In 1842, the British had obtained through war the island of Hong Kong and trading rights in a number of Chinese cities. This is partly due to the decline of the Chinese empire in the 19th century.
The availability of land for grazing sheep and the discovery of golf in Australia lef t an influx of settlers who slaughtered many of the indigenous inhabitants. In 1850, the British government granted various Australian colonies complete self-government. And fifty years later, in 1901, all the colonies were unified into the Commonwealth of Australia.
American naval forces under Commodore Perry forced the Japanese to grant the United States trading and diplomatic privileges.
French played an active in subjugating Indochina. The city of Saigon was occupied in 1858, and four years late, Cochin China was taken.
After the shogun's concessions to the Western nations, anti-foreign sentiment led to a samurai revolt in 1867 and the restoration of the emperor as the rightful head of the government.
The new emperor, Mutsuhito, referred to his reign as the Meiji Restoration. During his reign, the military was modernized according to Western tactics. A German-style army and British-style navy were created. A highly centralized administrative system copied from the French replaced the old system.