott helped spur the court case that declared segregation in public transportation illegal. Also helped bring Martin Luther King to the forefront of the civil rights movement.
Under the Eisenhower Doctrine, a country could request American economic assistance and/or aid from U.S. military forces if it was being threatened by armed aggression from another state.
Held that the power of the United States Congress is not unlimited in conducting investigations, and that nothing in the U.S. Constitution gives it the authority to expose individuals' private affairs.
Case decided by the Supreme Court of the United States that held that the First Amendment protected radical and reactionary speech, unless it posed a "clear and present danger."
Nine black teenagers (Little Rock Nine) were enrolled at Little Rock Central High School and on the first day they were blocked from entering the school by the governor of Arkansas, Fabus. President Eisenhower had to call in the 101st airborne to guard the students so they could attend the school. Showed use of federal power was necessary to implement Supreme Court rulings on segregation.
Provided federal protection for blacks who wanted to register to vote. It was passed without active support from the White House by a Democratic Congress and was a weak bill with little methods of enforcement.
Toy invented that became very popular for entertainment in the late 1950s and continues to be popular.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, formed in fall of 1960 after staged sit-in in Greensboro, NC at segregated Woolworth’s lunch counter. Worked to keep the spirit of resistance alive. Southern Christian Leadership Conference, created citizen-education and other programs to mobilize blacks against segregation, disenfranchisement, and discrimination.
Was going to be a peace summit between US and Soviets but a U-2 high-altitude American spy plane had been shot down over Russian Territory. Khrushchev canceled the Paris meeting and withdrew his invitation to Eisenhower to come to the Soviet Union.
Case held that racial segregation in public transportation was illegal because such segregation violated the Interstate Commerce Act, which broadly forbade discrimination in interstate passenger transportation.
Written at the American Indian Chicago Conference. The policy outlined many solutions to the problems of termination and was given to JFK by the National Congress of American Indians (it said that the natives had the right to choose their ways of life and still have a claim to their inheritance). The tribal governments started to bypass the Board of Indian Affairs and focus on self-determination plans.
Organization started by JFK that was meant to help foreign nations and to try and improve America's image to keep countries from resorting to communism
Anti-Castro Cuban forces had been collected prior to Kennedy taking office. 2000 armed exiles landed at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba, expecting first American air support, then a spontaneous uprising by the Cuban people in their behalf. Didn’t happen: boats got stuck on the rocks, and they were shot at and captured by the officials (including Castro) vacationing there. US tried to deny their support.
The United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state or federal courts.
Phrase used in a Malvina Reynolds song that refers to suburban houses as all looking the same and the shoddy construction material used. Song written in 1962.
Was a student activist movement in the United States that was one of the main representations of the New Left.
Influential study of poverty in America; written by Michael Harrington.
Formed United Farm Workers Union and participated in many other activities, including Delano grape strike, to get better conditions for farm laborers.
Required state legislatures to apportion electoral districts so all citizens votes would have equal weight.
The declaration of the Students for a Democratic Society’s/New Left’s beliefs.
Written by Rachel Carson about the dangers of pesticides like DDT and helped begin the environmental movement.
October 14 aerial photos showed construction of Soviet Missile sites on Cuba. Kennedy ordered a naval and air blockade around Cuba on Oct. 22. Oct 26, Kennedy received word that the Soviet Ships carrying the missiles would turn around in exchange for the removal of American Missiles from turkey and an agreement not to invade Cuba.
Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, which is cited as the first event of contemporary women's liberation. She found that most women living as wives and mothers in the suburbs, were very unhappy. They complained that there were no outlets for their intelligence, talent, and education.
The Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Fourteenth Amendment to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants who are unable to afford to pay their own attorneys.
Martin Luther King Jr. wrote a letter while in jail at Birmingham for participating in a non-violent civil rights march. It expressed his disappointment that more Christians didn’t support the fight against racism.
Was an NAACP field worker in Mississippi who was murdered outside his home. Byron De La Beckwith tried twice but with a hung jury. Re-tried in 1994 with a legitimate jury of Evers's peers and convicted.
One of the largest political rallies for human rights in United States history. Called for civil and economic rights for African Americans. It took place in Washington, D.C. Martin Luther King, Jr., standing in front of the Lincoln Memorial, delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech advocating racial harmony during the march.
Shot in Dallas, TX by Lee Harvey Oswald. However, many conspiracy theories have grown from his assassination.
Lee Harvey Oswald is said to have murdered JFK single handedly on November 22, 1963 in Dallas. Was the one and only suspect, and was a Marxist. Said “I’m just a proxy” when arrested. Jack Ruby, strip club owner w/ mafia ties, shot Oswald 2 days later at point blank range as he was being moved from one jail to another. Led to conspiracy theories
The commission, headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren, that was appointed by President Johnson to investigate the assassination. Found that both Warren and Oswald had acted alone. Years later people came up with conspiracy theories
Was designed to control air pollution levels around the nation. Was passed in response to the growing environmentalist movement.
Prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax.
Court held that debate on public issues would be inhibited if public officials could sue for inaccuracies made by mistake. This extended protection of the First Amendment and made it more difficult for public officials to bring libel charges against the press.
Thousands of civil rights workers, black and white, spread though out the south, but primarily in Mississippi, to work on behalf of black voter registration and participation. First 3 workers to arrive in Mississippi, Andrew Goodman (w) Michael Schwerner (w) and James Chaney (b) were brutally murdered by the KKK w/ support of local police. Also produced the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, which was an integrated alternative to the regular state party organization.
Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that extended to women the same legal protections against discrimination that were being extended to blacks.
Outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women. It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public.
Result of an increase in popularity of rock and pop music from Britain as well as other aspects of British culture in America.
This included the Beatles and Rolling Stones.
Medicare provided federal aid to the elderly for medical expenses. Medicaid provided federal medical assistance to welfare recipients and other indigent people of all ages.
Created by LBJ, the Department of Housing and Urban Development’s first secretary, Robert Weaver, was the first African American ever to serve in the cabinet. The program provided money in federal grants for the preservation of open spaces, development of mass transit systems, and the subsidization of middle income houses.
maintained strict limit on the number of newcomers admitted to the country each year to 170,000, but eliminated the “national origins” system established in the 1920s, which had favored immigration from northern Europe to people from the rest of the world. This act, however, continued to restrict immigration from some parts of Latin America.
Case where the court failed to declare “pupil placement laws”, which allowed placement be determined by scholastic ability and behavior, which maintained segregation unconstitutional.
Formed partially as a result of The Feminine Mystique and was meant to help women get equal rights and more support. Was the early feminist organization.
The court confirmed the obligation of authorities to inform a criminal suspect of his or her rights.
The Supreme Court invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage.
Was the lawyer for Linda Brown in Brown v. Board and became the first black justice to serve on the Supreme Court.
Started 1968 by a group of young Native Americans, protested government policies and injustices. In 1973, the AIM organized the occupation of Wounded Knee, SD to bring attention to Indian rights.
Civil rights advocate of black power and black nationalism. More radical than MLK, and promoted more violence. Condemned MLK's peacefulness. Supposedly assassinated by Black Muslims
Assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee by James Earl Ray. His death spurred many riots in cities and ushered in a more violent era of civil rights protests.
The Court held that government cannot punish inflammatory speech unless that speech is directed to inciting, and is likely to incite, imminent lawless action.
A spontaneous and violent demonstration by the gay community against the police raid that took place early in the morning at the Stonewall Inn (known gay bar), NYC.
Was a music festival, billed as "An Aquarian Exposition: 3 Days of Peace & Music". It is widely regarded as a pivotal moment in popular music history.
Area that includes the Southeast, Southwest, and California where population began to grow immensely throughout the 1970s and 1980s. Shifted economic focus and produced a change in political climate.
Proposed amendment to the United States Constitution originally written by Alice Paul that would guarantee women equal rights for women. Seemed likely that it would pass, but it lost support in the late 1970s because of rising objections that is would disrupt traditional social patterns. Amendment died because the time allotted for ratification expired.
AIM members seized and occupied the town for 71 days. Also, the protestors attacked the government's failure to fulfill treaties with Indian peoples and they demanded that treaty negotiations reopen.