State-Building, Expansion, Conflict

Period 1

to 600 BCE

Early Civilization Development

3000 BCE - 2000 BCE

Mesopotamia civilization: Summer

3000 BC - 1700 BC

Mesopotamia: land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.

Summer civilization rose in southern Mesopotamia; its major city-states included Erech and Kish. Sumerians developed cuneiform to write laws, treaties, and social and religious customs. Sumeria fell due to invasions.

Indus Valley Civilzation: Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa

2500 BC - 1500 BC

The cities had a strong entral government most likely led by a pries-king.
They were overthrown by the Aryans.

Mesopotamia civilization

1700 BC - 500 BC

Babylon took over. King Hammurabi of Babylon developed the Code of Hammurabi.
1500BC: Hittites took over; they used iron in their weapons and became a superpower
Assyrians quickly learned the use of iron. Its army was hated by those it conquered, resulting in frequent uprisings. The Assyrians authorities sent large groups of people in exile in response.
Medes and Chaldeans defeated the Assyrians.

Yellow River/ Huang He Valley: Shang and Zhou

1600 BC - 256 BC

1600 BC - 1100 BC: Shang dynasty. The Shangs were isolated that they believed themselves to be at the center of the world, which explains why they called their civilization "All under Heaven"
1100BC - 256 BC: Zhou Dynasty. They believed in the Mandate of Heaven. They had bureaucracies within their governments. Fightuing and warfare amoung feudal kingdoms brought Zhou Dynasty down.

Egypt in the Nile River Valley

1400 BC - 1100 BC

Rulers were known as pharaohs

Mesoamerica: Olmecs

1400 BC - 1200 BC

Andean South America: Chavin

900 BC - 300 BC

Mesopotamia: Persian Empire and its surroundings

500 BC - 300 BC

Persian Empire was a large empire.

Lydians: came up with the idea of coined money
Phoenicians: establish powerful naval city-states and a simple alphabet with 22 letters.
Hebrews: were the first Jews.

Period 2

600 BCE to 600 CE

Mediterranean: Greece

2000 BC - 500 BC

Greece was a collection of city-states, known as polis. The two main city-states were Athens and Sparta. Among citizens, civic decisions were made openly, with debates. They developed into a democracy.
Peloponnesian War in 431 BCE. Sparta vs. Athens. Sparta won but failed to dominate the region for long.
Macedonians took over 359 to 336 CE. Alexander the Great expanded the empire by conquering the Persian Empire. He divided the large empire into three: Antigonid, Ptolemaic, and Seleucid.

Macedonian Emoire adopted Greek customs and spread them, developing Hellenism

southwest Asia: Persian Empires

559 BC - 651

included Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sassanid.

559 -330 B.C: Achaemenid Dynasty;
247 B.C.- 226 CE : Parthian;
226-651: Sassanid ;

Mediterranean: Rome

509 BC - 476 CE

Roman government was organized as a representative republic with a Senate and Assembly. This was more stable than direct democracies of the Greek polis. The laws of Rome were made and became known as the Twelve Tables of Tome.
Punic Wars: 264 to 146 BCE
Rome was in conflict with Carthage, a city-stated in North Africa for more land.
Rome was restless after the Punic Wars. The Senate weakened, and the power was given to Pompey, Crassus, and then Julius Caesar.
Octavius later came to power, and Rome was no longer a republic.

South Asia: Maurya and Gupta

321 BC - 550

Maurya Empire: 321 BE to 180 BC

Gupta Dynasty: 320 to 550 CE

Mesoamerica: Maya city-states

300 BC - 800 CE

The Mayan civilization was a collection of city-states all ruled by the same king.

East Asia: Qin and Han Empire

221 BC - 200

Qin Dynasty: 220 to 209 BC.
had a single emperor. The first emperor, Qin Shihuangdi recentralized feudal kingdoms.
Han Dynasty: 200 BC to 200 CE
The Warrior Emperor, Wu Ti, ruled. Han had a civil service system based teachings of Confucius. They developed a civil service examination

Period 3

600 CE to 1450


600 - 1200

Japan modeled its capital like the Tang Capital. Japan was largely influenced by Chinese tradition, and they synthesized and borrowed traditions from China.
794: Capital was moved to Heian. A powerful family, Fujiwara, became the power of Japan while the emperor was just a figure head.
1200: Japan spread among a larger pool of noble families, and they fought each other for control over their territories, developing feudalism.
1192: Yoritomo Minamoto was given title of chief general, shogun. Below the shogun were the samurais, who were part warrior and part nobility. The peasants and artisans worked in the lands of the samurai class. The hierarchy was cound by land-for-loyalty exchange

China: Tang Dynasty

618 - 907

Emperor Xuanzong. expanded into parts of Manchuria, Mongolia, Tibet, and Kore. The empire became too large and that local warlords gained more power. The Tang dynasty fell

Tang and Song dynasties were relatively stable due to its bureaucratic system based on merit through civil service examinations. Tang had a tribute system which independent countries including Vietnam and Korea acknowledged the supremacy of the Chinese emperor and sent gifts.

Islamic state: Abbasid Dynasty

750 - 1258

Islamic states were a theocracy, a government ruled by a divine guidance or officials who are regarded as divine. The Islamic states were base on Islam.
Battle of the Talus River: 751
Abbasid army won the control of the Silk Road.
Fell after the Mongols invaded.

China: Song

960 - 1279

China was reunified under Emperoro Taizu. The fell to the Jurchen and Mongols.

Mongol Khanates

1200 - 1450

Mongol was a nomadic culture with several tribes and clans.
1200s: Genghis Khan unified the Mongol tribes and built The Mongol Empire
1234: Invaded China. In Chima, Kublai Khan ruled.
1200 and 1300: Many just gave in. The Mongols were ruthless when invading and expanding.
The Mongols took over Russia and India. Asia was somewhat connected, and culture and trade spread.

China: Yuan Dynasty

1279 - 1368

Mongols ruled in China, but driven away at the end, resulting in the development of Ming Dynasty

Period 4

1450 to 1750

Islamic Gunpowder Empire: Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal

1450 - 1750

before 1450 - 1922: Ottoman Empire
It was one of the most significant empires. They expanded until the European territories of Byzantine Influence.
Safavid: was a centralized state based on military conquest and dominated by Shia Islam.
Mughal Empre: united the entire subcontinent of India

Christopher Columbus

1492 - 1493

Columbus convinced the rulers of Spain to finance his exploration to the Americas.

Vasco da Gama

1497 - 1498

Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope, explored the east African kingdoms, and then went all the way to India. he was financed by Portugal.

Encomienda System

1500 - 1600

It was developed in New Spain. This was sort of like the feudal system, but with ethnic groups. peninulares>creoles>mestizos>mulattos

Ponce de Leon

1513 - 1514

He explored Florida for Spain in search of the fountain of youth

Ferdinan Magellan

1519 - 1520

He sailed around the tip of South America to the Pacific Ocean for Portugal.

Giovanni da Verrazano

1524 - 1525

He explored the North American coast for France

John Cabot

1597 - 1598

He explored the coast of North America for England

Divine Right of Monarchs- James 1 of England

1603 - 1625

During High Middle Ages through the Renaissance, monarchs was centralizing authority. The vast majority of the population were Christian, so the best way to rule was to align oneself with God. The Monarchs were convinced that God gace them the right ot govern. James 1 summed it up as "The king is from God and the law is from the King."

Henry Hudson

1609 - 1610

He sailed the for the Dutch looking for a northwest passage to Asia. He explored the Hudson River and made claims to the area for the Dutch.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Began when Protestant territories in Bohemia challenged the authority of the Holy Roman Catholic Emperor. It developed into a huge religious and political war. European states fought. Many of the population died.

Period 5

1750 to 1900

American Revolution

1764 - 1787

cause: unfair taxation/ war debt, Lack of Representation
people: Thomas Paine, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington
key events: Boston Tea Party, Constitution of Bill of Rights

American Declaration of Independence

July 4, 1776 - July 5, 1776

Revolutionary document in American against British colonial rule

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Cause: social inequalities, unfair taxation/ war debt, Lack of Representation
key events: Reign of Terror, Storming of Bastille, Declaration of Rights of Man
people: Louis 16, Three Estates, Jacobins, Robespierre

Haitian Revolution

1799 - 1804

cause: French Enlightenment, Social and Racial inequalities, Slave Revolt.
Key events: civil war, slave revolt, invasion of Napoleon
people: Toussaint L'Overture, Boukman, Napoleon Bonaparte

Latin American Revolution

1810 - 1820

cause: social inequalities, removal of peninsulares, Napoleon invasion of Spain
events: peasant revolts, Creole revolts, Gran Columbia
people: Miguel Hidalgo, Simon Bolivar, Jose de San Martin, Emperor Pedro 1

Taiping Rebellion

1850 - 1864

Rebellion in China influenced by religious ideas and millenarianism.
It was a large-scale revolt against the authority of the Qing Empire in China, conducted by an army and civil administration. Hong was an unorthodox Christian convert who declared himself the new Messiah and younger brother of Jesus Christ. Yang Xiuqing was a former salesman of firewood in Guangxi, who was frequently able to act as a mouthpiece of God to direct the people and gain himself a large amount of political power. Hong, Yang and their followers established the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and attained control of significant parts of southern China.

Boxer Rebellion

1898 - 1901

The Society of Righteous and Harmonious fists, or Boxers, worked to drive Europeans and Japanese out of China. They were driven by nationalism and anti-colonial movements

Period 6

1900 to 2013

World War 1

July 28 1914 - November 11 1918

First total war. Governments used ideologies, such as fascism, nationalism, and communism, to move all of the state's resources, including ones in colonies, to help wage for the war. Propaganda in forms of speech, art, and media strengthened nationalism and fueled the war.

World War 2

1939 - 1945

Second Total War that happened due the first World War. The Nazi's fascism and power in Germany played a major part in the War. Ethnic conflict appeared in the Holocaust where the Jews were put to death. After WW2, the economic and political power shifted from Europe to the US and Russia, creating the Cold War.

Cold War

1947 - 1991

Conflict between capitalism and communism throughout the world.
The United States was the major power of capitalism, while Russia represented communism. The dissolution of the Soviet Union ended the war in the capitalism's favor