to 600 BCE
Mesopotamia: land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. http://www.destiner.com/destiner_titles_dark_sect01_me.html
Summer civilization rose in southern Mesopotamia; its major city-states included Erech and Kish. Sumerians developed cuneiform to write laws, treaties, and social and religious customs. Sumeria fell due to invasions.
The cities had a strong entral government most likely led by a pries-king.
They were overthrown by the Aryans.
Babylon took over. King Hammurabi of Babylon developed the Code of Hammurabi.
1500BC: Hittites took over; they used iron in their weapons and became a superpower
Assyrians quickly learned the use of iron. Its army was hated by those it conquered, resulting in frequent uprisings. The Assyrians authorities sent large groups of people in exile in response.
Medes and Chaldeans defeated the Assyrians.
1600 BC - 1100 BC: Shang dynasty. The Shangs were isolated that they believed themselves to be at the center of the world, which explains why they called their civilization "All under Heaven"
1100BC - 256 BC: Zhou Dynasty. They believed in the Mandate of Heaven. They had bureaucracies within their governments. Fightuing and warfare amoung feudal kingdoms brought Zhou Dynasty down.
Rulers were known as pharaohs
Persian Empire was a large empire.
Lydians: came up with the idea of coined money
Phoenicians: establish powerful naval city-states and a simple alphabet with 22 letters.
Hebrews: were the first Jews.
600 BCE to 600 CE
Greece was a collection of city-states, known as polis. The two main city-states were Athens and Sparta. Among citizens, civic decisions were made openly, with debates. They developed into a democracy.
Peloponnesian War in 431 BCE. Sparta vs. Athens. Sparta won but failed to dominate the region for long.
Macedonians took over 359 to 336 CE. Alexander the Great expanded the empire by conquering the Persian Empire. He divided the large empire into three: Antigonid, Ptolemaic, and Seleucid.
Macedonian Emoire adopted Greek customs and spread them, developing Hellenism
included Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sassanid.
559 -330 B.C: Achaemenid Dynasty;
247 B.C.- 226 CE : Parthian;
226-651: Sassanid ;
Roman government was organized as a representative republic with a Senate and Assembly. This was more stable than direct democracies of the Greek polis. The laws of Rome were made and became known as the Twelve Tables of Tome.
Punic Wars: 264 to 146 BCE
Rome was in conflict with Carthage, a city-stated in North Africa for more land.
Rome was restless after the Punic Wars. The Senate weakened, and the power was given to Pompey, Crassus, and then Julius Caesar.
Octavius later came to power, and Rome was no longer a republic.
Maurya Empire: 321 BE to 180 BC
Gupta Dynasty: 320 to 550 CE
The Mayan civilization was a collection of city-states all ruled by the same king.
Qin Dynasty: 220 to 209 BC.
had a single emperor. The first emperor, Qin Shihuangdi recentralized feudal kingdoms.
Han Dynasty: 200 BC to 200 CE
The Warrior Emperor, Wu Ti, ruled. Han had a civil service system based teachings of Confucius. They developed a civil service examination
600 CE to 1450
Japan modeled its capital like the Tang Capital. Japan was largely influenced by Chinese tradition, and they synthesized and borrowed traditions from China.
794: Capital was moved to Heian. A powerful family, Fujiwara, became the power of Japan while the emperor was just a figure head.
1200: Japan spread among a larger pool of noble families, and they fought each other for control over their territories, developing feudalism.
1192: Yoritomo Minamoto was given title of chief general, shogun. Below the shogun were the samurais, who were part warrior and part nobility. The peasants and artisans worked in the lands of the samurai class. The hierarchy was cound by land-for-loyalty exchange
Emperor Xuanzong. expanded into parts of Manchuria, Mongolia, Tibet, and Kore. The empire became too large and that local warlords gained more power. The Tang dynasty fell
Tang and Song dynasties were relatively stable due to its bureaucratic system based on merit through civil service examinations. Tang had a tribute system which independent countries including Vietnam and Korea acknowledged the supremacy of the Chinese emperor and sent gifts.
Islamic states were a theocracy, a government ruled by a divine guidance or officials who are regarded as divine. The Islamic states were base on Islam.
Battle of the Talus River: 751
Abbasid army won the control of the Silk Road.
Fell after the Mongols invaded.
China was reunified under Emperoro Taizu. The fell to the Jurchen and Mongols.
Mongol was a nomadic culture with several tribes and clans.
1200s: Genghis Khan unified the Mongol tribes and built The Mongol Empire
1234: Invaded China. In Chima, Kublai Khan ruled.
1200 and 1300: Many just gave in. The Mongols were ruthless when invading and expanding.
The Mongols took over Russia and India. Asia was somewhat connected, and culture and trade spread.
Mongols ruled in China, but driven away at the end, resulting in the development of Ming Dynasty
1450 to 1750
before 1450 - 1922: Ottoman Empire
It was one of the most significant empires. They expanded until the European territories of Byzantine Influence.
Safavid: was a centralized state based on military conquest and dominated by Shia Islam.
Mughal Empre: united the entire subcontinent of India
Columbus convinced the rulers of Spain to finance his exploration to the Americas.
Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope, explored the east African kingdoms, and then went all the way to India. he was financed by Portugal.
It was developed in New Spain. This was sort of like the feudal system, but with ethnic groups. peninulares>creoles>mestizos>mulattos
He explored Florida for Spain in search of the fountain of youth
He sailed around the tip of South America to the Pacific Ocean for Portugal.
He explored the North American coast for France
He explored the coast of North America for England
During High Middle Ages through the Renaissance, monarchs was centralizing authority. The vast majority of the population were Christian, so the best way to rule was to align oneself with God. The Monarchs were convinced that God gace them the right ot govern. James 1 summed it up as "The king is from God and the law is from the King."
He sailed the for the Dutch looking for a northwest passage to Asia. He explored the Hudson River and made claims to the area for the Dutch.
Began when Protestant territories in Bohemia challenged the authority of the Holy Roman Catholic Emperor. It developed into a huge religious and political war. European states fought. Many of the population died.
1750 to 1900
cause: unfair taxation/ war debt, Lack of Representation
people: Thomas Paine, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington
key events: Boston Tea Party, Constitution of Bill of Rights
Revolutionary document in American against British colonial rule
Cause: social inequalities, unfair taxation/ war debt, Lack of Representation
key events: Reign of Terror, Storming of Bastille, Declaration of Rights of Man
people: Louis 16, Three Estates, Jacobins, Robespierre
cause: French Enlightenment, Social and Racial inequalities, Slave Revolt.
Key events: civil war, slave revolt, invasion of Napoleon
people: Toussaint L'Overture, Boukman, Napoleon Bonaparte
cause: social inequalities, removal of peninsulares, Napoleon invasion of Spain
events: peasant revolts, Creole revolts, Gran Columbia
people: Miguel Hidalgo, Simon Bolivar, Jose de San Martin, Emperor Pedro 1
Rebellion in China influenced by religious ideas and millenarianism.
It was a large-scale revolt against the authority of the Qing Empire in China, conducted by an army and civil administration. Hong was an unorthodox Christian convert who declared himself the new Messiah and younger brother of Jesus Christ. Yang Xiuqing was a former salesman of firewood in Guangxi, who was frequently able to act as a mouthpiece of God to direct the people and gain himself a large amount of political power. Hong, Yang and their followers established the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and attained control of significant parts of southern China.
The Society of Righteous and Harmonious fists, or Boxers, worked to drive Europeans and Japanese out of China. They were driven by nationalism and anti-colonial movements
1900 to 2013
First total war. Governments used ideologies, such as fascism, nationalism, and communism, to move all of the state's resources, including ones in colonies, to help wage for the war. Propaganda in forms of speech, art, and media strengthened nationalism and fueled the war.
Second Total War that happened due the first World War. The Nazi's fascism and power in Germany played a major part in the War. Ethnic conflict appeared in the Holocaust where the Jews were put to death. After WW2, the economic and political power shifted from Europe to the US and Russia, creating the Cold War.
Conflict between capitalism and communism throughout the world.
The United States was the major power of capitalism, while Russia represented communism. The dissolution of the Soviet Union ended the war in the capitalism's favor