Around 1200, a Mongol clan leader named Temujin unified the Mongols under his leadership.
In 1206, Temujin accepted the title Genghis Khan, or “universal ruler” of the Mongol clans.
After invading the northern Jin Empire in 1211, however, his attention turned to the Islamic region west of Mongolia.
By 1225, Central Asia was under Mongol control.
Genghis Khan died in 1227—not from violence, but from illness. His successors continued to expand his empire.
By 1260, the Mongols had divided their huge empire into four regions, or khanates.
He traveled by caravan on the Silk Roads with his father and uncle, arriving at Kublai Khan’s court around 1275
The Great Khan sent huge fleets against Japan in 1274 and 128.
Kublai Khan died in 1294. After his death, the Yuan Dynasty began to fade.
Chandragupta gathered an army, killed the unpopular Nanda king, and in about 321 B.C. claimed the throne. This began the Mauryan Empire.
By 303 B.C., the Mauryan Empire stretched more than 2,000
In 301 B.C., Chandragupta’s son assumed the throne
Noble as his policies of toleration and nonviolence were, they failed to hold the empire together after Asoka died in 232 B.C.
For 500 years, beginning about
185 B.C., wave after wave of Greeks,
Persians, and Central Asians poured into
northern India. These invaders disrupted
After his marriage, Chandra Gupta I took the title “Great King of Kings” in A.D. 320. His empire included Magadha and the area north of it, with his power base along the
Chandra Gupta II also strengthened his empire through peaceful means by negotiating diplomatic and marriage alliances. He ruled from A.D. 375 to 415.
Over the next 100 years, the Gupta Empire broke into small king- doms. Many were overrun by the Hunas or other Central Asian nomads. The Empire ended about 535.
Babur was a brilliant general. In 1526, for example, he led 12,000 troops to victory
Babur’s grandson was called Akbar, which means “Great.” Akbar cer- tainly lived up to his name, ruling India with wisdom and tolerance from 1556 to 1605.
In 1631, Mumtaz Mahal died at age 39 while giving birth to her 14th child. To enshrine his wife’s memory, he ordered that a tomb be built “as beautiful as she was beautiful.”
All was not well in the royal court either. When Shah Jahan became ill in 1657, his four sons scrambled for the throne.
Italian, he wrote sonnets—14-line poems. They were about a mysterious woman named Laura, who was his ideal. (Little is known of Laura except that she died of the plague in 1348.
He did not seek political office for himself, but influenced members of the ruling council by giving them loans. For 30 years, he was dictator of Florence.
1494, a French king claimed the throne of Naples in southern Italy and launched an invasion through northern Italy.
Leonardo da Vinci’s notebooks—and life—are mysterious. Some 3,500 pages closely covered with writings and drawings survive.
Christian scholars in Constantinople fled to Rome with Greek manu- scripts when the Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453
When the destructive Hundred Years’ War between France and England ended in 1453, many cities grew rapidly
Donatello’s statue was created in the late 1460s. It was the first European sculpture of a large, free-standing nude since ancient times
Known as Lorenzo the Magnificent, he ruled as a dictator yet kept up the appearance of having an elected government.
Like Leonardo, Michelangelo was a Renaissance man.
He excelled as a painter, sculptor, architect, and poet.
Yet, some of them had great influence. Vittoria Colonna (1492–1547) was born of a noble family. In 1509, she married the Marquis of Pescara.
Michelangelo Influenced by classical statues, Michelangelo sculpted David from 1501 to 1504.
The Mona Lisa (c. 1504–1506) is thought to be a portrait of Lisa Gherardini, who, at 16, married Francesco del Giocondo
In 1509, Erasmus wrote his most famous work, The Praise of Folly.
The Prince (1513) by Niccolò Machiavelli examins the conduct of humans。
Flemish paintings reachedts peak after1550withthe peak ofPieter Bruegel