World History Timeline by Sarah Gill

Main

Temujin

1200 - 1206

A Mongol clan leader named Temujin sought to unify the Mongols under his leadership. He fought and defeated his rival one by one.

Genghis Khan

1206 - 1211

In 1206, Temujin accepted the title Genghis Khan, or “universal ruler” of the Mongol clans.

West of Mongolia

1211 - 1225

In 1211, Genghis Khan's attention turned to the Islamic region west of Mongolia. Angered by the murder of Mongol traders and an ambas- sador at the hands of the Muslims, Genghis launched a campaign of terror across Central Asia.

Defeat Central Asia

1225 - 1227

By 1225, Central Asia was under Mongol control.

Genghis Khan's Death

1227 - 1260

Genghis Khan died in 1227—not from violence, but from illness. His successors continued to expand his empire. In less than 50 years, the Mongols conquered ter- ritory from China to Poland. In so doing, they created the largest unified land empire in history.

Division of the Mongol Empire

1260 - 1275

By 1260, the Mongols had divided their huge empire into four regions, or khanates.These were the Khanate of the Great Khan (Mongolia and China), the Khanate of Chagatai (Central Asia), the Ilkhanate (Persia), and the Khanate of the Golden Horde (Russia). A descendant of Genghis ruled each khanate.

Marco Polo

1275 - 1281

Marco Polo traveled by caravan on the Silk Roads with his father and uncle, arriving at Kublai Khan’s court around 1275.

Japan

1281 - 1294

In 1281, the Great Khan sent huge fleets to Japan.

Kublai Khan's Death

1294 - 1295

Kublai Khan died in 1294.

India

Mauryan Empire

321 BC - 303 BC

Chandragupta gathered an army, killed the unpopular Nanda king, and in about 321 B.C. claimed the throne. This began the Mauryan Empire.

North India is United

303 BC - 301 BC

The Mauryan Empire stretched more than 2,000

Chandragupta's Son Reigns

301 BC - 269 BC

Chandragupta’s son assumed the throne. He ruled for 32 years.

Asoka

269 BC - 232 BC

Asoka's Death

232 BC - 185 BC

Asoka dies.

New Cultures

185 BC - 320 AD

Greeks, Persians, and Central Asians poured into
northern India. These invaders disrupted Indian society. But they also introduced new languages and customs that added to the already-rich blend of Indian culture.

"Great King of Kings"

320 AD - 335 AD

Chandra Gupta I took the title “Great King of Kings”

Samudra

335 AD - 375 AD

Samudra Gupta became king.

Chandra Gupta II Reign

375 AD - 415 AD

Chandra Gupta rules

Chandra Gupta II Death

415 AD - 535 AD

Chandra Gupta II dies

End of Mauryan Empire

535 AD - 536 AD

Mauryan Empire ends

Downfall of Delhi

1398 - 1494

Babur Creates the Mughal Empire

1494 - 1526

Babur: A Brilliant General

1526 - 1527

Babur led 12,000 troops to victory against an army of 100,000 soldiers commanded by a sultan of Delhi.

Akbar

1556 - 1605

The years of Akbar's reign

Mumtaz Mahal's Death

1631 - 1657

Mumtaz Mahal died at age 39 while giving birth to her 14th child. Her husband, Shan Jahan, built the Taj Mahal, where she would be buried, to celebrate and commemorate her life.

Aurangzeb Takes the Throne

1657 - 1658

When Shah Jahan became ill in 1657, his four sons scrambled for the throne. The third son, Aurangzeb moved first and most decisively. In a bitter civil war, he exe- cuted his older brother, who was his most serious rival. Then he arrested his father and put him in prison, where he died several years later.

Aurangzeb

1658 - 1707

Aurangzeb reigns from 1658-1707, ending the Mughal Empire

Renaissance Period

Laura

1348 - 1349

A mysterious woman named Laura died of the plague, as written in Decameron.

Cosimo de Metici

1434 - 1464

In 1434, he won control of Florence’s government. He did not seek political office for himself, but influenced members of the ruling council by giving them loans. For 30 years, he was dictator of Florence.

Leonardo da Vinci

1452 - 1519

End of Hundred Years' War

1453 - 1454

When the destructive Hundred Years’ War between France and England ended in 1453, many cities grew rapidly.

Turks Conquer Constantinople

1453 - 1454

Turks conquered Constantinople

Dontello's statue

1465 - 1470

Donatello’s statue was created in the late 1460s. It was the first European sculpture of a large, free-standing nude since ancient times.

Lorenzo de Medici

1469 - 1470

Lorenzo de Medici, came to power in 1469.

Michelangelo Buonarroti

1475 - 1564

Like Leonardo, Michelangelo was a Renaissance man.
He excelled as a painter, sculptor, architect, and poet.
Michelangelo is most famous for the way he portrayed the human body in painting and sculpture. Influenced by classical art,he crated figures that were forceful and show heroic grandeur.

Vittoria Colonna

1492 - 1547

In 1509, she married the Marquis of Pescara. He spent most of his life away from home on military campaigns.Vittoria Colonna exchanged sonnets with Michelangelo and helped Castiglione publish The Courtier. Her own poems express personal emotions.

French King

1494 - 1495

In 1494, a French king claimed the throne of Naples in southern Italy and launched an invasion through northern Italy. As the war dragged on, many Italian artists and writers left for a safer life in Northern Europe. They brought with them the styles and techniques of the Italian Renaissance. In addition, Northern European artists who studied in Italy carried Renaissance ideas back to their homelands.

The Praise of Folly

1509 - 1510

In 1509, Erasmus wrote his most famous work, The Praise of Folly. This book poked fun at greedy merchants, heartsick lovers, quarrelsome scholars, and pompous priests. Erasmus believed in a Christianity of the heart, not one of cere-

The Prince

1513 - 1514

Niccolò Machiavelli writes "The Prince" that examines the imperfect conduct of human beings.

Utopia

1516 - 1517

The Courtier

1528 - 1529

Baldassare Castiglione wrote a book called "The Courtier" that taught how to become such a person. A young man should be witty, well-educated, and charming in the classics.

Pieter Bruegel

1550 - 1551

Elizabethan Age

1558 - 1603

Elizabeth reigned from 1558 to 1603. She was well educated and spoke French, Italian, Latin, and Greek. She also wrote poetry and music. As queen she did much to support the development of English art and literature.

Shakespeare

1592 - 1593

By 1592 he was living in London and writing poems and plays, and soon he would be performing at the Globe Theater.