IB History Timeline


Eight Point Program


A military doctrine and compromise designed between Mao and Li Zogren. According to Spence, this was an attempt to surrender by Li and marked the official fall of the Guomindang party.

Long March

1934 - 1935

Led by Mao Zedong, the march began as a break-out from Jiangxi . Thousands died from illness, fatigue or hunger. Mao described it as “a manifesto, a propaganda force, a seeding-machine”. According to Spence, in the end, the Long March was a success and spread the news of communism throughout China.

December 9th Movement


A mass protest led by students in Beijing on December 9, 1935 that demanded the Guomindang government actively resist potential Japanese aggression.

Xian Incident


The Xian Incident of 1936 resulted in Chiang Kaishek's kidnapping in order to force him into resisting the Japanese invasion. Chiang was released on 25 December. Zhang Xueliang was promptly arrested and imprisoned. Despite this, the Xian Incident was successful in convincing Chiang to take action against the Japanese and contributed to the establishment of the Second United Front.

Second United Front

1936 - 1941

The alliance between the Guomindang and the CCP. It was honored by the “three thirds system” meaning according to Mao, one-third “for non-Party left progressives, and one-third for the intermediate sections who are neither left nor right” (Spence 462). It was a brief alliance designed to to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War.

The Marco Polo Bridge Incident


This bridge used to be famous for its beauty but now according to Spence, it was “a strategically important railway bridge” because it linked the Southern lines with Wanping. On July 7th 1937, the Japanese decided to make this bridge the location of the Peking garrison battalions. The Japanese commander thought the Chinese captured one of his men so he ordered an attack on Wanping. According to Spence, it is considered the first battle of World War II.

Burma Road


The road first opened in 1938, but was the root of many problems. Nevertheless, according to Spence, it was a symbol of triumph for China and was the south’s only link to the military supplies. In July 1940, Churchill agreed to the Japanese request of closing the Burma Road for three months. After the three months, Churchill proposed reopening it, but Chiang, according to Spence, said the closing of the road had already “permanently destroyed British prestige” in China.

The New Fourth Army Incident


The New Fourth Army was the army of the CCP. According to Spence, instead of listening to Chiang Kai Shek’s ultimatum, decided to hold public rallies to explain its loyal intentions. However, some units “swerved south”. They fought for six days and were ambushed by the Nationalists and 3,000 Communist soldiers were killed. The deaths hurt the CCP, but the propaganda had a favorable outcome. According to Spence, this event did not end the united front, but it highlighted its tensions.

Sun Yat-Sen dies


The Nationalist political party of China that was originally led by Sun Yat-Sen and then Chiang Kai Shek after his death in 1941.

Guomindang Reclaim Island of Taiwan


General Marshall attempts to improve US-China relations

1946 - 1947

Dispatched by President Truman, Genera Marshall managed to get the CCP and the Guomindang to agree to a cease-fire on January 10, 1946 and an assembly between the two leaders (Spence 488). He pushed for reopening railway lines and cease-fire later in Manchuria. However, Chiang had no interest in American relations during a split up China so in January 1947, Marshall announced the failure of his mission.

Mao Zedong Ruling China


The People's Republic of China was established on October 1, 1949. From 1943 to 1976, Mao was the Chairman of the Communist Party of China. He died September 2nd 1976.

China enters Korean War


On the side of North Korea.

Three Anti Campaign


This was a reform movement by Mao that’s main goal was to rid corruption in China. According to Spence, the three antis were “corruption, waste and bureaucracy”. It also gained much momentum from the Five Anti Campaign, later on.

Five Anti Campaign


Similar to the Three Anti Campaign, it was also designed to rid China of corruption, however it was more violent. According to Spence, it was as an all out assault on the bourgeoisie in China. In result, many prominent political figures were fired or killed including Deng Xiaoping.

First Five Year Plan

1953 - 1957

The plan was designated to cover the years from 1953 to 1957. According to Spence, this plan achieved a dramatic increase in industrial production across a broad sector of goods. China and the Soviet Union relations were the highest at this time.

The Hundred Flowers Campaign


: According to Mao Zedong: "The policy of letting a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools of thought contend is designed to promote the flourishing of the arts and the progress of science”. This was a short period of liberation for the Chinese people where they were allowed to speak their mind. Nevertheless, Mao changed his mind and all those who had spoken out were prosecuted as rightists.

Anti-rightist Movement

1957 - 1959

Mao’s intensive propaganda assault against critics of the party was mounted in all major newspapers across the country, and the CCP announced the start of an “ant rightist campaign”. According to Spence, 300,000 intellectuals had been branded as “rightists” and sent to prison camps or executed.

Great Leap Forward

1958 - 1961

According to Spence, the Great Leap Forward led to great fundamental changes to China such as pooling of all household, child-raising, and cooking arrangements had significant effects on family structure. However, this plan turned back on itself and ultimately starved all their people and dismissed the life expectancy. The number of deaths is uncertain, but it was a lot.

Sino-Soviet Rift

1960 - 1989

According to Spence, the Chinese were in serious economic recession and desperately needed Soviet financial aid to execute the Great Leap Forward. However, Khrushchev had a more cautious economic approach and he struggled already with raising the living standards in the USSR. He was sparing with his resources and did not want to get involved with this type of economic stance.

Little Red Book

1964 - 1976

Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung is a book of selected statements from speeches and writings by Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung), the former leader of Chinese Communist Party, published from 1964 to about 1976 and widely distributed during the Cultural Revolution. The most popular versions were printed in small sizes that could be easily carried and were bound in bright red covers, becoming commonly known in the West as the Little Red Book. It is one of the most printed books in history. It was compiled by Lin Biao.

Down to the Countryside Movement


The Down to the Countryside Movement was a policy instituted in the People's Republic of China in the late 1960s and early 1970s. As a result of the anti-bourgeois thinking prevalent during the Cultural Revolution, Mao Zedong declared certain privileged urban youth would be sent to mountainous areas or farming villages in order to learn from the workers and farmers there.Many fresh high school graduates, who became known as the Rusticated Youth of China, were forced out of the cities and effectively exiled to remote areas of China. Some commentators consider these people, many of whom lost the opportunity to attend university, China's "lost generation."

Cultural Revolution

1966 - 1967

"Cultural Revolution", Mao's 10-year political and ideological campaign aimed at reviving revolutionary spirit, produces massive social, economic and political upheaval. Millions of people were persecuted in the violent factional struggles that ensued across the country, and suffered a wide range of abuses including public humiliation, arbitrary imprisonment, torture, sustained harassment, and seizure of property. A large segment of the population was forcibly displaced, most notably the transfer of urban youth to rural regions during the Down to the Countryside Movement. Historical relics and artifacts were destroyed. Cultural and religious sites were ransacked.

Kissinger visits China


Nixon visits China


US President Richard Nixon visits. Both countries declare a desire to normalise relations.t marked the first time a U.S. president had visited the PRC, which at that time considered the U.S. one of its staunchest foes, and the visit ended 25 years of separation between the two sides.

Shanghai Communique


During President Richard Nixon's visit to China, the document pledged that it was in the interest of all nations for the United States and China to work towards the normalization of their relations. They also agreed that neither they nor any other power should "seek hegemony in the Asia-Pacific region". This was of particular importance to China, who shared a militarized border with the Soviet Union.
Regarding the political status of Taiwan, in the communiqué the United States acknowledged the One-China policy (but did not endorse the PRC's version of the policy) and agreed to cut back military installations on Taiwan.

Lin-Confucius Campaign


According to Spence, by 1974 the 'Anti Lin Biao anti Confucius movement' had become a mass campaign across China. Defending Confucius was similar to those of the renegade And traitor Lin Biao. It was made the focus for mass rallies and intense group discussions in party cells and universities (Spence 636).

Gang of Four tried


A political group composed of four communist party officials that became popular during the Cultural Revolution who were labeled as counter revolutionary forces. As more and more charges were brought against them they became more popular. Cumulatively they were accused of almost every possible crime in the political book, including factional attacks on Zhou Enlai, forging Maos statements, organizing Armed forces , and so much more (Spence 651).

Death of Mao


Deng Xiaoping rules China

1976 - 1989

A politician of the CCP. According to Spence, Xiaoping was, “once the youngest of the work-study students in France, now a veteran party organizer of forty five” (508). He made significant strides in economic reconstruction following the Great Leap Forward but removed during the Cultural Revolution because he was believed to be a capitalist.

Tiananmen Square


According to Spence, many movements occurred in this square such as in 1976, the eve of Chinas annual Qingming festival, thousands of people gathered around the memorial to the martyrs of the Chinese revolution. They used this to honor Zhou Enlai. On the next morning things went out of control and protests led to fights and arrests were made that led to a mass people's trial. The Tiananmen Square incident was likened to the Hungarian uprising of 1956 (Spence 648).

One Child Policy


Government imposes one-child policy in effort to curb population growth.Due to the now enforced one-child law and penalties for families with more, many families would attempt to get rid of their female babies through selling or infanticide. According to Spence, 200,000 female babies died in a single year due to infanticide.

Taiwan Relations Act


The act reflected the worries of pro Taiwan forces by reaffirming the U.S commitment to Taiwan, and especially underlying that the future of Taiwan will be determined by peaceful means and that any boycotts and embargoes by the PRC against Taiwan would be considered a "threat" to the peace and security of West Pacific (Spence 671). The act passed in 1979 after the establishment of diplomatic public relations with the People's Republic of China and the breaking of the US and the Republic of China.

Joint Communique


The document that summarized both the "American and Chinese points of view on global politics without attempting to reconcile them." (Spence 632). The U.S pledged support for South Korea. The Chinese side had declared that wherever there is oppression there is resistance. The U.S had reaffirmed the American opinion that the role of the US in the Vietnam War did not constitute outside intervention and restated U.S commitment to individual freedom.

China's "Open-door policy"

1980 - 1990

China's "Open-door policy" opens the country to foreign investment and encourages development of a market economy and private sector.

1980 Marriage Law


This was effective enforcement of spousal abuse. According to Spence, it would bring husbands to court to stop beating and even torturing their wives. It also aided women who divorced to sue for the joint property once shared in marriage. The fight over the child also became a bitter subject between divorced couples.

Vietnam War

Ho Chi Minh established Vietminh


Fall of Dien Bien Phu

May 1954

Vietnam War

1955 - 1975

Diem Bien Phu refuses to hold elections


Viet Minh grew resistive, Diem threw them all in jail.

Full scale revolt with Viet Cong

March 1960

Communist Party of NV recognizes NLF

September 1960

The Communist Party of North Vietnam bestowed blessing on National Liberation Front that was created by the VC.

Kennedy sent advisers to South Vietnam


Professor Staley of Stanford talked with Diem and created the hamlet program. According to Ambrose, the hamlet program’s main goal was to “bring the peasants together which would make it easier to protect them from the VC and prevent the VC from recruiting, raising taxes, or hiding in the villages among them” (195). It was a failure and eventually turned into a sort of concentration camp.

Rostow-Taylor Mission

November 1961

According to Ambrose, it increased US intervention and switched ARVN's attack method to one of more offensive.

Buddhist Uprisings


Buddhist uprisings against Diem were a huge embarrassment, according to Ambrose.

Diem Killed

November 1963

ARVN, with help from the CIA, overthrew and killed Diem and his brother in order to replace the government with one that was more honest and fair.

Kennedy Assassinated

November 22 1963

Kennedy killed three weeks after the death of Diem. Johnson took presidency.

Gulf of Tonkin Incident

August 2 1964

American destroyers attacked by North Vietnamese torpedo boats in the Gulf of Tonkin. Some believe that it was just an excuse for Johnson to seem more tough for his critics, according to Ambrose.

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

August 7 1964

Johnson received a blank check to expand war.

Johnson initiates bombing campaign

December 1964

Late 1964. Air force was the answer for Johnson in Vietnam. He would practice "ouch warfare" in order to make Ho Chi Minh realize that the gain was not worth the cost. Johnson bombed the shit out of North Vietnam.

US student protests against war

1965 - 1969

VC broke through defense around airbase at Pleinku

February 7 1965

A2A "first major escalation had started"

US troops now ordered to search and engage enemy

June 8 1965

Saigon's last civilian government falls

June 11 1965

Johnson called a "monster" by doves



Heaviest bombing campaign against Hanoi begins

November 1967

Tet Offensive


VC offense on holiday of Tet. Failure for U.S.

Richard Nixon nominated for presidency


There was no "yes or no" choice for the Vietnam War during the election for the doves. Nixon was the least aggressive. He began Vietnamization to lower US casualties.

Robert McNamara resigns

February 1968

He left cabinet because Johnson refused to stop bombing.

Johnson halts bombing campaign and withdraws from presidential race.

March 31 1968

Johnson stops bombing North Vietnam, except for the area north of the demilitarized zone, then he withdrew from the presidential race.

Revelation of My Lai massacre


Nixon begins "secret" Cambodia bombing


in order to scare North Vietnam

Nixon announces first withdrawal of US troops

June 8 1969

Troops reduced by 60,000.

Secret peace talk in Paris begin

November 1969

Between Kissinger and Le Duc Tho over Vietnam

Congress repeals Gulf of Tonkin Resolution


Nixon ignores it. Congress also restricted US troops in Laos and Cambodia, as well as no more $ to widen war.

More bombs used on Vietnam than anywhere else


By 1970, there had been more bombs on tiny Vietnam than in the history of ever.

Nixon announces invasion of Cambodia by ARVN

April 30 1970

Kent State University shooting

May 4 1970

Four students shot at protest at Kent State.

Congress forces Nixon to remove troops from Cambodia

July 1970

through a bill

Lt. Calley convicted for My Tai incident


Nixon wins reelection


Christmas Bombing


In 1972, the United States bombed Hanoi. It was unsuccessful and led to the loss of at least fifteen B-25s and eleven fighter-bombers. Nevertheless, according to Ambrose, Nixon publicly stated that it was to force the release for the American POWs.

Christmas bombings

December 1972

A2A Hanoi is most bombed city in history

Nixon calls off bombers and signs cease-fire agreements

January 23 1973

All active US participation in Vietnam ends.

Saigon falls to Communists

April 30 1973

collapse of Thieu regime. South Vietnam government, or what remained of it, surrenders. Renamed Ho Chi Minh City, last Americans leave.

War Powers Act

May 1973

Required president to give accounting of action within 30 days of committing troops to a foreign war.

Vietnam veterans memorial in DC


Cold War

Manhattan Project

1942 - 1946

The project to create the atom bomb. According to Ambrose, Albert Einstein was the main contributor to the Manhattan Project.

Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki


The atomic bombings of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan were conducted by the United States during the final stages of World War II in 1945. The two events are the only use of nuclear weapons in war to date.

Truman president

1945 - 1953

The president of the United States during the Cold War. According to Ambrose, he established the policy of containment rather than destruction. He shifted American foreign policy from noninvolvement to “presence on every continent of the world” (126).

National Security Act


The National Security Act of 1947 was an Act of Congress signed by President Truman on 26 July 1947, which realigned and reorganized the U.S. Armed Forces, foreign policy, and Intelligence Community apparatus in the aftermath of World War II.
The Act merged the Department of War and the Department of the Navy into the National Military Establishment, headed by the Secretary of Defense. It was also responsible for the creation of a Department of the Air Force which made the Army Air Forces into its own service.

Truman Doctrine

March 1947

President Truman’s doctrine that worked to defend independent countries through the use of military aid. According Kissinger, it was a “watershed” because it led to the solution being a change in Soviet system or a collapse of the system entirely. (Greece and Turkey)

X Article

July 1947

According to Kissinger, it is the “bible of containment”. This article was published by Kennan, even though at first it was anonymously signed. It “rose the Soviet challenge to the level of philosophy and history” (454). It explained the strategy of containment to defect the Soviets.
Author of the article “X”, “The Sources of Soviet Conduct”, “The Long Telegram” and head of the Policy Planning Staff who coined the policy of containment. According to Kissinger, he “raised the Soviet challenge to the level of philosophy of history” (454) by explaining that the problems with the Soviet Union were within itself.

Berlin Airlift


The deployment of American fliers to take supplies to an entire city during the Berlin blockade. According to Ambrose, it “caught the imagination of the world” (99).

The Berlin blockade was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War. During the multinational occupation of post–World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway, road, and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under Allied control. Their aim was to force the western powers to allow the Soviet zone to start supplying Berlin with food, fuel, and aid, thereby giving the Soviets practical control over the entire city.

Marshall Plan

April 1948

Created by Secretary Marshall to, in his words, “avoid political disturbances” by supplying political and economical aid. His plan was open to all countries, even those within the Soviet sphere of influence. Similar to the Truman doctrine, except not for military aid.

Israel proclaims Independence

May 14 1948

The U.S was the first to recognize Israel, however Israel turned to the Soviet’s instead when the Arabs invaded. According to Ambrose, the creation of Israel was the result of “Russian military support and American negotiating skills” (101).

Desegregation of the U.S Military

July 1948

Truman used an executive order to end military segregation. Executive Order 9981, signed on July 26, 1948, forbade discriminating against military personnel because of race, color, religion, or national origin.



The North Atlantic Treaty that was created after the Czech coup. According to Kissinger, it was not designed to defend the status quo in Europe, but to defend moral universality. According to Kissinger, the United States “would do anything for the Atlantic Alliance except call it an alliance” (460).

Fair Deal (Social)

January 1949

The Fair Deal was the term given to an ambitious set of proposals put forward by United States President Harry S. Truman to the United States Congress in his January 1949 State of the Union address. The term, however, has also been used to describe the domestic reform agenda of the Truman Administration, which governed the United States from 1945 to 1953. In September 1945, Truman addressed Congress and presented a 21 point program of domestic legislation outlining a series of proposed actions in the fields of economic development and social welfare.

Korean War

1950 - 1953

McCarthy fired

April 1951

Joseph McCarthy was the junior Senator from Wisconsin who believed the reason East Europe and China fell to Communism was because there were Communists within the United States government. According to Ambrose, McCarthyism swept the nation and the feeling that “American had been betrayed” (108).

Eisenhower president

1953 - 1961

defeats Adlai Stevenson who claimed there was a bombing gap and we were losing the arms race. 3 foreign concerns: Korea, China and Communism.

Death of Josef Stalin

March 5 1953

Korean War ends (Panmunjon armistice)

July 27 1953

Leftist government of Mohammed Mossadegh in Iran ousted and replaced

August 1953

Geneva Conference


According to the Geneva Agreements, South Vietnam was not a state, but a territory of France. However, the U.S redefined the Geneva Agreements by splitting the North and the South at the 17th parallel.

Formosa Resolution

January 1955

Force authorized

Warsaw Pact


"Open Skies"

July 18 1955 - July 23 1955

The proposal by Eisenhower for aerial reconnaissance between the Soviet Union and the United States. According to Kissinger, it would have told the Soviet nothing they already knew awhile “unveiling the enigma of the Soviet empire” to the U.S (Kissinger 516).

Khrushchev's "secret speech"


During this conference, Khrushchev spoke out insulting Stalin, which according to Kissinger, hurt the global view of communism and relations with Mao, who just praised his work. This conference is known for Khrushchev’s “secret speech” which denounced the dictatorship of Stalin.

Hungarian Revolution


On Oct. 23, 1956, Hungarian student revolted and demanded that Stalin’s puppets be replaced with Imre Nagy. After Stalin agreed to give power to Nagy, the Hungarians wanted more. The Russians therefore captured and killed Nagy, which according to Ambrose made the point that other Eastern European countries would have “to make the best deal they could with the Soviets (Ambrose 157).

US withdraws aid for Aswan Dam

July 1956

The Egyptian project that was designed to harness the power of the lower Nile. According to Ambrose, Dulles offered Nasser aid with the production of the dam, but withdrew when Nasser recognized the People’s Republic of China. This eventually led to the Suez Canal Crisis.
Nasser: The Egyptian leader who, according to Kissinger, enjoyed “playing the superpowers of against each other”. He first negotiated an arms deal with the Czechs and then accepted aid for the Aswan Dam production and then recognized Communist China and then decided to seize the Suez Canal as a response. In the end, “Nasser praised the Russians” (Ambrose 157) instead of the U.S for the construction of the dam.

Suez Canal Crisis

October 1956 - November 1956

According to Kissinger, “the Suez Crisis had destroyed the Great Power status of both Great Britain and France. In the twentieth century, the Suez Canal had become the principal artery for the supply of oil to Western Europe”.

Eisenhower Doctrine

March 9 1957

The doctrine came into effect on July 15th 1958 when Eisenhower sent Marines into Lebanon to support President Camille Chamoun in the Middle East. According to Ambrose, Eisenhower used the doctrine as an excuse to send troops, but he still attempted to tie it to the Truman Doctrine and the problems that aroused in Greece.


October 4 1957

USSR winning the space race???

Ike sends 7th fleet to South China Sea

August 1958

"Kitchen Debate" in Moscow


Nixon VP walks through kitchen comparing it to US kitchen and how it is better and stuff.

Camp David

September 1959

According to Kissinger, Eisenhower met with Khrushchev to discuss the Cold war and Berlin on September 1959. Eisenhower told him that he had intention of staying in Berlin forever. Kissinger stated that the “principal result of Camp David was another delay”. However, the hope for peace was crushed when the U-2 spy planes were shot down by the Russians.

Kennedy president

1961 - 1963

Khrushchev's Ultimatum


According to Kissinger, during the Berlin Crisis of 1961, Khrushchev stated, “If no agreement was reached within six months, the Soviet Union would sign a peace treaty with East Germany and turn over its occupation rights and access routes to the German Democratic Republic.” This would force the United States to recognize East Germany and withdraw from the country. However, according to Adenauer, there was no real benefit from the ultimatum.

Berlin Wall set up


Breshnev Doctrine


According to Wikipedia, This doctrine was used in the invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968 and ended Prague Spring and other Soviet military interventions. The purpose of this doctrine was to put an end to democratic liberalization efforts and uprisings.

Prague Spring

August 1968

In Czechoslovakia, led by Alexander Dubcek who promoted a socialist democratic revolution. On the morning of August 21 1968, half a million Soviet troops and other Eastern troops moved through Czechoslovakia and attacked the streets of Prague, captured Dubcek and other leaders and sent them to Moscow. To the amazement of everyone, Castro spoke in favor of the Soviet actions.
According to White, “it was the most far-reaching attempt within this time period to establish a different model of communist rule in Czechoslovakia” (31). Furthermore, Czechoslovakia was one of the multinational communist states, and the pressure for a looser relationship between the Czech lands and other parts of the country was one of the most important forces that contributed to Prague Spring (32).

Reagan president

1980 - 1988

Solidarity in Poland


The immediate source of the crisis that gave rise to Solidarity was once again an increase in the price of mean in the summer of 1980 according to White. Work stopped across the country and an occupation strike occurred in the Lenin Shipyard in Ggansk.Lech Walesa emerged to lead the opposition, originally an electrician, became chairman of an inter-enterprise strike committee. They agreed to establish a "new self governing trade union that would genuinely represent the working class", the medie would show many viewpoints, and there would be a general wage increase.

Soviet authorities send threatening letter to counter-revolutionaries in Poland

June 1981

it called on Polish comrades to "reverse the course of developments" A2W

Prime Minister of Poland declares state of martial law

December 1981

Solidarity was suspended and then surpressed. Purged of members including Walesa.

Brezhnev dies


Andropov takes power in the USSR

Israel invades Lebanon


800 Marines Killed in Lebanon


U.S does nothing, but withdraws from Lebanon.

US invades Grenada


Poland releases hundreds of political prisoners


Chernenko takes power


Andropov died.

Gorbachev takes power


US begins supplying weapons to Soviet resistance in Afghanistan


Reagan and Gorbachev meet in Iceland


The talks collapsed at the last minute, but the progress that had been achieved eventually resulted in the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union.

Bush Sr. President

1988 - 1993

Soviet begins withdrawal from Afghanistan


27,000 US troops invaded Panama


Soviets complete withdrawal from Afghan


Berlin Wall comes down

November 1989

Velvet Revolution

December 1989

a non-violent revolution in Czechoslovakia that took place from November 17 to December 29, 1989. Dominated by student and other popular demonstrations against the single-party government of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, it saw to the collapse of the party's control of the country, and the subsequent conversion to a parliamentary republic.
The first time Czechoslovakia had arranged election which took place in 1990. The Civic Forum took about half the vote in the Czech lands and Public against Violence about a third in Slovakia. “This quick but civilized change of regime became known as the ‘velvet revolution’” (60).


Granma lands on Cuba

December 1956

A small motor yacht purchased by Castro from an American living in Tuxpan. The boat carried his guerilla fighters and ran on an offshore reef on the morning of December 2nd 1956. According to Gott, this was the most disastrous landing, even though it would eventually be celebrated as the most epic.

Castro wins in Cuba

January 1 1959

Castro ousted Batista on 1 January 1959, replacing his regime with Castro's revolutionary government.

Bay of Pigs

April 1961

According to Gott, it was yet another invasion on the coast of Cuba by the CIA. The landings were unprotected by US airpower and completely unsuccesfull. In fact, it stated the fact that “Cuba was now irrevocably independent” (190) and that the U.S could not be trusted.

World War I

Wilson 14 points

January 1918