A Mongol clan leader named Temujin sought to unify the Mongols under his leadership. He fought and defeated his rival one by one.
In 1206, Temujin accepted the title Genghis Khan, or “universal ruler” of the Mongol clans.
In 1211, Genghis Khan's attention turned to the Islamic region west of Mongolia. Angered by the murder of Mongol traders and an ambas- sador at the hands of the Muslims, Genghis launched a campaign of terror across Central Asia.
By 1225, Central Asia was under Mongol control.
Genghis Khan died in 1227—not from violence, but from illness. His successors continued to expand his empire. In less than 50 years, the Mongols conquered ter- ritory from China to Poland. In so doing, they created the largest unified land empire in history.
By 1260, the Mongols had divided their huge empire into four regions, or khanates.These were the Khanate of the Great Khan (Mongolia and China), the Khanate of Chagatai (Central Asia), the Ilkhanate (Persia), and the Khanate of the Golden Horde (Russia). A descendant of Genghis ruled each khanate.
Marco Polo traveled by caravan on the Silk Roads with his father and uncle, arriving at Kublai Khan’s court around 1275.
In 1281, the Great Khan sent huge fleets to Japan.
Kublai Khan died in 1294.
Chandragupta gathered an army, killed the unpopular Nanda king, and in about 321 B.C. claimed the throne. This began the Mauryan Empire.
The Mauryan Empire stretched more than 2,000
Chandragupta’s son assumed the throne. He ruled for 32 years.
Greeks, Persians, and Central Asians poured into
northern India. These invaders disrupted Indian society. But they also introduced new languages and customs that added to the already-rich blend of Indian culture.
Chandra Gupta I took the title “Great King of Kings”
Samudra Gupta became king.
Chandra Gupta rules
Chandra Gupta II dies
Mauryan Empire ends
Babur led 12,000 troops to victory against an army of 100,000 soldiers commanded by a sultan of Delhi.
The years of Akbar's reign
Mumtaz Mahal died at age 39 while giving birth to her 14th child. Her husband, Shan Jahan, built the Taj Mahal, where she would be buried, to celebrate and commemorate her life.
When Shah Jahan became ill in 1657, his four sons scrambled for the throne. The third son, Aurangzeb moved first and most decisively. In a bitter civil war, he exe- cuted his older brother, who was his most serious rival. Then he arrested his father and put him in prison, where he died several years later.
Aurangzeb reigns from 1658-1707, ending the Mughal Empire
A mysterious woman named Laura died of the plague, as written in Decameron.
In 1434, he won control of Florence’s government. He did not seek political office for himself, but influenced members of the ruling council by giving them loans. For 30 years, he was dictator of Florence.
When the destructive Hundred Years’ War between France and England ended in 1453, many cities grew rapidly.
Turks conquered Constantinople
Donatello’s statue was created in the late 1460s. It was the first European sculpture of a large, free-standing nude since ancient times.
Lorenzo de Medici, came to power in 1469.
Like Leonardo, Michelangelo was a Renaissance man.
He excelled as a painter, sculptor, architect, and poet.
Michelangelo is most famous for the way he portrayed the human body in painting and sculpture. Influenced by classical art,he crated figures that were forceful and show heroic grandeur.
In 1509, she married the Marquis of Pescara. He spent most of his life away from home on military campaigns.Vittoria Colonna exchanged sonnets with Michelangelo and helped Castiglione publish The Courtier. Her own poems express personal emotions.
In 1494, a French king claimed the throne of Naples in southern Italy and launched an invasion through northern Italy. As the war dragged on, many Italian artists and writers left for a safer life in Northern Europe. They brought with them the styles and techniques of the Italian Renaissance. In addition, Northern European artists who studied in Italy carried Renaissance ideas back to their homelands.
In 1509, Erasmus wrote his most famous work, The Praise of Folly. This book poked fun at greedy merchants, heartsick lovers, quarrelsome scholars, and pompous priests. Erasmus believed in a Christianity of the heart, not one of cere-
Niccolò Machiavelli writes "The Prince" that examines the imperfect conduct of human beings.
Baldassare Castiglione wrote a book called "The Courtier" that taught how to become such a person. A young man should be witty, well-educated, and charming in the classics.
Elizabeth reigned from 1558 to 1603. She was well educated and spoke French, Italian, Latin, and Greek. She also wrote poetry and music. As queen she did much to support the development of English art and literature.
By 1592 he was living in London and writing poems and plays, and soon he would be performing at the Globe Theater.