Art movements

Greco-Roman

Archaic Greek Sculpture 650-480

650 BCE - 480 BCE

what:
Archaic smile
Heavily Stylized
forward stance

Classical Greek Sculpture 480-323

480 BCE - 323 BCE

accurate idealized autonomy
stoic
contraposto
Female nudes

Parthenon 432 BC

432 BCE

Hellenistic Greek Sculpture 323-0

323 BCE - 0 BCE

more natural
not idealized--shows age
complex but natural stances--eg: foot tilted up, head turned
gene figures

Alexander the Great

323 BCE

Pont du Gard 15 CE

15 BCE

Roman 0-313

0 BCE - 313

Why: Preferred practicality over mathematical harmony; built onto nature rather than into it

What:
bricks and mortor instead of marble
arches, domes, arcade
Mixed orders rather than Greek unity

Colosseum 80 CE

80 CE

Arch of Titus 81 CE

81 CE

Pantheon 125 CE

125 CE

Baths of Caraculla 217 CE

217

Arch of Constantine

313 CE

Edict of Milan

313

Roman Painting

Roman 1st style 200-80

200 BCE - 80 BCE

simulates expensive marble and architectural elements

2nd Roman Style 80-30

80 BCE - 30 BCE

Bright back grounds with long narrative scenes

3rd Roman style 20-60 CE

20 BCE - 60 CE

Thin delicate ornamentation
monochrome back ground
look like framed pic on wall

4th Roman Style 60-80

60 CE - 80 CE

Compilation of all styles

Byzantine 500-1600

500 - 1600

Justine wanted to unify church and state under his leadership-->centrally planned churches that had symbols of both.

More spirtual--> golden back ground, lack of perspective; floating

Hagia Sophia 537

537

Iconolasism

730 - 834

Middle Ages

Early Christian 350-800

350 - 800

Unlike Greek & Roman temples that were only for leaders of esoteric cults or high level clergy, the new christian churches had to accomodate lots of people that could worship together.
Therefore, adopted model of Basilica

Old St. Peter's 390

390 CE

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Carolingan 800-900

800 - 900

After Charlemagne's coronation, he wanted to solidify his imperial image with the arts. Combined Justinian elements of the centrally planned church, but incorporated the monumental symmetry and order of the Roman building

Coronation of Charlemange

800

Ottonian 900-1000

900 - 1000

Roman influences-->metal work

Romanesque 1000-1137

1000 - 1137

Pilgrimage for relics --> crowd control & keep crowds from monks
e.g. elimination of double apse

Murals and manuscripts: outline figures making relation in 3D harder. Flattened space and lively pattersn

Gothic

Early Gothic 1137-1195

1137 - 1195

High Gothic 1195-1250

1195 - 1250

Rayonet Gothic 1250-1350

1250 - 1350

Flamboyent Gothic 1350-1500

1350 - 1500

Renaissance

Proto-Renaissance 1300-1350

1300 - 1350

Black Death 1350-1400

1350 - 1400

Early S. & N. Renaissance 1400-1500

1400 - 1500

Late Northern Renaissance 1500-1600

1500 - 1600

High Southern Renaissance 1500-1520

1500 - 1520

Late Southern Renaissance 1520-1600

1520 - 1600

Mannerism 1520-1600

1520 - 1600

Woefflin

1600

1) Linear vs. Painterly
2) Plainer vs. Recessional
3)multiple vs. recessional
4)closed vs. open
5) relativly Clear vs. rel unclear

Early Modern Works

Bernini's Baldachino 1625

1625

Borromini's facade of san carlo 1665

1665

Versailles 1680

1680

Early Modern

Northern baroque 1600-1725

1600 - 1725

Why: Capitalistic wealth and anti-Roman Catholic
What: every type: genre, landscape, etc

Southern baroque 1600-1725

1600 - 1725

Why: Rebirth of optimism after mannerism; appeal to common man

What: incorporates the emotion of mannerism while returning to classical forms

Ruben's Venus + Adonis 1635

1635

Rembrandt's Night Watch 1642

1642

Las Meninas (Valazquez) 1656

1656

Ruisdael Landscape 1660

1660

Vermeer's Geographer 1668

1668

Pilgrimage to Cythera (Watteau) 1717

1717

Rococo 1725-1775

1725 - 1775

Why: Reaction to didactic art of past; emphasis on worldly pleasures rather than eternal salvation

What: Erotic; frivolity

Marriage a la Mode (Hogarth) 1743

1743

The Swing (Fragonard) 1766

1766

Neo-Classical 1775-1850*

1775 - 1850

Why:
1)Re-instill patriotism as French Rev is about to happen
2)Discovery of Pompeii
3) Age of Reason

Oath of the Horatii (David) 1785*

1785

French Rev

1789

Marat 1793*

1793

Napoleon Alps 1800*

1800

Romanticism 1800-1850+

1800 - 1850

Why: Generation missed Rev, frustrated; anti-royalist. Reaction to perceived failed values of enlightenment and French Rev

What: Itellect can't control nature; imagination > reason; Emotive, contemplative.

Grande Odalisque (Ingres) 1814*

1814

Raft of Medusa (Gericault) 1819+

1819

Salisbury Cathedral (Constable) 1820+

1820

Massacre at Chios (Delacroix) 1823+

1823

Liberty --> Ppl (Delacroix) 1830+

1830

Burning of the Houses (Turner) 1835+

1835

Transitional/uncategorisable artists

Buring of Rome

1527

Goya: Romantic-Realist

1746 - 1828

Why: In response to experiencing war, rejected love, and tinnitus, Goya developed pessimism so he rejected idealization and showed how life really is.

What: Romantic elements: classical mythological allegory, but also realism in portraits, war, and love.

Witches Sabbath (Goya) 1799

1799

3rd of May (Goya) 1814

1814

Rodin: Avant Garde modernist- 1880s/90s

1840 - 1917

Why: seemingly antithetical to other Neo-C, but he saw it as the logical conclusion of Neo-C

What: Realistic not idealized; hard to classify: impressionist, expressionist; influenced by Baudelaire--> man spiritually adrift

Modern Architecture

1850 - 1960

Why: development of new materials glass, iron, re-enforced concrete allow for new types of buildings, form follows function

Crystal Palace (Paxton) 1851

1851

Thinker (Rodin) 1885

1879

Eifel Tower 1889

1889

Balzac (Rodin) 1895

1895

Robie house (FLW) 1909

1909

Villa Savoye (Corbusier) 1930

1928

Realism & Impressionism

Burial at Ornans (Courbet) 1849 #

1849

Realism 1850-1900#

1850 - 1900

Why: Compte's entomological claim of positivism: sensory experience is authoritative source of knowledge. Not divine intuition. Scientific knowledge. --> depictions of reality and the everyday

What: art of all classes of society and landscapes and still life

Gleaners (Millet) 1857#

1857

Olympia (Manet realism) 1865 #

1865

Sunrise (Monet) 1872*

1872

Expressionism 1875-1925!!

1875 - 1925

Why: intellectual turbulence from existentialism and scientific discoveries. Emotional component of human perceptions of the world. The subject gives meaning to the world

Impressionism 1875-1925*

1875 - 1925

Why: response to photography--both depict reflections of light, show the world the way we see it. HAS COLOR

What: not textural differentiation btwn object; subject is light reflecting off objs not the objs themselves.

Bar at Folies-Bergere (Manet Imp) 1882*

1882

Sun Afternoon on La Grande Jatte (Seurat) 1886**

1886

Starry Night (van Gogh) 1889**

1889

Yellow Christ (Gauguin) 1889**

1889

Scream (Munch) 1893 !!

1893

Mont Sainte-Victoire (Cezanne) 1900**

1900

Water lilly (Monet) 1904*

1904

Late Modern

Analytical Cubism 1907-1911

1907 - 1911

Why:
1)Theory of Relativity--Can't see object independent of space and time; walking around and is process
2) Analytical: start with an object and analyize it from many angles

Demoiselles d'Avignon (Picasso) 1907

1907

Metaphysical School

1911 - 1913

Why: dislocation between past and present--painting what cannot be seen

Synthetic Cubism 1911-1919

1911 - 1919

Why:
1)Theory of Relativity—Can’t see object independent of space and time; walking around and is process
2) Does not seek, but finds subject

Dada 1912-1919

1912 - 1919

Why: nihilism in response to horror of WWI

Surrealism 1918-1933

1918 - 1933

Why: attempt to solve society's psychosis by releasing Id, undermining the false dichotomy of the external world and internal sub-conscious

What Veristic:
Art is a type of research. Undermine divide btwn Dream and reality. Artist is positive instrument to allow internal realm to be objectified.

What Absolute: psychic automatism; abandoment of reason--> ladder reaching from one consciousness to another

L.H.O.O.Q. (Duchamp) 1919

1919

Melting Clocks (Dali) 1931

1931

Time Transfixed (Magritte) 1938

1938

Abstract Expressionism

1945 - 1960

Why: abandoned project of Surrealism to change consciousness and just found harmony with ID; put focus on process not product

Earth Art

1960 - 1979

why: change landscape

Pop art

1960 - 1979

why: opposition to ab exp; objecctive product over process

Optical Art

1960 - 1979

WHy: new technique

Photorealism

1960 - 1979

why: new technique