Columbus sails west from spain in search of Asia, reaches Bahama Islands in the Atlantic
John Cabot establishes first English claim in North America
Virginia House of Burgesses meets for the first time
First African workers arrive in Virginia.
Pilgrims found Plymouth Colony
New Hampshire and Maine Established
Puritans establish Massachusetts Bay colony at Boston
Hartford settled in Connecticut
Roger Williams founds settlement in Rhode Island
Harvard College founded in Massachusetts
English Civil War
Anne Hutchinson expelled from Massachusetts Bay Colony
Massachusetts law requires a public school in every twon
Charles I was executed
Charles II became King
Halfway Covenant established in New England
Carolina colony chartered
Slave traders begin importing slaves directly from Arica to North America some time in the 1670's
King Phillip's War in New England
Bacon's Rebellion in Virginia
William Penn received charter for Pennsylvania
Dominion of New England established
William and Mary ascend to throne
Official toleration of Catholics ends in Maryland
Witchcraft trials begin in Salem
College of William and Mary Founded in Virginia
Yale College founded in Connecticut
Great Awakening begins in Massachusetts
Stono slave rebellion in South Carolina
Indigo production started in South Carolina sometime in the 1740's
College of New Jersey founded at Princeton
French and Indian War, Period of increased British taxation and control of the 13 Colonies
French and Indian War begins in North America
Albany Plan for intercolonial cooperation rejected
Seven Years' War begins in Europe
French Army surrenders to Amherst at Montreal
George III becomes king
The Sugar Act was passed
The currency act was passed
The Mutiny Act was passed
There was a Stamp Act crisis
The Stamp Act was repealed because of the crisis
Townshend Duties Imposed. In 1770 most of the duties were gotten rid of
The Boston Massacre
Committees of Correspondence established in Boston
Gaspée incident in Rhode Island
Tea Act was Passed
The Bostonians stages the tea party
The Intolerable Acts were passed
First Continental Congress meeting in Philadelphia
Clashes at Lexington and Concord began the American Revolution
Revolutionary War, Articles of Confederation
Beging of the American Revolution
George Washington was appointed to command the American forces
Battle of Bunker Hill
Second Continental Congress meets
Declaration of Independence was debated and signed (July 2-4)
Battle of Trenton
Thomas Paine's Common Sense was published
First constituions were written
The adoption of the Articles of Confederation
Washington camps at Valley Forge for winter. Burgoyne surrenders to Gates at Saratoga
The French-American alliance was established and the war shifts to the South
Massachusetts state constitution was ratified
Slavery was abolished in Pennsylvania
Articles of Confederation was ratified
States cede western lands to the confederation
The Treaty of Paris with Great Britain recognizes American independence
Slavery in Massachusetts was abolished
First ordinances were established with procedures of how to settle the western lands
Shay's Rebellion in Massachusetts
Constitution adopted (September 17)
States Ratify Constituion
Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia meets
Washing became the first president
Bill of Rights adopted by Congress
First Bank of the United States was chartered
Eli Whitney Invented Cotton Gin
Whiskey Rebellion quelled in Pennsylvania
Anthony Wayne defeats Indians in Ohio
Pinckney's Treaty was signed
John Adams elected president
Alien and Sedition Acts passed
XYZ Affair precipitates state of quasi war with France
Jefferson and Bur tie vote in electoral college
United States capital moved to Washington D.C.
Jefferson became president after Congress confirms election
Second Great Awakening begins
Louisiana Territory purchased from French
Jefferson was re-elected president
Lewis and Clark and Zebulon Pike, explore Louisiana Territory
Madison was President during this time
US declared war on Great Britain (June 18)
Ended the War of 1812
Second Bank of the United States
The First Bank charter expired in 1811 with the economy falling into a muddle and state banking exploding without regulation and much fraud. Madison and most younger Democratic Republicans voted for the Second Bank of the US (usually abbreviated to 2nd BUS) because the embarrassment that the government couldn't float loans nor transfer funds across the country during the war.
Federal Government owned one fifth of the stock and appointed five of the twenty-five directors of this quasi-governmental institution
Wanted Federal Government to invest in constructing canals and railroads
Federal Government constructed National Road
Passed mildly protective tariff in 1816, and increased level of protection in 1824. A protective tariff taxed imported goods in order to protect fledgling American industrialization. Will become extremely important in 1828
Monore was president
The Convention of 1818 was signed by the U.S. and British Canada. This treaty gave the United States fishing rights off parts of the Newfoundland and Labrdor coastsand established the border between Canada and the U.S. Both countries also agreed to a joint qccupation of the Pacific Northwest.
General Jackson and his troops were sent to Florida by Monroe to capture Seminole raiders. This invasion began the first Seminole War betweeen the U.S. and the Seminoles. During the war, the U.S. seized most of Spain's important military posts and overthrew the governer of Florida. He had done so without permission from Monroe.His actions even angered some British and Spanish leaders.
The Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 was signed , stating that Spain gave Florida to the United States. In return th United States gave up its claim on Texas and took up te responsibility for $5 million of U.S. citizens' claims against Spain.
British demand for US cotton decreased (and thus the price of cotton dropped like a rock) because UK started to import cotton from India
Banks get caught flat from overextending credit to buy western lands because the drop in cotton prices affected land prices as well. Banks had to call in loans to pay for demand for cash by depositors. Many banks could not collect their loans quickly enough and therefore went bankrupt, leaving depositors without funds to pay the loans they owed. Became a viscious cycle.
The Missouri Compromise was approved. It ended the dispute between the House and the senate on whether Missouri, being a slave state, should be allowed into the Union. The agreement stated that Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state while Maine joined as a ree state. It also declared that slavery was prohibited north of the 36°30' line.
The Monroe Doctrine is issued which states that no european power shall interfere with any country in the Americas and that the United States shall not interfere in europe as well. If any interference was made in the Americas by the european powers, it would be considered a hostile act which would not be ignored.
The Erie Canal was finished, at 363 miles long and 40 feet wide and 4 feet deep. although many human lives were lost, the canal was a great success, shortening travel times and allowing the nearby towns to expand due to the increased traffic. The opening of the canal started a canal-buiding boom across the country.
Tariffs generally opposed by South and New England, but favored by West and Mid-Atlantic States
Andrew Jackson's supporters via a scheme by John C. Calhoun proposed new tariff to raise duties on raw materials so high that all would opose them. Sought to politically join New England manufacturers and merchants to the South, but Northerners actually supported much of the tariff and the bill passed.
Calhoun resigned job as Jackson's Vice President and returned to South Carolina to write South Carolina Exposition and Protest which set forth an explicit method by which a state could nullify an act of Congress that the state considered unconstitutional. Calhoun immediately elected to US Senate from SC.
Abraham Lincoln wins a four-way race for President of the United States. Although he does not win a popular majority and is not even on the ballot in nine southern states, he earns enough electoral votes to beat all other opponents.
South Carolina officially secedes from the Union, becoming the first state to do so.
The Confederate Constitution was signed in Montgomery, Alabama
Confederate forces under General P.G.T. Beauregard bombard Major Robert Anderson and his Union soldiers at Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina. The Civil War officially begins.
RANGEEND_SUMTER Major Robert Anderson surrenders Fort Sumter to Confederate forces after two days of bombardment.
Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas, and North Carolina secede from the Union
Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas all seceded.
Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated as the sixteenth President of the United States. In his Inaugural Address he gives a stark warning to the South: he will not tolerate secession.
Asks Congress to allow him to call for 500,000 men
The First Battle of Bull Run pits Union General Irvin McDowell against the new Confederate army. McDowell is defeated causing a panicked retreat back to Washington, which is about forty miles away. The withdrawal is hampered by the large numbers of spectators who are there to see the battle.
The Confederate ironclad USS Merrimack battles the Union ironclad USS Monitor in Chesapeake Bay. The battle is a draw but it makes wooden ships obsolete and ushers in the era of steel warships, changing naval warfare forever.
Over the course of seven days of fighting, General Robert E. Lee attacks George McClellan's Union Army of the Potomac near Richmond, Virginia. Huge casualties cause McClellan to withdraw north towards Washington.
The Second Battle of Bull Run is a resounding victory for Confederate General Stonewall Jackson. Union General John Pope is blamed for the loss and is relieved of his duties after the battle.
The Battle of Antietam is the bloodiest day in United States history. Over 26,000 men are killed, wounded or missing in action on both sides. Though officially a draw, the battle stops General Robert E. Lee's invasion of Maryland and he retreats back to Virginia.
Lincoln issues a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, which declares his intention to free all slaves in any new territory captured by the Union Army.
Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation. It frees all slaves in territory captured by the Union Army, and orders the enlistment of black soldiers. From this point forward, the Civil War is a war over slavery.
President Lincoln delivers the two-minute Gettysburg Address at the dedication of the National Cemetery at the battlefield in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
Congress enacts the first draft in American history, requiring every man to serve in the army unless he can furnish a substitute or pay the government $300. These escape provisions are wildly unpopular with workers and recent immigrants, and lead to draft riots in New York and other northern cities.
From July 1 to July 4, the Union Army under General Meade defeats Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. One of the bloodiest battles of the war, Gettysburg is a turning point, and marks the farthest advance of the Confederate Army into northern territory.
Make slavery illegal
Inaugurated but got shot later the next month during a play at the Ford's Theater.
Union General Ulysses S. Grant's forces are surprised at the town of Shiloh in Tennessee. The ensuing battle results in 13,000 Union and 10,000 Confederate casualties, more than in all previous American wars combined.
Souther establish Reconstruction government under congressional plan
14th Amendment Ratified
Jim Crow laws passed throughout South and Lynchings increased
Plessy v. Ferguson upholds "separate but equal" racial facilities
A federal grand jury indicts 238 people—including President Ulysses S. Grant's personal secretary, General O.E. Babcock, and dozens of whiskey distillers and revenue officials—for conspiring to defraud the United States government of tax revenues.
Inventor Alexander Graham Bell successfully transmits a human voice over a wire. The telephone will revolutionize personal and business communication.
A number of tribes in the Plains are defeated in their struggles against American encroachment. Wounded Knee is the final battle
The Great Railroad Strike spreads across half of the country before it ultimately fails.
Another great wave of immigration from Europe begins. Irish, Italians, Polish, Czechs, Slavs, and European Jews all diversify the nation's heritage.
Congress passes the Interstate Commerce Act, creating the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to regulate the railroads. The Supreme Court interprets the ICC's powers so narrowly that it is rendered essentially powerless by the early twentieth century.
For the first time, the U.S. produces more steel than Great Britain. America's status as an industrial power is secured.
The Union Stockyards in Chicago slaughter 9 million animals in a year. Chicago becomes known as the "hog-butcher of the world".
Congress passes the Sherman Antitrust Act to prohibit trusts (monopolies), which have grown rapidly over recent decades. This federal legislation supplements and further strengthens many preexisting state laws that lack the power to govern interstate commerce. Any contract, combination (monopoly or otherwise), or conspiracy in restraint of interstate and foreign trade is declared illegal. Violators will be charged with maximum penalties of a $5,000 fine and imprisonment for one year. Problematically, the nation's courts use this Act to deem labor unions and agricultural cooperatives among the forbidden combinations in the restraint of trade.
The Panic of 1893 triggers a deep economic depression, particularly affecting agricultural areas. Populist Party expands its strength.
Theodore Roosevelt is sworn in as president of the United States after President William McKinley dies eight days after being shot by anarchist Leon Czolgosz.
The Wright Brothers successfully fly their first airplane in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
Congress passes the Pure Food and Drug Act in response to exposés of the patent-drug, meatpacking, and food industries.
On the same day as it passes the Pure Food and Drug Act, Congress also approves its second Meat Inspection law to date. The U.S. Drug Administration must inspect all animals destined for human consumption—cattle, horses, sheep, goats, and swine—before they are slaughtered. Carcasses are subject to post-mortem inspections and slaughterhouses and processing plants must uphold cleanliness standards.
Henry Ford produces the first Model T and creates an assembly line that will revolutionize American industry.
A fire breaks out in the supposedly "fireproof" Asch building where Triangle Waist Company occupied the eighth, ninth, and tenth floors. The shirtwaists that hang on lines above the workers' heads and the shirtwaist cuttings that litter the floors quickly ignite, allowing the blaze to spread rapidly. The workers are locked inside the factory; some jump to their deaths to avoid burning alive. In all, 146 people die in the blaze, all within half an hour. This incident ignites public opinion against unsafe urban working conditions and the plight of young female immigrant workers.
With the Republican vote split between Taft and Progressive candidate Roosevelt, the Democratic candidate Woodrow Wilson is elected president. Wilson only polls a plurality of the popular vote (41.9%), but a commanding electoral majority of 435. Roosevelt embarrasses the incumbent Taft by winning 27.4% of the votes to his 23.2%. Socialist Eugene V. Debs wins 6% of all votes cast, or just over 900,000 people.
The Federal Reserve is established, bringing central banking back to the United States
The 16th Amendment establishes a federal income tax -- one of the biggest victories for the Progressive Movement.
The Seventeenth Amendment is ratified, allowing for the direct election of U.S. Senators instead of through state legislators.
The Supreme Court declares the Keating-Owen Act (against child labor) unconstitutional in Hammer v. Dagenhart on the grounds that it employs federal control of interstate commerce for noncommercial objectives and that it interferes with state police powers.
Congress passes the Sedition Act, an even more repressive measure than the Espionage Act. Along with the Sabotage Act of 20 April, it expands the penalties of the Espionage Act to apply to anyone who discourages military recruiting, interferes with government bond sales, or criticizes the government, the Constitution, service uniforms, the flag, or the war or even wartime production levels.
The 18th Amendment establishes Prohibition -- another Progressive victory.
President Wilson presents the Treaty of Versailles to the Senate for ratification.
After speaking in Pueblo, Colorado on a nationwide tour to raise public support for the Treaty of Versailles, President Wilson collapses with severe headaches. He suffers a stroke a few days later and spends the last eighteen months of his presidency in a quasi-invalid state.
A steep crash in the stock market precipitates the Great Depression
Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated in Sarajevo. His death is the event that sparks World War I.
A German submarine sinks the passenger liner Lusitania. The ship carries 1,198 people, 128 of them Americans.
Congress passes the Selective Service Act authorizing the draft. Although criticized for destroying democracy at home while fighting for it abroad, President Wilson claims he sees no other option and signs the bill into law.
Congress authorizes a declaration of war against Germany. The United States enters World War I on the side of France and Britain.
British intelligence gives Wilson the so-called Zimmermann Telegram, a message from German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmermann proposing that Mexico side with Germany in case of war between Germany and the United States. In return, Germany promises to return to Mexico the "lost provinces" of Texas and much of the rest of the American Southwest. Mexico declines the offer, but the outrage at this interference in the Western Hemisphere pushes American public opinion to support entering the war.
The Americans attack the Germans at Chateau-Thierry. This battle would morph into the larger Battle of Belleau Wood.
The Battle of Belleau Wood begins as the U.S. Marine Corps attacks the Germans across an open field of wheat, suffering huge casualties.
RANGEENDBELLEAUWOOD The Battle of Belleau Wood ends with the final expulsion of the Germans from the wood, which marks the farthest German advance on Paris. The area has changed hands six times during the three-week battle, which has caused nearly 10,000 American casualties.
An Armistice is signed ending fighting on the Western Front.
It was a pact where France wanted the US to join them in a treaty against Germany
The US gives money to Germany and then Germany pays Europe and then Europe pays the US what they owe them
A conference to talk about decreasing the size of the navy
Gains control of Italy
Elected Chancellor and quickly becomes a dictator
Basically said we weren’t going to send ships to help the allies
This starts WW2 in Asia because Japan attacks the rest of China
Allowed for FDR to give the British weapons rather them selling them to them
Hitler, Chamberlain, Daladier of France and Mussolini of Italy met in Munich and agreed that Hitler should have the Sudetanland of Czechoslovakia. The Czechs were not represented at the meeting and realising that no country would come to their aid were forced to surrender the Sudetenland to Germany. Hitler assured those at the meeting that this was the extent of his ambitions for expansion. Chamberlain returned to England with a piece of paper signed by Hitler, proclaiming 'peace in our time.'
The day we finally opened a second front against Germany It did ultimately work but a lot of people died in this invasion
We dropped the atomic bomb on them which ultimalely led to their surrender
Victory in Europe Day or the day that we defeated the Germans but the War wasn’t over because we were still fighting the Japanese
We fly supplies to the people on the fee side of berlin
The soviets put a satellite into space and we believed could watch us. Caused paranoia.
North Korean leader Kim Il Sung goes to Moscow to ask Soviet leader Josef Stalin's permission to invade South Korea and begin the Korean War. Stalin gives the green light because he believes the United States has little interest in Korea.
Communist North Korean troops launch a full-scale invasion of the South, beginning the open military phase of the Korean War. North Korean tanks and infantry surge across the 38th parallel into South Korean territory, quickly overrunning the defensive positions of overmatched South Korean forces. The Communists continue their southward advance, meeting little resistance in the countryside.
American ground troops go into battle against Northern Korean forces at Osan (just south of Seoul on the western side of the peninsula). The Americans, expecting an easy victory over an overmatched foe, are stunned to discover that the North Korean army will be a formidable adversary. The Americans suffer 150 casualties in the battle and fail to halt the North Koreans' southward advance.
Chinese leader Mao Zedong, fearful of the consequences of hostile American forces taking up positions along his country's border at the Yalu River, orders hundreds of thousands of Chinese soldiers into battle in Korea. The massive Chinese intervention into the Korean conflict catches American military leaders completely off guard, leading to a series of crushing defeats. American prospects in the Korean War deteriorate rapidly, as hopes of imminent victory give way to a desperate struggle to avoid defeat.
President Truman authorizes General MacArthur to order his forces to pursue the retreating North Koreans across the 38th parallel, into North Korean territory. This decision marks a fundamental enlargement in American war arms, now expanded from merely rescuing South Korea to rolling back the Communist regime in North Korea. Truman's orders direct MacArthur to keep pushing northward as long as he does not encounter Soviet or Chinese opposition and he remains confident of victory.
After nearly two years of negotiations, diplomats from the United States, North Korea, and China reach agreement on an armistice to end the "UN peace action" in Korea without a formal peace treaty. Both sides claim victory; Korea remains divided at the 38th parallel.
At a high-level conference in Geneva, representatives from the United States and China fail to resolve the Korean issue. The armed stalemate at the 38th parallel will continue indefinitely.
The Vietnam forces all came out of the Jungle and surprise attacked us Took many towns from us and it was a bit of an embarrassment In the next few weeks we took back the towns and inflicted large amount of casualties to them
300 citizens were killed because they were thought to be army
Puts some restrictions on the Presidents Ability to involve us in another country
60-Day Commitment: after 60 days the troops would have to be removed from the other country and returned home
South Vietnam was taken over after the US left
South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun, citing the findings of his Truth and Reconciliation Commission, formally apologizes for the atrocities committed during the "summer of terror" in 1950, calling them "illegal acts the then-state authority committed."7
June 16, 1972: In room 214 of the Watergate Hotel in Washington, D.C., seven men gathered to finalize their plans to break in to the Democratic National Committee's (DNC) headquarters, located on the sixth floor of one of the Watergate complex's six buildings
On August 1, 1972, a $25,000 cashiers check earmarked for the Nixon re-election campaign was found in the bank account of one of the Watergate burglars. Further investigation revealed that, in the months leading up to their arrests, more thousands had passed through their bank and credit card accounts, supporting the burglars' travel, living expenses, and purchase,. Several donations (totaling $89,000) were made by individuals who thought they were making private donations to the President's re-election committee. The donations were made in the form of cashier's, certified, and personal checks, and all were made payable only to the Committee to Re-Elect the President. However, through a complicated fiduciary set-up, the money actually went into an account owned by a Miami company run by Watergate burglar Bernard Barker
When there is both recession and inflation. Keynesians dont know how to fix this.
On March 1, 1974, indictments were handed down for what the press dubs "the Watergate Seven": Former Attorney General and Nixon campaign manager John N. Mitchell, former White House Chief of Staff H.R. Haldeman, former Nixon aide John Ehrlichman, former White House counsel Charles Colson, White House Aide to Haldeman Gordon C. Strachan, aide to Mitchell and CREEP counsel Robert Mardian, and CREEP counsel Kenneth Parkinson. Former White House Counsel John Dean had taken a plea bargain back in October. Nixon was named an "unindicted co-conspirator" by the grand jury.
Ronald Reagan wins the presidency, crushing incumbent Democratic President Jimmy Carter in an electoral landslide. The Republican Reagan wins 44 states, compared to just six for Carter.
Ronald Reagan is sworn in as the 40th President of the United States. In his inaugural address, Reagan declares that "Government is not the solution to our problem. Government is the problem."
Ronald Reagan is shot by a deranged would-be assassin named John Hinckley, who hopes –bizarrely—that killing the president will win him the affections of Hollywood actress Jodie Foster. Reagan takes a bullet to the chest, the shell passing within one inch his heart, but goes on to make a speedy recovery.
President Reagan appoints Sandra Day O'Connor, the first female justice, to the Supreme Court of the United States.
The United States endures its worst economic recession since the Great Depression. For the first time since the 1930s, the American unemployment rate exceeds 10%. President Reagan's approval ratings fall to an all-time low of 35%.
In a nationally televised address, President Reagan unveils his Strategic Defense Initiative, a proposal to build space-based lasers capable of shooting down incoming nuclear missiles. The press will later label the futuristic and expensive plan "Star Wars."
The United States invades the tiny Caribbean island of Grenada, overthrowing the country's Marxist dictatorship.
Congress passes a law banning the diversion of US government funds to support Nicaragua's anticommunist Contra rebels. The Reagan Administration violates the new law, eventually leading to the Iran-Contra Crisis of 1986-87.
Ronald Reagan wins a second term as president, defeating Democratic challenger Walter Mondale in another electoral landslide. Reagan wins 59% of the popular vote and every state but Mondale's home of Minnesota. One out of every four registered Democrats crosses party lines to vote for Reagan.
American President Ronald Reagan meets directly with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev for the first time at a summit meeting in Geneva, Switzerland. The two leaders agree to work to reduce both countries' stockpiles of nuclear weapons.
The space shuttle Challenger explodes shortly after liftoff, killing all six astronauts and one civilian—elementary school teacher Christa McAuliffe—aboard. In a moving tribute delivered a few hours after the disaster, President Reagan says, "The crew of the space shuttle Challenger honored us by the manner in which they lived their lives. We will never forget them, nor the last time we saw them, this morning, as they prepared for their journey and waved good-bye and slipped the surly bonds of earth to touch the face of God."
A Lebanese magazine breaks the explosive news that the United States has been secretly selling weapons to Iran. The revelation, quickly confirmed by the Iranian government, marks the beginning of the Iran-Contra Scandal.
President Reagan goes on national TV to deliver a confusing apology for Iran-Contra: "A few months ago I told the American people I did not trade arms for hostages," he says. "My heart and my best intentions tell me that's true, but the facts and evidence tell me it's not."
President Reagan delivers a speech in Berlin, calling upon Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev to dismantle the Berlin Wall and open the eastern bloc to greater freedoms. "General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!"
Two hi-jacked planes were flown into the trade center
First African American to be elected Presdient
The American stock market collapses, signaling the onset of the Great Depression. The Dow Jones Industrial Average peaks in September 1929 at 381.17—a level that it will not reach again until 1954. The Dow will bottom out at a Depression-era low of just 41.22 in 1932.
Unemployment averages 8.9% for the year.
Congress passes the Smoot-Hawley Tariff, steeply raising import duties in an attempt to protect American manufactures from foreign competition. The tariff increase has little impact on the American economy, but plunges Europe farther into crisis.
16.3% for the year
New York's Bank of the United States collapses in the largest bank failure to date in American history.[M31] $200 million in deposits disappear, and the bank's customers are left holding the bag.
Unemployment averages 24.1% for the year.
Franklin D. Roosevelt wins the Democratic Party's nomination for the presidency, prevailing on the fourth ballot at the Democratic Convention in Chicago. In a break with precedent, Roosevelt travels to Chicago to accept the nomination in person. "I pledge you, I pledge myself," Roosevelt declares, "to a new deal for the American people."
Franklin D. Roosevelt defeats Herbert Hoover in a landslide to win the presidency. Hoover wins only six states as FDR steamrolls to victory with more than 57% of the popular vote and 89% of the electoral vote.
Unemployment averages 24.9% for the year.
Franklin D. Roosevelt calls Congress into special session, sending up as his first piece of proposed legislation a bill to stabilize the country's failing banking system. Congress passes the bill that very day.
Congress passes Franklin D. Roosevelt's economy bill, slashing government spending by cutting $500 million in scheduled payments to veterans and federal employees.
Franklin D. Roosevelt lifts the nationwide bank holiday he imposed one week earlier. Customers, buoyed by FDR's confidence in the banking system, deposit more money than they withdraw, ending the country's banking crisis.
At Franklin D. Roosevelt's request, Congress ends Prohibition, legalizing the sale of beer with an alcohol content of up to 3.2%. While a few old-line "dry" Senators attempt to filibuster the bill, House members invade the Senate chamber, chanting "Vote! Vote! We want beer!"
The United States goes off the gold standard, allowing inflationary forces to begin to lift the economy.
Franklin D. Roosevelt signs into law the Agricultural Adjustment Act, which seeks to alleviate rural misery by reducing farm output and raising prices.
Congress passes the Federal Emergency Relief Act, distributing hundreds of millions of dollars to the states for dispersal to the one-fourth of the national workforce unable to obtain jobs.
Congress creates the Tennessee Valley Authority to build dams and provide cheap public power, irrigation, and fertilizer while promoting economic development in the impoverished Tennessee River Valley.
Congress passes the Banking Act of 1933, which establishes the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, which virtually ends bank failures in America.
The Twenty-First Amendment takes full effect, ending Prohibition not only on beer and wine—legalized in March—but also on hard liquor.
Has begun to go down to 21.7%
Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Wagner National Labor Relations Act, which re-establishes the right to collective bargaining that had been thrown out by the Supreme Court along with the rest of the NRA in the Shechter decision.
Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Social Security Act, the signature piece of legislation of the entire New Deal era, which permanently changes the relationship between the American people, their government, and the free market.
Congress passes Franklin D. Roosevelt's "wealth tax," a largely symbolic measure that raises the top tax rate to 79%. Still, more than 95% of American families pay no income tax at all.
Franklin D. Roosevelt is elected to a second term as president, winning in a landslide over Republican Alf Landon. Roosevelt wins every state but Maine and Vermont.
In West Coast Hotel v. Parrish, the Supreme Court upholds a Washington state minimum-wage law. Conservative justice Owen Roberts, who previously sided with the anti-New Deal bloc on the court, votes with the majority, creating a new pro-New Deal majority and ensuring that government interventions into the economy will no longer be overturned as unconstitutional.
Unemployment is going down and will continue to go down until at normal rates