History of Graphic Design

Futurism

13-11 Marinetti- 'Futurist Words in Freedom'

1920


chaos, confusion, violent noise
inspired by his experiences in the trenches
silhouette of a girl reading a love letter from her lover at war

13-18 Apolinaire- 'Il Pleut' ('It's Raining')

1920


figurative sprinkling of letters across page
relates form to content

13-23 Depero- 'Depero Futurista'

1930

https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRMTO_vaN-a6apanLg7TCyls81OsN9ImDaY9FQuqWuC6CDFB1SrsA
compilation of type experiments, print ads, magazine covers, etc.
greatly influenced other art movements
chrome bolts --> physicality of actual book

Dada

13-30 Schwitters- 'Merz program'

1920

https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTyEKsW9nIpyBNekOS7pqxxoRmxsesILz_yxWlMDQSuwpTJRZ9-
Merz (Dada offshoot)
'kommerz' (commerce) --> 'merz'
"one-man movement" using Dada movement's nonsense & design principles but rejected by Dadaists
photomontages, contrasts in color & texture

13-29 Hannah Hoch- 'Da Dandy'

1920


innovation of photomontage- recycled images & materials in juxtapositions & carefully constructed moments
not 'art' but 'mocking' society
still influenced much of the design world

13-57 Man Ray- 'London Underground poster'

1930


Dada & Surrealism
solarization- camera-less photo exposures that produced high-contrast images
called his prints "rayographs"

13-38 Heartfield- 'Adolf, the Superman'

1930


anti-Nazi propaganda poster
"Swallows gold & spouts rubbish"
used only already-printed photos for his photomontages

Plakatstil

14-1 The Beggarstaffs- 'Kassama corn flour'

1900

14-8 Bernhard- 'Priester matches poster'

1900


flat color & minimal information
won Priester's poster contest

14-31 Flagg- 'I Want YOU' poster

1910


pro-war Propaganda
illustrators switched to poster art during the war as the demand for illustration fell
self portrait, sketchy painting style combined w/ Plakatstil principles

14-11 Erdt- 'Opel automobiles'

1910


employed the 'Bernhard formula': flat background color, simple image, & product name

14-37 Hohlwein- 'Confection Kehl P.K.Z.'

1910

http://www.artvalue.com/image.aspx?PHOTO_ID=2353471&width=500&height=500
organic vs. geometric form, figurative vs. abstract imagery
ad for a clothing company
inspired by the Beggarstaffs' work, but more decorative

14-52 Cassandre- 'Nord Express' poster

1930

https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRl4_lLR9NN2Am0DTABOhwBxAqP_fdfSnfPpr2gt8cuqrU_bwwLyA
pictorial modernism
exaggerates contrast of forms, dynamic lines
emphasizes 2 dimensionality

Suprematism

15-14 Lissitzsky- 'For the Voice'

1920

https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSkBYrl6htJhEod5eCmbeFdnYekYnER6WzZFki7F1Pu0YlkBIti
rigid right angle in composition, counterbalance between "M" & circles
design "accompanies" a series of poems
die-cut margin with poem titles on right

15-9 Lissitzsky- 'Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge'

1920


red wedge (Bolshevik army emblem) slashing through enemy "white" forces
space is dynamically divided

Constructivism

15-28 Rodchenko- 'Novyi lef vol. 3'

1920


heavy sans-serif hand-lettering & photomontage
magazine made by Rodchenko "for all fields of the arts"
gorilla--> traditionalist tzarist regime, plane--> Novyi lef

15-31 Stenberg brothers- 'The Man with the Movie Camera poster'

1930

https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSMwaRx-vmwIgFQjf4qwZbSWdzlaWoEr9O8AX1lRKgl3Zbnm65m
theatrical film poster
extreme perspective, circular orientation of type, fragmented figure

15-37 Klutsis- 'Five-year Plan'

1930

https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR1VKKM2L5uQzSnxriFinWsO-IPs8dxXO0sjLF3DME_ZUwJRkFt
propaganda photomontage for socialism & Stalin
superimposed imagery--> energy of the 5-year plan

De Stijl

15-47 Doesburg- 'De Stijl'

1920


asymmetrically balanced type
layout implies a rectangle shape
advocated for applied art; everyday life at the same 'level' as art