1750-present

E-Asia

Qing Dynasty

1644 - 1912

was the last imperial dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China.

first Opium Wars

1839 - 1842

These were the climax of disputes over trade and diplomatic relations between China under the Qing Dynasty and the British Empire.

Taiping Rebellion

1850 - 1864

massive civil war in southern China from 1850 to 1864, against the ruling Manchu-led Qing Dynasty. It was led by Hong Xiuquan, who announced that he had received visions in which he learned that he was the younger brother of Jesus. At least 20 million people died, mainly civilians, in one of the deadliest military conflicts in history.

secound opium war

1856 - 1860

These were the climax of disputes over trade and diplomatic relations between China under the Qing Dynasty and the British Empire.

Empress Dowager Cixi

1861 - 1908

was a powerful and charismatic woman who unofficially but effectively controlled the Manchu Qing Dynasty in China for 47 years, from 1861 to her death in 1908.

Sun Yat-sen

1866 - 1925

Sun Yat-sen was a Chinese revolutionary, first president and founding father of the Republic of China.

Meiji Restoration

1868 - 1912

was a chain of events that restored imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. The goals of the restored government were expressed by the new emperor in the Charter Oath. The Restoration led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure, and spanned both the late Edo period (often called Late Tokugawa shogunate) and the beginning of the Meiji period.

Hideki Tojo

1884 - 1948

was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), the leader of the Taisei Yokusankai, and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during most of World War II, from 17 October 1941 to 22 July 1944. As Prime Minister, he was directly responsible for the attack on Pearl Harbor, which led to the war between Japan and the United States, although planning for it had begun before he entered office. After the end of the war, Tōjō was arrested, sentenced to death for Japanese war crimes by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, and was hanged on 23 December 1948.

Chiang Kai-shek

1887 - 1975

Chiang Kai-shek was a 20th-century Chinese political and military leader. He is known as Jiang Jieshi or Jiang Zhongzheng in Mandarin Chinese.

Mao Zedong

1893 - 1976

Mao Zedong, commonly referred to as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary, politician and socio-political theorist.

Boxer Rebellion

1899 - 1901

was an anti-foreign, proto-nationalist movement by the Righteous Harmony Society (also known as I-ho-tuan or Yihetuan) in China between 1899 and 1901, opposing foreign imperialism and Christianity. The uprising took place against a background of severe drought and economic disruption in response to growth of foreign spheres of influence

Russo-Japanese War

1904 - 1905

was "the first great war of the 20th century."It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were Southern Manchuria, specifically the area around the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden; and the seas around Korea, Japan, and the Yellow Sea.

Three Principles of the People

1905

is a political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation. Its legacy of implementation is most apparent in the governmental organization of the Republic of China

May Fourth Movement

1919

was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student demonstrations in Beijing on May 4, 1919, protesting the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially the Shandong Problem.

Communist Party of China

1921 - 2012

is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China

Mukden Incident

1931

Long March

1934

was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang

Hiroshima

1945

first city in history to be targeted by a nuclear weapon when the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) dropped an atomic bomb on it at 8:15 a.m. on August 6, 1945, near the end of World War II

Nagasaki

1945

During World War II, the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki made Nagasaki the second and, to date, last city in the world to experience a nuclear attack.

Yalta Conference

1945

sometimes called the Crimea Conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, held February 4–11, 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and General Secretary Joseph Stalin, respectively, for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization. The conference convened in the Livadia Palace near Yalta, in the Crimea.

Kim Il-sung

1949 - 1999

was the leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, commonly referred to as North Korea, from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994

Korean War

1950 - 1953

was a war between the Republic of Korea (South Korea), supported by the United Nations, and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), at one time supported by the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union.

SE-Asia

Jawaharlal Nehru

1947 - 1964

Ho Chi Minh

1951 - 1969

was a Vietnamese communist revolutionary leader who was prime minister (1945–1955) and president (1945–1969) of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam).

Vietnam War

1955 - 1975

was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

S-Asia

Mahatma Gandhi

1869 - 1948

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, commonly known as Mahatma Gandhi, was the preeminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-ruled India.

Mid-East

Tanzimat reforms

1839

Tanzimât reforms began under Sultan Mahmud II. On November 3, 1839, Sultan Abdülmecid issued an organic statute for the general government of the empire

Theodor Herzl

1860 - 1904

was an Austro-Hungarian journalist and writer. He is the father of modern political Zionism and in effect the foundation of the State of Israel

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

1876 - 1948

Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan. Jinnah served as leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 until Pakistan's independence on 14 August 1947

Young Turks

1908 - 1918

was a secularist Turkish nationalist reform party in the early twentieth century, favoring reformation of the absolute monarchy of the Ottoman Empire.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

1923 - 1938

was an Ottoman and Turkish army officer, revolutionary statesman, writer, and the first President of Turkey. He is credited with being the founder of the Republic of Turkey. His surname, Atatürk (meaning "Father of the Turks"), was granted to him (and forbidden to any other person) in 1934 by the Turkish parliament.

Saddam Hussein

1979 - 2000

N&C Asia

Alexander II of Russia

1818 - 1881

was the Emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881. He was also the King of Poland and the Grand Prince of Finland. His most important achievement was the emancipation of serfs in 1861, due to a 'need' for Industrialization to keep up with the Western Powers. He also became known as Alexander the Liberator

Joseph Stalin

1878 - 1953

Joseph Stalin or Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin was the de facto leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.

Nicholas II of Russia

1894 - 1917

was the last Emperor of Russia, Grand Duke of Finland, and titular King of Poland. His official short title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias.

Russian Civil War

1917 - 1922

was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire fought between the Bolshevik Red Army and the White Army, the loosely allied anti-Bolshevik forces. Many foreign armies warred against the Red Army, notably the Allied Forces and the pro-German armies

October Revolution

1917

the October Uprising or the Bolshevik Revolution, was a seizure of state power instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.

Vladimir Lenin

1922 - 1924

was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

Europe

Olympe de Gouges

1748 - 1793

a French playwright and political activist whose feminist and abolitionist writings reached a large audience.

Maximilien de Robespierre

1758 - 1794

was a French lawyer, politician, and one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution

napoleon bonaparte

1769 - 1821

a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution and its associated wars in Europe.

Klemens von Metternich

1773 - 1859

was a German politician and statesman of Rhenish extraction and one of the most important diplomats of his era, serving as the Foreign Minister of the Holy Roman Empire and its successor state, the Austrian Empire, from 1809 until the liberal revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation.

French revolution

1789 - 1799

was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France that had a lasting impact on French history and more broadly throughout Europe.

Latin American wars of independence

1799 - 1980

were the various revolutions that took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries and resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America. These revolutions followed the American and French Revolutions, which had profound effects on the Spanish, Portuguese and French colonies in the Americas.

Battle of Trafalgar

1805

a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French Navy and Spanish Navy, during the War of the Third Coalition (August–December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815).

Charles Darwin

1809 - 1882

was an English naturalist. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.

French invasion of Russia

1812

was a turning point during the Napoleonic Wars. It reduced the French and allied invasion forces (the Grande Armée) to a tiny fraction of their initial strength and triggered a major shift in European politics as it dramatically weakened French hegemony in Europe.

Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815. The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.

age of metternich

1815 - 1848

onset of the Industrial Revolution, an intensification of social problems brought on by economic cycles of boom and bust, an increasingly mobile population, more demands for popular participation in government, and the rising tide of nationalism, all watched over by governments intent upon preserving the social, political, and international status quo.

otto von bismarck

1815 - 1898

was a conservative German statesman who dominated European affairs from the 1860s to his dismissal in 1890 by Emperor Wilhelm II. In 1871, after a series of short victorious wars, he unified most of the German states (whilst excluding some, most notably Austria) into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. This created a balance of power that preserved peace in Europe from 1871 until 1914.

Battle of Waterloo

1815

An Imperial French army under the command of Emperor Napoleon was defeated by the armies of the Seventh Coalition, comprising an Anglo-Allied army under the command of the Duke of Wellington combined with a Prussian army under the command of Gebhard von Blücher. It was the culminating battle of the Waterloo Campaign and Napoleon's last. The defeat at Waterloo ended his rule as Emperor of the French, marking the end of his Hundred Days return from exile.

Queen Victoria

1819 - 1901

was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.

Sigmund Freud

1856 - 1939

Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist who became known as the founding father of psychoanalysis

Alfred Dreyfus

1859 - 1935

was a French artillery officer of Jewish background whose trial and conviction in 1894 on charges of treason became one of the most tense political dramas in modern French and European history. Known today as the Dreyfus Affair, the incident eventually ended with Dreyfus's complete exoneration.

William I, German Emperor

1861 - 1888

was the King of Prussia (2 January 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). Under the leadership of William and his Minister President Otto von Bismarck, Prussia achieved the unification of Germany and the establishment of the German Empire.

Winston Churchill

1874 - 1965

was a British politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. Widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the 20th century, Churchill was also an officer in the British Army, a historian, a writer, and an artist. He is the only British Prime Minister in history to have received the Nobel Prize in Literature, and was also the first person to be made an Honorary Citizen of the United States.

Joseph Stalin

1878 - 1953

was the de facto leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953. Among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who took part in the Russian Revolution of 1917, Stalin was appointed General Secretary of the party's Central Committee in 1922. He subsequently managed to consolidate power following the 1924 death of Vladimir Lenin through expanding the functions of his role, all the while eliminating any opposition. He held this nominal post until abolishing it in 1952, concurrently serving as the Premier of the Soviet Union after establishing the position in 1941.

Benito Mussolini

1883 - 1945

was an Italian politician, journalist and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country from 1922 to his ousting in 1943. In 1926 Mussolini seized total power as dictator and ruled Italy as Il Duce ("the leader") from 1930 to 1943. Mussolini was one of the key figures in the creation of fascism.

John Maynard Keynes

1883 - 1946

John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, CB, FBA was a British economist whose ideas have fundamentally affected the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics, and informed the economic policies of governments.

berlin confrence

1884 - 1885

European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power. Called for by Portugal and organized by Otto von Bismarck, first Chancellor of Germany,

Adolf Hitler

1889 - 1945

was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the Nazi Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP); National Socialist German Workers Party). He was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator of Nazi Germany (as Führer und Reichskanzler) from 1934 to 1945. Hitler was at the centre of Nazi Germany, World War II in Europe, and the Holocaust.

Nikita Khrushchev

1894 - 1971

led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War. He served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.

Leonid Brezhnev

1906 - 1982

was the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country from 1964 until his death in 1982. His eighteen-year term as General Secretary was second only to that of Joseph Stalin in length.

Schlieffen Plan

1906

was the German General Staff's early 20th century overall strategic plan for victory in a possible future war in which the German Empire might find itself fighting on two fronts: France to the west and Russia to the east. The First World War later became such a war, with both a Western and an Eastern Front.

Easter Rebellion

1916

an armed insurrection staged in Ireland during Easter Week, 1916. The Rising was mounted by Irish republicans with the aims of ending British rule in Ireland and establishing an independent Irish Republic at a time when the United Kingdom was heavily engaged in World War I. It was the most significant uprising in Ireland since the rebellion of 1798.

February Revolution

1917

was the first of two revolutions in Russia in 1917. It was centered on Petrograd, then the capital (now St. Petersburg), on Women's Day in March (late February in the Julian calendar). The revolution, confined to the capital and its vicinity and lasting less than a week, involved mass demonstrations and armed clashes with police and gendarmes, the last loyal forces of the Russian monarchy.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

1918

was a separate peace treaty that the Soviet government was forced to sign on March 3, 1918 after almost six-month-long negotiations at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between Russia (the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic) and the Central Powers marking Russia's exit from World War I. Signing of the treaty defaulted Russia's commitments on the Triple Entente alliance.

Amritsar massacre

1919

On Sunday, 13 April 1919, Dyer was convinced of a major insurrection and thus he banned all meetings. On hearing that a meeting of 15,000 to 20,000 people including women, children and the elderly had assembled at Jallianwala Bagh, Dyer went with fifty Gurkha riflemen to a raised bank and ordered them to shoot at the crowd.

Stalin's Five Year Plans

1928 - 1932

Spanish Civil War

1936 - 1939

was fought from 17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939 between the Republicans, who were loyal to the established Spanish Republic, and the Nationalists, a rebel group led by General Francisco Franco. The Nationalists prevailed and Franco ruled Spain for the next 36 years, from 1939 until his death in 1975.

Rape of Nanking

1937

was a mass murder and war rape that occurred during the six-week period following the Japanese capture of the city of Nanking

Austrian anschluss

1938

was the occupation and annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany in 1938.

Munich Agreement

1939

was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of Czechoslovakia's areas along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation "Sudetenland" was coined. The agreement was negotiated at a conference held in Munich, Germany, among the major powers of Europe without the presence of Czechoslovakia.

Battle of Stalingrad

1942 - 1943

was a major and decisive battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in the southwestern Soviet Union. The battle took place between August 23, 1942 and February 2, 1943

D-Day

1944

were the landing operations of the Allied invasion of Normandy, in Operation Overlord, during World War II.

Berlin Blockade

1948 - 1949

was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War. During the multinational occupation of post–World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway, road, and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under Allied control. Their aim was to force the western powers to allow the Soviet zone to start supplying Berlin with food, fuel, and aid, thereby giving the Soviets practical control over the entire city.

Berlin Wall

1961 - 1989

was a barrier constructed by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) starting on 13 August 1961, that completely cut off (by land) West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin

Mikhail Gorbachev

1985 - 1991

is a former Soviet statesman, having served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991, and as the first (and last) president of the Soviet Union

Boris Yeltsin

1991 - 1999

Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.

Vladimir Putin

1999 - 2012

a Russian politician who has been the President of Russia since 7 May 2012. Putin previously served as President from 2000 to 2008, and as Prime Minister of Russia from 1999 to 2000 and again from 2008 to 2012. Putin was also previously the Chairman of United Russia.

Africa

Mahumud ali

1805

Suez canal

1869

is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Opened in November 1869 after 10 years of construction work, it allows transportation by water between Europe and Asia without navigation around Africa.

Battle of Omdurman

1898

an army commanded by the British Gen. Sir Herbert Kitchener defeated the army of Abdullah al-Taashi, the successor to the self-proclaimed Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad. It was a demonstration of the superiority of a highly disciplined European-led army equipped with modern rifles and artillery over a vastly larger force armed with older weapons, and marked the success of British efforts to re-conquer the Sudan.

Anwar Sadat

1918 - 1980

Gamal Abdel Nasser

1956 - 1970

Jomo Kenyatta

1963 - 1978

Ruhollah Khomeini

1979 - 1989

Nelson Mandela

1994 - 1999

Americas

george washington

1731 - 1799

was the first President of the United States (1789–1797), the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

The war was fought primarily between the colonies of British America and New France, with both sides supported by military units from their parent countries of Great Britain and France, who declared war on each other in 1756.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

was a political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America.

jose de san martin

1778 - 1850

Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire.

simon bolivar

1783 - 1830

Venezuelan military and political leader. Bolívar played a key role in Latin America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire, and is today considered one of the most influential politicians in the history of the Americas.

Haitian Revolution

1791 - 1804

was a slave revolt in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, which culminated in the elimination of slavery there and the founding of the Haitian republic.

Juan Manuel de Rosas

1793 - 1877

was an Argentine caudillo who served as governor of the Buenos Aires province and Supreme Chief of the Argentine Confederation.

Whittney cotton gin

1794

invention of the cotton gin revolutionized the cotton industry in the United States. Prior to his invention, farming cotton required hundreds of man-hours to separate the cottonseed from the raw cotton fibers.

Louisiana Purchase

1803 - 1804

was the acquisition by the United States of America in 1803 of 828,000 square miles (2,140,000 km2) of France's claim to the territory of Louisiana.

Benito Juárez

1806 - 1872

was a Mexican lawyer and politician of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca who served as the president of Mexico for five terms: 1858–1861

Abraham Lincoln

1809 - 1865

was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its greatest constitutional, military, and moral crises—the American Civil War—preserving the Union, abolishing slavery, strengthening the national government and modernizing the economy.

Mexican War of Independence

1810 - 1823

as an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and the Spanish

John A. Macdonald

1815 - 1891

was the first Prime Minister of Canada. The dominant figure of Canadian Confederation, he had a political career which spanned almost half a century.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

1815 - 1902

was an American social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early women's rights movement. Her Declaration of Sentiments, presented at the first women's rights convention held in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York, is often credited with initiating the first organized women's rights and women's suffrage movements in the United States.

Industrial Revolution

1820 - 1840

the transition to new manufacturing processes that occurred in the period from about 1760 to some time between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power and development of machine tools.

Monroe Doctrine

1823

. It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention

Porfirio Díaz

1830 - 1915

was a volunteer in the Reform War and then a leader of the successful rebellion against French intervention, an accomplished general and the President of Mexico from 1876 to 1911

Manifest destiny

1845 - 1900

in the United States in the 19th century, manifest destiny was the widely held belief that American settlers were destined to expand across the continent.

La Reforma

1861 - 1876

was a period halfway through the 19th century in the history of Mexico that was characterized by liberal reforms designed to modernize Mexico and make it into a nation state. The major goals in this movement were: Land reform—redistribution of land, separation of church and state, and increased educational opportunities for the poor, the majority of the country's population.

Henry Ford

1863 - 1947

was an American industrialist, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production

canada (dominion of canada)

1867 - 1945

Upon Confederation in 1867, the name Canada was officially adopted for the new Dominion, which was commonly referred to as the Dominion of Canada until after World War II.

Pancho Villa

1878 - 1923

was one of the most prominent Mexican Revolutionary generals.

Franklin D. Roosevelt

1882 - 1945

also known by his initials, FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States (1933–1945) and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic depression and total war. A dominant leader of the Democratic Party and the only American president elected to more than two terms, he built a New Deal Coalition that realigned American politics after 1932, as his domestic policies defined American liberalism for the middle third of the 20th century.

Harry S. Truman

1884 - 1972

was the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953). The final running mate of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1944, Truman succeeded to the presidency on April 12, 1945, when Roosevelt died after months of declining health. Under Truman, the U.S. successfully concluded World War II; in the aftermath of the conflict, tensions with the Soviet Union increased, marking the start of the Cold War.

Dwight D. Eisenhower

1890 - 1969

was the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. He had previously been a five-star general in the United States Army during World War II and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe; he had responsibility for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43 and the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45 from the Western Front. In 1951, he became the first supreme commander of NATO.

Augusto César Sandino

1895 - 1934

Augusto Nicolás Calderón Sandino; May 18, 1895 – February 21, 1934, also known as Augusto César Sandino, was a Nicaraguan revolutionary and leader of a rebellion between 1927 and 1933 against the U.S. military occupation of Nicaragua

Anastasio Somoza García

1896 - 1956

Anastasio Somoza García was officially the President of Nicaragua from 1 January 1937 to 1 May 1947 and from 21 May 1950 to 29 September 1956, but ruled effectively as dictator from 1936 until his assassination.

Spanish–American War

1898

was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States, effectively the result of American intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. American attacks on Spain's Pacific possessions led to involvement in the Philippine Revolution and ultimately to the Philippine–American War.

Good Neighbor policy

1900 - 2000

was the foreign policy of the administration of United States President Franklin Roosevelt toward the countries of Latin America.

Mexican Revolution

1910 - 1920

was a major armed struggle that started in 1910, with an uprising led by Francisco I. Madero against longtime autocrat Porfirio Díaz, and lasted for the better part of a decade until around 1920.

Woodrow Wilson

1913 - 1921

was the 28th President of the United States, in office from 1913 to 1921.

Panama Canal

1914

ship canal in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean (via the Caribbean Sea) to the Pacific Ocean.

Great Depression

1930 - 1940

was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II.

Richard Nixon

1969 - 1974

Ricahrd nixion

1969 - 1974

Oceania

Global

The Communist Manifesto

1848

is a short 1848 publication written by the political theorists Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It has since been recognized as one of the world's most influential political manuscripts.

Social Darwinism

1877 - 2013

an ideology of society that seeks to apply biological concepts of Darwinism or of evolutionary theory to sociology and politics, often with the assumption that conflict between groups in society leads to social progress as superior groups outcompete inferior ones.

The White Man's Burden

1899

The poem was originally written for Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, but exchanged for "Recessional"; Kipling changed the text of "Burden" to reflect the subject of American colonization of the Philippines, recently won from Spain in the Spanish-American War.

open door policy

1899 - 1900

is a concept in foreign affairs, which usually refers to the policy in 1899 allowing multiple Imperial powers access to China, with none of them in control of that country. As a theory, the Open Door Policy originates with British commercial practice, as was reflected in treaties concluded with Qing Dynasty China after the First Opium War (1839–1842)

sinking of the lusitania

1915

The sinking of the Lusitania enraged Americans and hastened the United States' entrance into World War I.

Fourteen Points

1918

was a statement by United States President Woodrow Wilson that the Great War was being fought for a moral cause and for postwar peace in Europe.

League of Nations

1919 - 1946

was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace.

Treaty of Versailles

1919

was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers.

United nations

1945 - 2012

is an international organization whose stated aims include promoting and facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, civil rights, civil liberties, political freedoms, democracy, and the achievement of lasting world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its missions.

Truman Doctrine

1947

was an international relations policy set forth by the U.S. President Harry Truman in a speech

Marshall plan

1947 - 2012

American program to aid Europe, in which the United States gave economic support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to prevent the spread of Soviet Communism

NATO

1949 - 2012

is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.

hydrogen bomb

1952

Mein Kampf

1953

Mein Kampf is a book by Nazi leader Adolf Hitler. It combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitler's political ideology. Volume 1 of Mein Kampf was published in 1925 and Volume 2 in 1926.

Warsaw Pact

1955 - 1991

a mutual defense treaty between eight communist states of Central and Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War. The founding treaty was established under the initiative of the Soviet Union and signed on 14 May 1955, in Warsaw.

Cuban missile crisis

1962

13-day confrontation between the Soviet Union and Cuba on one side, and the United States on the other, in October 1962. It was one of the major confrontations of the Cold War, and is generally regarded as the moment in which the Cold War came closest to turning into a nuclear conflict