Christian Heritage



1392 BC - 1272 BC

delivered the Hebrews from Egypt

Maccabean Revolt

167 BC - 160 BC

led by Judas Maccabeus; revolt against the Selucid Empire

Paul of Tarsus

5 CE - 67 CE

“Saul” 2nd most influential in N.T. ; he persecutes the church in Acts; blinded by Jesus on the road to Damascus; healed by Ananias; wrote 13 letters; reinterprets Jesus’ message: salvation, trinity, grace. Paradoxical figure

Pontius Pilate

26 CE - 36 CE

Bishop of Smyrna; (Smyrna was one of the churches in Revelation) no persecution but open Christians would be arrested and condemned. Christians seen as “atheist” b/c they did not believe in their gods. Polycarp hid twice and realized it was God’s will for him to be martyred. Martyrdom not to be sought, but embraced.


33 AD

Joseph Caiaphas

33 AD

High Priest during time of Jesus; prefect to Pontius Pilate; condemned Jesus

Conversion of Paul

35 AD

Second most influential person in NT
He persecutes church in Acts
Vision on road to Damascus
blinded and healed by Ananias
Reinterprets Jesus' message: structures of communal worship, salvation, trinity, and grace.
Paradoxical figure: Jew/Roman, Prophet/Tentmaker, Advocates submission to govt' but deconstructs traditional power structures

Council of Jerusalem

49 AD

Martyrdom of Paul

68 AD

died in Rome, makes it important to history.

Polycarp of Smyrna

69 CE - 155 CE

Bishop of Smyrna; (Smyrna was one of the churches in Revelation) no persecution but open Christians would be arrested and condemned. Christians seen as “atheist” b/c they did not believe in their gods. Polycarp hid twice and realized it was God’s will for him to be martyred. Martyrdom not to be sought, but embraced.

Destruction of Temple

70 AD

destroyed by Romans


70 AD

zealots; far left


85 CE - 165 CE

Christian gnostic reading of creation; part of Roman Christian community; rejected O.T. as foreign to Christianity; YHWH=demiurge of Gnosticism; below father revealed by Jesus; favored Luke and loved Paul

Council of Jamnia

90 CE

Hebrew canon closed

Herod built Masada, the Jewish fortress

Clement of Rome's letters to Corinthians

100 AD

They had ousted their leader
Clement chastised them; lack of continuity with authority

Cyprian of Carthage

200 - 258

Bishop of Carthage, lapsed vs. confessor, question of baptism and martyred by Emperor Decius.


216 - 276

dualism, focused on : light vs. dark, good vs. evil, gnostic tendencies (OT rejection; spirit > body)

Antony of Egypt

251 - 356

Father of Christian monasticism; anchoritic and araminic

Arius of Alexandria

256 - 336

council of nicea= there was when he was not


272 - 337

Ended Christian persecution w/ Edict of Milan ‘toleration.’ Secured total power in West and centered his empire in Constantinople.


284 - 305

“The Great Persecution” , goal was to recreate the old Roman Empire by destroying churches and forbidding worship. Created tetrarchy.


292 - 348

derived a rule for monks that they had to spend their days in prayer, worship and labor while in their separate cells. Peace and order were the greatest virtues, community was to work together to attain spiritual goals. His community would become the model for most later Christian monastatic communities.

Diocletian orders burning of Christian books and churches

303 AD


311 - 411

threatened Augustine’s community, commanded allegiance of the people, and concerned for doctrines of the church. Affirmed purity over universality: true church must be unstained, drew upon Cyprian, person over office, and unworthy priest/bishop = unworthy baptism. Considered more people traitors and pretended to hand over sacred scripture. Rejected at Ephesus and disappeared with the rise of Islam.

Constantine's conversion to Christianity

312 AD

Edict of Milan

313 AD

established toleration of Christianity

Council of Nicea

325 AD

first council; constantine was the chair; Athanasius, Eusebius and Arius; E. was condemned by the council; Arius = "there was when he was not" homoosias; Athanasius = homoiosias

date of easter
consecration of bishops
what to do with lapsed members

Start of the Nicene Creed - only the father and son, holy spirit has not come into play yet

Gregory of Nazianzus"

329 - 389

Cappadocian father
close friend of Basil and Gregory of Nyssa

Basil the Great

330 - 379

‘Basil of Caesarea’ greek bishop, opposed Arianism and followers of Apollinaris of Laodicea. Father of communal monasticism.


330 CE - 379 CE

her younger brothers Basil the Great and Saint Gregory of Nyssa; She had a profound influence upon her brothers with her adherence to an ascetic ideal.

Byzantine Empire

330 - 1204

fourth crusade slaughtered Byzantine rulers and sacking of the city; would be reconquered in 1261; only shadow of former glory; exiled leaders remained afar – why never recovers; would only regain power as a cultural icon


331 - 387

Mother of Augustine, highly influenced him. Always a Christian, husband was a Greek Pagan, she pestered him to convert since his youth.

Gregory of Nyssa

332 - 395

Cappadocian father
Basil's younger brother

Death of Constantine

336 AD


354 CE - 430 CE

Most significant theologian of the West influenced by Paul, Cicero and Monica (his mother). Emphasized grace and election, confessions, own experience with original sin through pears. Became a Christian 3 yrs after Council @ Constantine and within 7 years he was bishop of Hippo – a struggling Catholic community. Wrote the City of God; battled with Donatism. Original sin: human beings, after the fall of Adam and Eve, permanently broken by sin. Baptism remits original sin, believers can then choose to do good, passed down sexually. Predestination.

birth of Augustine

354 AD


354 - 420

Well regarded British monk, affirmed complete free will, human beings choose good, resisted Augustine’s emphasis on God’s majesty. Rendered humans being puppets , no responsibility for reality.

dedicaiton of Hagia Sophia

360 CE

temple in Constantinople, largest place of worship for Christianity at the time

Anthanasius list 27 books of NT

367 AD

Cyril of Alexandria

376 - 444

opposes Nostorious, Mary shouldn’t be called the God Bearer; he thought the relationship with the son and the father were like "wine and water"

Christianity made official religion of Roman Empire

380 AD

Council of Constantinople

381 AD

homoiosias affirmed; Nicea affirmed; Theodosius called council; Cappadocian fathers come into play: Basil, Gregory's and Macrina; they were the first to bring up the trinity= one substance with three different persons

Augustine converts to Christianity

386 AD


386 CE - 450 CE

His teachings included a rejection of the long-used title of Theotokos ("Mother of God") for the Virgin Mary, and were understood by many to imply that he did not believe that Christ was truly God. However, Nestorius actually was concerned that the "Theotokos" cult was dangerously close to venerating Mary as a goddess; This brought him into conflict with other prominent churchmen of the time, most notably Cyril of Alexandria, who accused him of heresy. Nestorius sought to defend himself at the First Council of Ephesus in 431, but instead he found himself formally condemned for heresy by a majority of the bishops and subsequently removed from his see. He proposed Anthropotikos.

Latin Vulgate

400 AD

Jerome's translation of the Greek Bible into Latin

Visigoth, King Alaric, sacked Rome

410 CE

Christians blamed for fall of Rome

City of God written shortly after by Augustine

Council at Ephesus

431 AD

both one nature and two natures were rejected; Cyril favored the one nature and Nestorius was in the middle of both sides - anthropotokos

nothing really solved at Ephesus

Council at Chalcedon

451 AD

concluded question of nature of God is not completely mixed or
completely separate.

God is one substance and three persons; and Jesus is just as much human as he is divine


466 - 511

converts to catholic Christianity – begins Merovingian dynasty


482 - 565

Alexandrian Father, logos greeek concept of the governing principle of the universe. Logos connected human beings with God.

Hagia Sophia Restored

532 CE - 537 CE

restored by Justinian

Plague of Justinian

541 - 542

8th century, devastated Byzantine Empire (bubonic plague), left Constantinople and most Syria in ruins; paved way for Muslim conquest

Maximus Confessor

580 - 662

Most significant Eastern theologian; pastoral advice for every facet of life; emphasized theosis; a supporter of Jesus’s will; lost his right hand and tongue b/c he wouldn’t renounce his beliefs.



• God starts the universe like a clock and lets it go
• God doesn’t intervene in our lives
• Makes revelation unnecessary
• Hyper emphasis on reason

Charles Martel

688 - 741

rejects Islamic invasion; begins (Pepin does) Carolingian dynasty; Pepin runs Byzantines out of Italy, returns (gives) the lands to Pope Stephen II; sets up papal states of Italy; built magnificent churches – seeds of later European cathedrals; sees himself as 2nd Constantine; began manuscript copying initiative


730 - 787

The breaking of images; a religious controversy of the 8th century; Byzantine emperor attempted but failed to suppress icon veneration.


742 - 814

loves Roman Christianity; presents as quintessential Roman ruler; crowned by Pope Leo III; Pope bows to Charlemagne at his coronation; concerned for theological issues


980 - 1037

Persian Muslim; Neoplatonic commentator on Aristotle’s work

Great Schism between East and West

1054 AD

Pope Urban II proclaims 1st crusade


Peter Lombard

1096 - 1164

student of Peter Abelard; author of Four Books of Sentences; 7 sacraments


1100 - 1500

response to rediscovery of Aristotle and rise of the university


1126 - 1198

Spanish Muslim; vast commentaries on Aristotle; called by Thomas Aquinas ‘the Commentator’

St Dominic

1170 - 1221

a Spanish priest and founder of the Dominican Order.

Francis of Assisi

1182 - 1226

Son of wealthy merchant; affirmed all created thingssupports tradition of Catholicism; supports Protestant theological emphases; middle way between both; results in Anglicanism;

fall of Jerusalem to Turks


Gregory Palamas

1296 - 1359

a monk of Mount Athos in Greece and later the Archbishop of Thessaloniki known as a preeminent theologian of Hesychasm. The teachings embodied in his writings defending Hesychasm against the attack of Barlaam are sometimes referred to as Palamism, his followers as Palamites. Palamas is venerated as a Saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Frederick the Wise

1463 - 1525

protected Luther for political and religious reasons; elector of Saxony (German territory); education – founded University of Wittenberg; sought counsel of major humanist figures – Erasmus; pius – collected relics; profound sense of justice

John Tetzel

1465 - 1519

was a German Dominican preacher known for selling indulgences.

Desiderius Erasmus

1466 - 1536

Greatest humanist; reintroduced Greek writers to the west; published Greek NT in 1516; emphasized spiritual practices of early church; rejected popular piety – relics and monasticism; Prince of Humanists; debate with Luther on the nature of free will

Dietrich Bonhoeffer

1466 - 1536

studied theology under Adolf von Harnack/Karl Holl; influenced by Karl Barth; against liberal theology; God’s revelation no part of human life; dedicated to ecumenical movement church

Thomas Cajetan

1469 - 1534

He was a leading theologian of his day who is now best known as the spokesman for Catholic opposition to the teachings of Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation

Martin Luther

1483 - 1564

Trained to be a lawyer (mid class wealth); father grieved by his rejection of legal training; thunderstorm; understood monarchy as attempt at purity – unstained by the world and others; joined Augustinian; gifted monastic – sent to preach and teach at a university; over scrupulous/sins; significant problem with the nature of salvation; believed grace was a free gift and works are return gifts to God

Huldrych Zwingli

1484 - 1531

• More humanist than Luther/Calvin
• Affirmed transformative power of education
• More extreme in reformation than Luther
• Removal of images
• Concerned for parish ministry
• Parallel reading of Bible
• Differed from Luther; not mentioned = rejected
• Luther: what contradicts must be rejected
• Emphasized general public education for all social classes in Zurich
• Elevated spiritual over material
• Rejected church music
• Zwingli’s disciple became extreme
• Live as close to Bible as possible
• Split off to form Anabaptist movement

Ignatius Loyola

1491 - 1556

• Courtly life, solider of romance
• Wounded; became a ‘soldier for Christ’
• Mission = persuade those under the ‘banner of Satan’ to ‘banner of Christ’
• Embraced eremitical life – ‘lonely life’
• Mystical life
• Learned spiritual moderation
• Devoted to Thomas á Kempis’s The Imitation
• Most popular book in Christianity history
• Especially popular w/ monks
• Kept journal of spiritual insights
• The Spiritual Exercises
• Developed Jesuits

Menno Simons

1496 - 1561

• Rescued Anabaptist movement
• Consistently pacifist
• Mennonites
• Homestead heritage


1500 - 1600

• Sections of English church desire greater reformation
• Draw from Calvin’s reformation of Geneva
• Call for greater discipline/purity

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

• Organizing force behind the Reformation
• Received finest education
• Studied under renowned humanists at the time
• Describes early experience of being “converted”
• Writes Institutes of the Christian Religion
• First reformed systematic theology
• Critical awareness of theology
• Elevates the Bible itself → contrary to Luther
• God’s Glory
• Double predestination
• Falls between Luther and Zwingli on the Eucharist
• Distinction between reality and sign
• Geneva
• Exile
• Calvin wants to excommunicate unrepentant sinners
• Provokes power
• Finally able to go to Strasberg
• Return
• Gov’t changes in Geneva
• Calvin possesses political power
• Cultivates Geneva as personal theocracy

Protestant Reformation


16th-century schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants. It was sparked by the 1517 posting of Luther's Ninety-Five Theses. The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to the doctrines, rituals, leadership and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church, led to the creation of new national Protestant churches.

Luther's 95 Thesis


Anabaptist movement


"re-baptizers"; developed from Zwingli's Bible study; major break with idea of imperial Christianity; push for equality with women in church roles; Movement rescued by Menno Simons; became Mennonites; have bad rep b/c the rejected infant baptism which would invalidate many that were baptized at birth

Jesuits - Society of Jesus


• Society of Jesus
• Missional order
• Emphasized hierarchy/order
• Based on military
• Complete obedience to Church
• Emmisaries of the papacy
• Virulently hostile to Protestantism
• Allied w/ nuns for female education
• Stressed secondary and university education
• Created middle class
• Missional and educational arm of church in new world

Counter Reformation

1545 - 1648

was the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648), which is sometimes considered a response to the Protestant Reformation. The Counter-Reformation was a comprehensive effort composed of four major elements:
• Ecclesiastical or structural reconfiguration
• Religious orders
• Spiritual movements
• Political dimensions

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

• Official response to Protestantism (1545-1563)
• Notable results
• Rejected Luther’s translation of NT into German
• Demanded use of Latin vulgate
• St. Jerome’s translation
• Wouldn’t change until 20th century
• Rejects Luther’s anti-catholic reading
• Church is only interpreter of scripture
• Reaffirmed infant baptism
• Rejected justification by faith for faith formed through love
• Justification as extrinsic and overpowering vs. justification as formation of what is already present
• Does grace overwhelm nature or does it perfect nature
• Promoted Aquinas
• Culminates in 19th/20th century w/ “neo-thomism”
• Birth of modern catholic theology/church

Elizabethan Compromise


supports tradition of Catholicism; supports Protestant theological emphases; middle way between both; results in Anglicanism; defined in 39 Articles

Oliver Cromwell

1599 - 1658

Peace of Westphalia


• Negotiated relative peace (1648)
• Not positive peace; resignation of political/religious division
• Simply avoiding conflict
• Southern Europe and Ireland – Catholic
• Northern Europe – Protestant

Nicholas Ludwig von Zinzendorf

1700 - 1760

Major figure of Moravian group

John Wesley

1703 - 1791

• Concerned for ‘vital practical religion’
• Transformed heart
• Affirmed free will vs. puritan predestination
• Emotion
• Emphasized sanctification
• Justification the saving act; sanctification the purifying act
• The process of becoming holy
• Could lose salvation through not repenting sins
• Controversial
• Direct communication w/ God
• Field preaching –lay people could preach
• Biblical interpretation laicized
• Luther and Calvin argued laity should read text
• Anglican and Wesleyan communities split after Wesley’s death

Jonathan Edwards

1703 - 1758

• Major preacher of the Great Awakening
• Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God – most popular sermon
• Concerned with eschatological times
• Wrote hymns

George Whitfield

1714 - 1770

• Attracted vast audiences for his sermons
• Interant preacher
• Espoused conversion of the heart
• Destabilized the American south
• Anglican communions in the south prioritized reason/order
• In response to revivalism
• Emphasized deism
• Emotional responses subverted this impulse

Great Awakening

1730 - 1743

• Massive conversions in New England
• Jonathan Edwards
• George Whitfield
• Emotional responses
• Popular among slaves


1800 - 1850

another response to rationalism and deism; more to human beings than logic/info; characterized by feelings; not necessarily pietism; not religiously dogmatic; universe= organic; not mechanical; unpredictable, changing and life-giving; embodied theologically in Friedrich Schleirmacher; absolute dependence; surrender; unity of pietism and rationalism → w/o the sterility of strict rationalism, w/o the devotional excess and dogmatism of pietism

Albrecht Ritschl

1822 - 1889

posits supremely moral Jesus; sin + alienation from spiritual 'family', Christian with no Christ

Adolf von Haarlack

1851 - 1930

historian concerned for historical Jesus, openly connected with social gospel, historical critical appropriation of the Bible, get rid of the dogmatic 'husk' to get a spiritual 'kernal'

Aryan Clause

1885 - 1945

clause that reserves membership and/or right of residence solely for members of the “Aryan race” and excludes from such rights any non-Aryans, particularly Jews in Germany and Austria

Karl Barth

1886 - 1968

a Swiss Reformed theologian. Barth is often regarded as the greatest Protestant theologian of the twentieth century.

Aimee Semple McPherson

1890 - 1944

pentecostal, brought role of women in the spotlight

Arise of Pentecostalism


a renewal movement within Christianity that places special emphasis on a direct personal experience of God through the baptism with the Holy Spirit.

Gustavo Gutierrez

1928 - 2013

a Peruvian theologian and Dominican priest regarded as the founder of Liberation Theology

Barmen Declaration


designated to confessing church, against Christian church - Bonhoeffer

Nouvelle Theologie


mid 20th century
sought a return to Catholic theology to its original purity of thought and expression. Advocated ressourcement

Liberation Theology


a political movement in Catholic theology which interprets the teachings of Jesus Christ in relation to a liberation from unjust economic, political, or social conditions. Term coined by Gustavo Gutierrez