Around 1200, a Mongol clan leader named Temujin sought to unify the Mongols under his leadership. He fought and defeated his rivals one by one. In 1206, Temujin accepted the title Genghis Khan, or “universal ruler” of the Mongol clans.
northern Jin Empire in 1211, however, his attention turned to the Islamic region west of Mongolia. Angered by the murder of Mongol traders and an ambas- sador at the hands of the Muslims, Genghis launched a campaign of terror across Central Asia.
By 1225, Central Asia was under Mongol control,
Genghis Khan died in 1227—not from violence, but from illness, His successors continued to expand his empire. In less than 50 years, the Mongols conquered ter- ritory from China to Poland.
By 1260, the Mongols had divided their huge empire into four regions, or khanates
The most famous European to visit China in these years was a young Venetian trader, Marco Polo. He traveled by caravan on the Silk Roads with his father and uncle, arriving at Kublai Khan’s court around 1275
again in 1281, the Great Khan sent huge fleets against Japan. The Mongols forced Koreans to build, sail, and provide provisions for the boats, a costly task that almost ruined Korea.
Kublai Khan died in 1294. After his death, the Yuan Dynasty began to fade, Family members continually argued over who would rule. In one eight-year period, four different khans took the throne.
Mauryan and Gupta empire
For 500 years, beginning about
185 B.C., wave after wave of Greeks,
Persians, and Central Asians poured into
Noble as his policies of toleration and nonviolence were, they failed to hold the empire together after Asoka died in 232 B.C.
In 301 B.C., Chandragupta’s son assumed the throne. He ruled for 32 years. Then Chandragupta’s grandson, Asoka
By 303 B.C., the Mauryan Empire stretched more than 2,000
After his marriage, Chandra Gupta I took the title “Great King of Kings” in A.D. 320.
Chandragupta gathered an army, killed the unpopular Nanda king, and in about 321 B.C. claimed the throne. This began the Mauryan Empire.
His son samudra Gupta, became king in
This allowed the Guptas to engage in profitable trade with the Mediterranean world. Chandra Gupta II also strengthened his empire through peaceful means by negotiating diplomatic and marriage alliances. He ruled from A.D. 375 to 415
These fierce fighters, called the Hunas, were related to the Huns who invaded the Roman Empire. Over the next 100 years, the Gupta Empire broke into small king- doms. Many were overrun by the Hunas or other Central Asian nomads. The Empire ended about 535
In 1434 Cosimo de Medici he won control of Florence’s government.
Leonardo da Vinci’s notebooks—and life—are mysterious. Some 3,500 pages closely covered with writings and drawings survive.
Third, Christian scholars in Constantinople fled to Rome with Greek manu- scripts when the Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453.
His grandson, Lorenzo de Medici, came to power in 1469.
Michelangelo Buonarroti 1475–1564Like Leonardo, Michelangelo was a Renaissance man.
He excelled as a painter, sculptor, architect, and poet.