In 1200 a clan leader named Temujin tried to unify the Mongol territories. In 1206 Temujin accepted the title of Genghis Khan or " universal ruler" over the Mongols.
Genghis Khan's plan was to invade China after first invading the Jin. After this he turned his attention to the Islamic region of Mongolia.
The Mongols destroyed one city after another—Utrar, Samarkand, Bukhara—and slaughtered many inhabitants. By 1225, Central Asia was under Mongol control.
Genghis Khan dies from an illness. His successors continued to expand the empire.
By 1260, the Mongols had divided their huge empire into four regions, or khanates. Kublai Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan, assumed the title Great Khan in 1260.
In 1275 Marco Polo arrived at the Great Khan's palace. Polo had learned several Asian languages in his travels, and Kublai Khan sent him to various Chinese cities on government missions. Polo served the Great Khan well for 17 years.
After conquering China, Kublai Khan tried to extend his rule to Japan. In 1274 and again in 1281, the Great Khan sent huge fleets to secure the island.
Kublai Khan died in 1294. After his death, the Yuan Dynasty began to fade. Family members continually argued over who would rule. In one eight-year period, four different khans took the throne.
Chandragupta gathered an army, killed the unpopular Nanda king, and in about 321 B.C. claimed the throne. This began the Mauryan Empire.
By 303 B.C., the Mauryan Empire stretched more than 2,000
In 301 B.C., Chandragupta’s son assumed the throne. He ruled for 32 years.
Noble as his policies of toleration and nonviolence were, they failed to hold the empire together after Asoka died in 232 B.C.
For 500 years, beginning about
185 B.C., wave after wave of Greeks,
Persians, and Central Asians poured into
northern India. These invaders disrupted
Indian society. But they also introduced
new languages and customs that added to the already-rich blend of Indian culture.
The first Gupta emperor came to power not through battle but by marrying a daughter of an influential royal family. After his marriage, Chandra Gupta I took the title “Great King of Kings” in A.D. 320.
His empire included Magadha and the area north of it, with his power base along the
Chandra Gupta II also strengthened his empire through peaceful means by negotiating diplomatic and marriage alliances. He ruled from A.D. 375 to 415.
In 415 A.D Chandra Gupta II gave up the throne.
Many were overrun by the Hunas or other Central Asian nomads. The Empire ended about 535 A.D.
In 1526 Babur a general led 12,000 troops to victory against an army of 100,000 commanded by a Delhi Sultan.
Babur's Grandson Akbar ruled India with wisdom and tolerance.
Mumtaz Mahal died at age 39 giving birth to her 14th child. To remember her a shrine called the Taj Mahal was built.
When Shah Jahan became ill in 1657, his four sons scrambled for the throne.
Aurangzeb ruled India. He expanded Mughals to their greatest size.
Cosimo de Medici was the wealthiest European of his time. In 1434, he won control of Florence’s government.
In his life he accomplished many things and made many inventions.
Scholars in Constantinople fled to Rome with Greek manu- scripts when the Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453
Lorenzo de Medici, came to power in 1469. Known as Lorenzo the Magnificent, he ruled as a dictator yet kept up the appearance of having an elected government.
Like Leonardo, Michelangelo was a Renaissance man.
He excelled as a painter, sculptor, architect, and poet.