The Cold War, 1945-1975

Chp. 4: p. 40-50 - Who was to blame for the Cold War? Chp. 5: p. 51-57 - Who won the Cuban Missile Crisis? Chp. 6: p. 58-66 - Why did the USA fail in Vietnam?

Cold War

Who was to blame for the Cold War?
p. 40-50

USA strongest economic/military power

1945

Rose out of the Great Depression w/WWII

Yalta Conference

February 4 1945 - February 11 1945

Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin
-Germany divided into 4 zones
-Berlin divided into 4 zones
-Eastern European countries to hold free elections to decided how to be governed
-USSR join war against Japan for territory in Manchuria and Sakhalin Island

Germany surrenders WWII

8 May 1945 - 9 May 1945

UK/USA reduces forces in Europe
USSR ignored British and American protests about communists in Poland

Potsdam Conference

July 1945 - August 1945

Truman, Attlee, Stalin
-Nazi Party banned, leaders tried as war criminals
-Britain and USA denied Stalin navy base in Mediterranean
-Stalin wanted more reparations from Germany

America creates atom bomb

July 1 1945 - july 2 1945

Beginning of Arms Race

Iron Curtain Speech by Churchill

March 5 1946 - March 6 1946

Iron Curtain: separating democratic nations of the West w/communist Eastern European nations

Greece situation

1947 - 1949

1947: asked for USA HELP
1947: Truman Doctrine/Marshall Aid
1949: Defeated communists after Civil War

Comniform

February 1947 - 1956

Aim to spread communist ideas and restricted EE's contact with West

Truman Doctrine

12 March 1947 - 13 March 1947

USA would not return to isolationism
Containment to stop the spread of communism
Cold War recognized

Berlin Blockade

1948 - 1949

Trizonia

1948 - 1949

British, French, American zones of Germany merged

Czechoslovak coup d'état

February 1948 - May 1948

Rigged the May 1948 elections (decided at Yalta) to favor communists. Czechoslovakia now under communist bloc.

Marshall Aid

April 1948 - 1952

Containment
Helped economies of Europe recover
16 Western European countries accepted
Stalin refused for USSR and banned European countries from accepting it

Berlin Airlift

June 1948 - May 1949

May: Federal Republic of Germany
Oct: German Democratic Republic

Comecon

1949 - 1991

Coordinated production and trade of Eastern European countries

NATO

April 4 1949

Alliance to defend members from attack

Warsaw Pact

1955 - 1991

Communist version of NATO

Cuban Missile Crisis

Who won the Cuban Missile Crisis?
p. 51-57

Fidel Castro overthrew Fulgencio Batista

1956 - 1959

Lead campaign of guerrilla warfare against Batista

Tensions rise between USA and Cuba

1959 - 1961

Communist Castro now in power

Eisenhower broke off diplomatic relations w/Cuba

January 1961 - Oct 1962

Kennedy & Khrushchev meet in Vienna

June 1961 - July 1961

USA would not back up containment with force

Soviets told JFK no intention of nuclear missiles in Cuba

September 1 1962 - September 2 1962

Lie.

Cuban Missile Crisis

8 October 1962 - 28 October 1962

Test Ban Treaty

1963

No testing nuclear arms
USA/USSR/Britain

Vietnam War

Why did the USA fail in Vietnam?
p. 58-66

Japan occupied French Indochina

1942 - 1954

Strong Vietnamese movement lead by Ho Chi Minh
Aug 1945: Japan defeated, French ruled Vietnam

Geneva Conference (Peace Treaty)

April 26 1954 - July 20 1954

Elections in Vietnam would be held within 2 years
Eisenhower concerned communists would win
Helped Ngo Dinh Diem create Republic of South Vietnam

Vietnam War

1959 - April 30 1975

JFK President

January 20 1961 - November 22 1963

Assassinated

Gulf of Tonkin

August 1964 - September 1964

North Vietnamese patrol boats fired on US ships in the Gulf of Tonkin
Congress gave Johnson powers to retaliate
Sent thousands more troops into Vietnam

Conscription

1967 - 1975

Men between the ages of 18-26 to serve in Vietnam unvoluntarily

TV showed graphic violence in Vietnam

1967 - 1975

Walter Cronkite of CBS suggested war was unwinnable; massive effect on public opinion

Tet Offensive

January 30 1968 - September 23 1968

Vietcong attacked 100 Vietnamese cities
10k Vietcong died
MAJOR TURNING POINT FOR USA
USA realized it would take more troops and casualties to win
Americans were not expecting such a coordinated and effective response from Vietcong

My Lai Massacre

March 16 1968 - March 17 1968

4 hours, 400 civilians, 0 Vietcong

My Lai publicized

1969 - 1970

Soldiers in charge of My Lai put on trial for mass murder
Lt. William Calley sentenced to 20 years, served 3

Richard Nixon president

January 20, 1969 - August 9, 1974

To be elected, he promised to end the Vietnam War

Kent State University protest

May 4 1970 - May 5 1970

Protest against war in Ohio
4 killed, 11 injured