Imperialism late 19th C

British Empire

First Opium War

1832 - 1842

British sovereignty declared over New Zealand


Second Opium War

1856 - 1860

Sepoy rebellion in India.


Indian troops revolt against British officers for religious reasons.

First Treaty Ports in China


After 1895, the other powers signed these treaties too.

End of" transportation" of convicts to Australia


Diamonds discovered.


Diamonds discovered at Kimberley South Africa.

Joint control of Tunisia


Britain, France and Italy take joint control of the finances of a bankrupt Tunisia

Queen Victoria Empress of India


Boer force defeated the British at the Majuba Hill.


It re-stablish the independance of the Boer Republic of the Transvaal.

Gold discovered in South Africa.


British invasion over Transvaal.


When the Boer rejected a demand for voting rights to be extended to the non Boer white inhabitants of the Transvaal, the British invaded.

British troops occupied the main Boer towns


Including the capital Pretoria.

First Empire Day


Idea of Imperialism spread to oridinary people.

Voting rights of blacks in South Africa abolished all together.


They were restricted to reserves, which they needed an official pass to leave.

Federation of colonies and republics in the Union of South Africa.


French Empire

Construction of Suez Canal begins

1854 - 1869

Completed in 1871.

Colinzation of Vietnam


Napoleon III sends forces to capture the port of Da Nang, beginning the French colonization of Vietnam

Protectorate over Cambodia


Joint control of the finances of a bankrupt Tunisia


Britain, France and Italy take joint control of the finances of a bankrupt Tunisia.

Tunisia becomes French Protectorate


France invades Tunisia from Algeria, and in the Treaty of Bardo forces the bey of Tunis to accept the status of a French protectorate.

Madagascar taken


French marines land at Tamatave in Madagascar to protect French interests and assert French control.

French Indochina created.


France brings Cambodia and Vietnam into a federation of protectorates under the title French Indochina.

Treaties with the British over Africa

1889 - 1890

After quarrels over Egypt. Treaties signed to define the boundaries of the French and British Empires (Senegal and Gambia).

Dahomey becomes protectorate


The French establish a protectorate in part of the ancient kingdom of Dahomey in west Africa

Ivory Coast


France claims the Ivory Coast (or Côte d'Ivoire) in west Africa as a French colony

Fashoda Incident


French and British forces meet at Fashoda, in a potentially explosive incident in the scramble for Africa

First Moroccan Crisis

1905 - 1906

An international conference at Algeciras effectively gives France informal control of Morocco

Second Moroccan Crisis

1910 - 1911

German Empire

Germans in South West Africa


German settlers moved in and began setting up cattle ranchhes, fencing off the land from the nomads

Herero massacre

1904 - 1907

German troops were dispatched from Berlin to South West Africa. Herero cattle-herders were shot and hanged. Women and children were driven into the desert and left to starve.

"Racial mixing" was banned


Interrracial marriage and cohabitation were punished.


Made punishable by loss of civil rights.

Italian Empire

Italy buys the Bay of Assab, Eritrea


The Rubattino Shipping Company bought land in the Bay of Assab on the Red Sea from the local sultan. It occupied the whole of Eritrea.

Joint control of Tunisia


Britain, France and Italy take joint control of the finances of a bankrupt Tunisia.

Italian Somaliland

1880 - 1919

Annexed or purchased piece by piece with a series of pacific treaties with local sultans and , in part, ceded by Great Britain as a compensation for Italy that did not receive any of the German colonies parted after WWI.

Eritrea made a colony.


Invasion of Ethiopia



Acquisition of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica (modern Lybia)


Acquired in the war with Turkey in 1911-12, as well as Rhodes and the islands of Dodecaneses (at present, part of Greece) .

European powers

The Viena Peace Settlement


Underlined the power's determination to avoid international conflis in Europect.

Congress System


With the Viena Peace Settlement, it underlined the power's determination to avoid international conflicts in Europe.

International Expositions

1851 - 1890

A tradition inagurated by Britain's great exhibition. "Colonial pavilions" included - among other things - exhibitions of natives in their "natural environment".
The first was Great Britain's Great Exhibition; later there were expositions in Paris, Belgium ...

Berlin Conference


Set off the scramble for colonies in Africa and other parts of the world. Established that "effective occupation" was necessary to claim territory.

Boxer rebellion

1899 - 1901

Boxer rebellion in China to stop European colonization.

55 days in Pekin